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Anthropology in relation to Disney#8217;s #8220;A Bug#8217;s Life#8221; Essay. When viewing Disney#8217;s A Bug#8217;s Life with the critical eye of an anthropologist, it is hard to truly believe that it is a children#8217;s movie. This movie is an introduction to the complex world of anthropology and it#8217;s concepts. Trailer. One finds elements of essay writing technique culture in many different lights throughout this film. Thesis. A Disney masterpiece shall be proven in this paper to not only research intrigue the younger audience, but it shall verify the fact that the way humans function is so easily portrayed, even in the simplest behavioral patterns. As the bboy 2011 film opens, the ants are preparing for why is, the coming of the ravenous grasshoppers by filling a leaf with food products. Trailer 2011. For this food collection the ants stack the food following a straight line one after the other until an autumn leaf descends to the ground separating one ant from the line. This causes mass confusion and compare usa and, disorder. The ants learned behavior caused them to lose their self-control and allowed them to break the division of labor.

Had the ants not been so set in their #8220;assembly line#8221; ways, they might not have had the problem they did. Flik (the main character of the movie) holds intelligence like none of the other ants in the production. He uses his brain as opposed to learned behavior in order to try and assist the colony. His numerous inventions are advanced, yet still unrefined enough to go wrong. The other ants frown upon his differences showing ethnocentrism at bboy 2011, it#8217;s finest. Within their own culture, Flik is looked down upon. One could view Flik#8217;s intelligence as a mutation of the ant colony, but an even better example is that of the grasshopper#8217;s psychotic mutation known as Thumper. Thumper is used to frighten the ants even more. His intimidation factor is used against the ants so they will work harder and faster to japanese earthquake and tsunami essay, appease the tribal grasshopper#8217;s needs.

Flik, being beyond that of his fellow ants, confronts the hierarchy of his people to make a request that he traverse to the city in search of bboy thesis trailer #8220;warrior bugs#8221; to save the letter for international colony once and for all from the big, bad, grasshoppers. After receiving approval, he sets off for the city not knowing what to expect or who to encounter. By being able to bboy, leave the colony on his own free will, Flik proves he is adaptive and able to think freely for himself. Cover Letter For International. His fellow ants look on in amazement as Flik begins his journey. The other ants#8217; cultural restraints did not allow them to even truly process what he was doing. The ants could not see passed the taboo of leaving the island, and therefore, were stuck to the island and bboy thesis, unable to mentally push themselves away. Canada. Upon entering the city, it is bboy thesis trailer, made immediately obvious the vast amount of sub-cultures that flourish throughout. Flik is conclusion paper, taken aback and is not very aware of what exactly is occurring. He is different from the others because he is a country bumpkin. He is from the country and does not know any better than his country boy ways. Cultural relativism is shown here, as he is not accepted for his beliefs and actions in the city.

Many things separate him from the city culture in yet another example of ethnocentrism against Flik. Even language makes Flik distinctive from the other bugs and he is somewhat wary of thesis trailer what he is doing. Unfortunately his judgment is not all there and he chooses circus bugs over warrior bugs to come back and save his people. This confusion shows Flik#8217;s urban inexperience and how easily it can be for one sub-culture to be mistaken with another. Luckily enough for Flik, he was a more advanced ant and not the type of english #8220;noble savage#8221; the rest of his colony might be confused for.

He is bboy, willing to canada, take the initiative and get to the place he wants to go. When Flik returns the unknowing #8220;warrior bugs#8221; to trailer, the colony, he is compare, met with praise and admiration (as are the #8220;warrior bugs#8221;). The #8220;warrior bugs#8221; begin to realize what they are getting involved in and they grow frightened. Soon, they begin to come along and appreciate the bboy trailer colony and their worth to the ants of the colony. This integration of culture is the main reason that the revolution the ants would soon develop worked. Another example of conclusion paper part sub-culture in this movie is trailer 2011, that of the queen#8217;s youngest daughter and her friends. They form a club that is based upon internship, childhood innocence but is able to do well for the whole colony. Without the work they did, the 2011 anthill might not have been saved.

After gaining the trust and letter development internship, earning the help of the #8220;warrior bugs#8221;, the ants are able to begin their revolution. This revolution contains much evolution in it. The ants are able to drop their learned behavior in order to come together and bboy thesis trailer 2011, build the giant bird that will scare off the grasshoppers and save the day. Essays On Dr Martin Jr. Working together and breaking tradition, everything does end up working until the rest of the colony discovers the true identity of the warrior bugs. This leads to trouble again for Flik, but all ends up working out. Cultural relativism is thesis trailer, seen again at english technique, the end of play when the humorous grasshopper Moulder leaves his tribe in order to stay with the #8220;stronger and smarter#8221; group of circus bugs. He also follows Darwin#8217;s survival of the fittest concept in desiring to go with the better plan. There are examples of individual variation as well throughout the 2011 entire movie. Flik is the best example in that he is the main #8220;individual#8221; of the colony.

His views are separate from part, anyone else and he strives to make things better for his people. Each one of the circus bugs has a strong sense of individuality. It is their differences to their own kind that brings them together to form their posse. And no matter what situation they are brought into, they are very individual from the larger group they are around. The grasshopper#8217;s were a group who practiced and accepted a strong generalized reciprocity from the ants. The ants toiled all day trying to appease the evil one#8217;s appetites, and got nothing in return. Hopper (evil leader of the grasshoppers) made empty promises about the ants losing their colony if they weren#8217;t #8220;protected#8221; by bboy trailer 2011 the grasshoppers. But this would all be proven otherwise, when the ants realized their potential and saw that they did outnumber the grasshoppers 10 to 1. Coming to this conclusion is what truly allowed the ants the break their learned behavior and defend themselves. The difference in the cultures of the ants and the grasshoppers is something else of interest for this movie.

The grasshoppers are a lazy culture that relies upon anyone but themselves to japanese earthquake essay, do work. The ants on the other hand, are hard workers. They not only perform the food gathering each year for them, but they also do enough for the grasshoppers as well. Trailer 2011. They work hard and luther king jr, long not realizing that they do not have to work for the grasshoppers too. The grasshoppers depend upon the fact that the ants do not know any better and hope it remains that way. Luckily for the ants, Flik#8217;s intelligence is beyond that of the grasshoppers and thesis trailer 2011, it leads to revolution. In comparison to that of humans, Flik is a key human rights activist. He is strong about the will of the people and the freedom of his fellow ant.

His spiritual strength is beyond that of anyone (even the queen of the colony) and he does end up making up for all of the mistakes he makes along the way. A Bug#8217;s Life not only lives up to anthropological expectations, it lives up to childhood entertainment purposes. Its uncanny and paper part, smooth combination is of award merit. Taking the best examples of bboy thesis 2011 culture and its components, Disney is able to put that into a simple context that anyone can understand and relate to. Under the critical eye of an anthropologist, this movie not only meets standards, it creates it#8217;s own. Children will be learning anthropology thanks to movies like this even before they can pronounce the essay technique word.

University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 20 June 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Anthropology in relation to Disney#8217;s #8220;A Bug#8217;s Life#8221; for only $16.38 $13.9/page. 3422 Old Capitol Trail, Suite 267, Wilminton, DE 19808, USA.

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My Happy Moments Essays and Research Papers. * 2000–03: Let Go * 2004–05: Under My Skin * 2006–08: The Best Damn Thing * 2009–11: Goodbye Lullaby * . 2011–present: Fifth studio album * Other work * Film career * Lavigne became interested in appearing on television and in feature films. The decision, she said, was her own. Although her years of experience in bboy trailer 2011 making music videos would be to her advantage, Lavigne admitted her experience in singing removed any fear of performing on camera. She specifically. Avril Lavigne , Don't Tell Me , I'm With You 525 Words | 2 Pages. Happy Moments Happy moments are everyone dream. In my whole life, it is uncountable . how many happy moments that I’ve gone through since I was small.Happy moments are something that made us very happy and it is unforgettable.It will never be erased out of our mind and we will always remind of it for the rest of our life.It might happens daily,weekly,monthly and even annually but it really happened.it makes us smile to english essay technique the ears and sometimes it tears us down.I just can’t imagine how does it feel if.

A Good Day , Birthday , Family 1002 Words | 3 Pages. An embarrassing moment can stumble among anyone at trailer any given occasion. No matter whom we say we are we all have experienced an embarrassing . moment during our lifetime, such as falling down in compare essay front of thesis trailer a large group of people, humiliating oneself in english essay technique front of one’s crush, or simply peeing in one’s pants. There is no denying everyone has crossed paths with an embarrassing moment , but during these moments that occur we will either be accepting, ashamed, or see it as a joke in trailer the end. We do not intend. Accept , Anxiety , Ayumi Hamasaki 1154 Words | 3 Pages.

minimum of 25 kmh.A moment in my life where I was proud of myself happened around the summer I graduated from high school in . 2007. When I had finally graduated I could finally take a. Premium 2 pages 380 Words Each Moment Of Your Life Is a Picture up and essay, collect them..they were designed to be STRONG! [pic]Dont think how many moments in your life Dont think how many moments in your life, just think how much. Bboy Thesis 2011! Premium 10 pages 2287 Words The Proudest Achievment In My Life 23rd May 2007. 2006 albums , Ayumi Hamasaki , Differences 679 Words | 3 Pages. My Seminal Moments Essay Assignment Seminal Moment #1 A car accident of mine I had a really terrible memory . when I was young, which was about a car accident. In the summer of 1995, I was 7 years old at essays on dr luther king that time,I was playing with my friends in bboy thesis trailer the garden which was near my house. Suddenly, a friend of compare canada mine started fighting with a big guy. I didn’t know what happen, I was too young and so scared, the only thing I thought was to find his parents to go for help.

So a girl and I decided to run. Automobile , Classroom , Coming out 1424 Words | 4 Pages. 2003 How Fight Club Changed My Life Once, I was a young boy who believed everything I heard, yet I knew nothing. I was impressionable and . Bboy Trailer 2011! weak. Letter Development Internship! Above all else, I was confused. Thesis Trailer! I did not understand myself, and I did not realize why I wasn’t happy . Everything always went wrong. I felt my life slipping away into japanese earthquake and tsunami oblivion with no palpable meaning. My life was an bboy thesis trailer, endless array of homework, band camp, theater, girls, and a myriad other things that were not making me happy . Day after day, like a tumor. Chuck Palahniuk , Fight Club , Great Depression 1118 Words | 3 Pages.

A Moment in my Life A personal narrative by Kyle Baldwin-Langrehr The following is the canada, story of bboy trailer a lesson learned by it wrong to steal a younger . version of myself. My name is trailer 2011 Kyle. When I was eight years old, I got the chance to cover experience a thing that more and thesis, more lucky children get to see and live each day. This thing is known to many as divorce. On Dr Martin Luther King! Let’s back up a bit further, shall we? I was born on a warm California night on June seventeenth, in bboy the year of nineteen-hundred and ninety-four. Japanese Earthquake Essay! Right around the. English-language films , Family , Father 1183 Words | 3 Pages.

MY LAST MOMENTS WITH MY FATHER In the bboy trailer 2011, year 1992, Senegal was, for the first time, the capital of the African . football. The African nation football cup was taking place in Dakar and Ziguinchor. Everybody was very exciting to have the best players of the essays jr, continent in Senegal and it may be the thesis, year to win the African cup for the first time. With all that excitement, I kind of forgot that my dad was very sick and he too wanted people to conclusion paper part research forget that he was seriously ill. It began, one cold night. Africa , Africa Cup of bboy thesis trailer Nations , Debut albums 957 Words | 3 Pages. Embarrassing Moments in My Life I've had a great many embarrassing moments in my life. Japanese Earthquake! Some of the . 2011! most embarrassing have occurred while I was attending school. One of these moments happened in paper part research high school during my senior year.

I remember it well because it made me be the center of thesis attention, laughs and essay, embarrassment for quite some time. The scene happened at a physics class, we were studying free fall as an bboy 2011, experiment we were supposed to let go different kind of objects, which had. 2006 albums , Clothing , Embarrassment 1078 Words | 3 Pages. crushing pressure and dark, dank air felt like my only why is it wrong, company. I was dying, or so every part of my being was telling me. The . immense, clutching pains radiating from my chest to my jaw could be only bboy 2011, one thing… a heart attack. Letter Development! I lay there silently, overwhelmed with crippling fear and panic; frozen, immobile, waiting for what my mind had deemed inevitable. Wait…the pain was beginning to ease. The powerful clutch of dread freezing me was beginning to weaken. My mind flooded with hope. I’m going to be okay.

Doctor , Fear , Necrophobia 1524 Words | 4 Pages. 9/15/2012 English 1180 Narrative Essay: Moment I knew I was happy Being happy is one of the greatest emotions . to express. Trailer! It is sad how some people in english essay writing technique this world do not experience happy moments in their life. Like someone who has depression, someone who is homeless with no money, and all the starving children around the world. Greed is bboy trailer a black hole for happiness.

You can never fill, that’s why you should be happy with what you have. My happiest moment was when I met my girlfriend Marcelina this year. I’m. Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 1034 Words | 3 Pages. The Most Embarrassing Moments of My Life. experienced an embarrassing moment in our life, such as fall down from the and tsunami, chair, call some one wrong name, and pee in pant. I this . Bboy Trailer 2011! moments , we will be ashamed or laugh in the end. For me, I will laugh, because when we do the embarrassing thing, we did not intend to do it. Do not ne shy in that moment , because when you looked back, it will be just a funny thing or a joke with family and friends.

This will make you happy . In my life, I had three of the most embarrassing moments of my life First, as a Thailand. A Good Thing , Bowling , English-language films 1691 Words | 4 Pages. Estee Zeldin My Most Compelling Moment As a young teen I always dreamt of accomplishing something that would have people’s . eyes opened. Many doors were opened right before me and I could’ve walked through anyone. English Writing! Having that opportunity I took the advantage I had and tried several doors. 2011! Doing so, after a while I never had the intentions of finishing what I began because nothing came naturally to paper me.

At that point of my life I was 13 years old. The typical age of a girl who wants to be noticed. Arabian horse , Equestrianism , Horse 2402 Words | 5 Pages. if I was going to 2011 make it off the roller coaster I was riding. Conquering my first roller coaster and overcoming my fear of . heights made me realize that I shouldn’t be afraid to take chances in life, but to be brave, because it may just turn out to be the usa and, ride of bboy 2011 my life. At thirteen years old, I was the canada, kid that no one wanted to drag to an amusement park with because I strictly stuck to the merry go round and 2011, swings. My parents were always eagerly trying to persuade me to at least try a roller. Amusement park , Cedar Point , Debut albums 1172 Words | 3 Pages.

?Zuleika Rodriguez Professor Alan Schlechter/ Daniel Lerner (Nick Jensen) The Science of Happiness October 1, 2014 The Moment of to steal . Change Faith, courage and willpower are some values that have shaped me into the character that I am today. Following upon trailer the numerous and impacting conflicts I had throughout my life, I can recall my family reunion last summer. It Wrong To Steal Essay! In a quote from Ralph Waldo Emerson, he states, “Be an opener of doors for thesis trailer 2011, such as come after thee, and english essay technique, do not try to make the universe. Brain , Human brain , Mind 1746 Words | 5 Pages. My Happy Husband In life, sometimes we meet new people who could change our lives for better or worse. I met . Bboy Trailer! my husband in the place that I work and since that day we have become the english writing, most inseparable friends in the world. I believed my husband is one of the happiest men alive: he is bboy thesis trailer 2011 funny, positive, inspiring, spiritual, and friendly. Essay Technique! He is a very funny person.

All the bboy thesis trailer, time he has a positive attitude. He inspired me to be the english writing, best. He is a spiritual man. He is thesis 2011 a friendly person. All these. Friends , Friendship , Human 1225 Words | 3 Pages.

Unforgettable Moments in My Life Sitting on my bed with my Acer notebook on my lap, I . was looking through my family photos. I always did this when I started to miss the warmth and english writing technique, laughter at home. It had been a year since I made College Abdillah my second home. Bboy Trailer 2011! With no doubt, home was always my best refuge, but at college, my second home, I had experienced precious memories that I would never forget in this life. Everything started on japanese earthquake essay the first day I stepped into college with curiousity and. Crowd , Dance , English-language films 963 Words | 3 Pages. Memorable Moments with My Sibling. Memorable moments with my sibling A relationship with a sibling . is everlasting: last longer than the bond with a spouse, parent, or friend. Have you ever thought about the times you have spent with your siblings?

Those are memorable moments that I would always cherish. The bond with my sibling taught me many lessons in life. My childhood relationship with my sibling has changed since I became an adult. The communication and bboy trailer 2011, the people. Adolescence , Birth order , Family 871 Words | 3 Pages. knew this was my moment .” “Dear diary,” I started to to steal write on thesis trailer 2011 one of the blank pages of cover for international development internship my diary.

For the past . few months, my diary has been my only companion. These pages are where I write my stories and bboy trailer, let my imagination run free while I pour my heart out on each page. I continued to write. “I’ve decided that, for today’s diary entry, I’ll write a story. Conclusion Research! A story I have never had the courage to write. But lately, it is bboy thesis trailer all I have been thinking about. I need to get it out of essays on dr luther king my head and set. Ayumi Hamasaki , Debut albums , Diary 1271 Words | 3 Pages. A Conversation with My Father” and “Happy Endings.

Maria Holmes Gilchrist English 102 24 November 2011 “A Conversation with My Father” and “ Happy Endings” Many authors have . written stories about life and their opinions of it. Most stories have happy endings while others have more realistic endings. Both Grace Paley’s “A Conversation with My Father” and Margaret Atwood’s “ Happy Endings” are two stories that explain the bboy thesis 2011, different ways that life can turn out. These two stories are similar in how they describe different scenarios that end differently. A Series of Unfortunate Events , Family , Fiction 1330 Words | 4 Pages. One of the english essay writing technique, Most Important Moment in My Life. The terrible robbery incident that happened to bboy thesis me and the rest members of usa and . Bboy 2011! my immediate family 14yrs ago occurred In the big house my father has labored to build to his comfort, and essays on dr martin jr, also , threatened my life, and the entire household. Only a few flashback memories of bboy trailer 2011 normalcy, panic, and luck are what are left in my head. Why Is It Wrong Essay! It was a normal raining season back in Nigeria, West Africa, known as summer here in the United States. The month was July and.

English-language films , Family , Father 1586 Words | 4 Pages. A Moment That Changed My Life - Essay. This is bboy trailer 2011 my creative essay for the Film Program at NYU. Essays Martin! The prompt was: Introduce yourself. Describe an unforgettable event in your life and . Thesis! how it changed your perception of yourself or the view of someone close to you. This event can be dramatic and/or comedic. The assignment may be written as a short story in the first person or as an essay.

My one fear is that my essay is hard to understand. So any feedback on how it reads to writing other people would be a huge help. 2011! And also any gramatical errors. 2002 albums , 2004 singles , 2006 albums 1785 Words | 5 Pages. definitely think its WAY more important to preserve natural habitats and wetlands. There was once a time before we had all these places to shop, and conduct . businesses; when humans lived in essays on dr martin jr sync with animals and nature and they were successful and happy . Here’s how I see it, the bboy thesis 2011, natural habitats and essay, wetlands were here first, so we didn’t really have a right to just start cutting down trees, draining wetlands, building where forests once stood, ect.

Then people want to start panicking when animals. Biodiversity , Ecology , Environmentalism 2089 Words | 6 Pages. The Waiting room was cold and unfriendly and as the clock ticked away moments of her life she sat nervously. Her inky eyes looked petrified and . 2011! alone and every time she took her eyes off the clock she thought the other people were starting and judging her. Was she something to gawp at? Could they guess? She was sick with fear and english, her hands seemed liquid. It had been late. Too late and there had been no protection. The calming breeze swished through her smooth chestnut brown hair.

Her silky, tanned. 1346 Words | 4 Pages. “ Happy The Man” by John Dryden John Dryden was born on 9 August in 1631 in a small town in Northamptonshire, England, the eldest of bboy trailer 14 . Usa And Essay! children, was an influential English poet, literary critic, translator, and trailer 2011, playwright who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles as the Age of Dryden. Walter Scott called him Glorious John.[1] He was made Poet Laureate in canada 1668. Thesis! As a humanist public school, Westminster maintained.

Iamb , Iambic pentameter , John Dryden 916 Words | 3 Pages. There were many good prompts to choose from, some being “Describe an encounter that changed your life.” or, “Describe a moment of success.”, . but I guess the king jr, prompt I can relate to the most is “Define a moment of thesis trailer failure”. For me this is the only topic that is easy to write about. I guess the moment of failure that I will choose to essays on dr martin write about, is the bboy trailer, moment I decided to not believe in myself. All I see around me is people with that light in their eyes that never ceases to essay fade. I see people with. 2007 singles , 2008 singles , Dream 1594 Words | 4 Pages.

something that you create. In a person’s life if you are waiting on something to change in order to thesis be happy , then you’re not living life. When . you adopt a positive attitude, life becomes a rewarding instead of something to japanese earthquake and tsunami get through. If you wish to bboy be happy , you have to be less involved in your own happiness and essay writing technique, more involved in the happiness of others. Make others happy and bboy 2011, you become happy as a result. And Tsunami Essay! Involve yourself totally, throw yourself into what you are doing in life, and happiness will. 14th Dalai Lama , Dalai Lama , Happiness 1011 Words | 3 Pages. happiness can also extend across an entire nation, with people in happy nations being more likely to thesis trailer have pro-democratic attitudes and conclusion part, a . Bboy Thesis Trailer! keenness to help others.

The link between happiness and success was investigated by japanese a team from the trailer, University of compare California Riverside, led by Professor Sonja Lyubomirsky. First, they analysed questionnaires that ask people about multiple aspects of their lives. For example, they show that happy people tend to earn higher incomes, said Prof Lyubomirsky. Having. Happiness , Positive psychology , Seasonal affective disorder 564 Words | 3 Pages.

your happiness? Agree Disagree We chose this question because friends are an important part of life. We wanted to see how much friends . effects someone happiness. 6. Do you Agree/Disagee that you need love in order to be happy ? Agree Disagree This question is bboy 2011 important because the reading Pursuit Of Happiness talks about how love is an important part of happiness. We wanted to prove how true that is. 7. From 1 to martin luther king jr 5 (5 being the highest) how much. 1 , 3 , 9 839 Words | 4 Pages. don't think about you all the time. Bboy 2011! Crush, I know I like you a lot, but I also know that I don't stand a chance.

Happy Morning. Why Is! Be . Bboy 2011! happy . Earthquake! Live and thesis, LOve. Smile and laugh . Lets just positivity vibes rule… The best form of letter for international internship respect is self respect. Give it to yourself and others will see that you won't settle for anything less. Thesis! kyawyarzarwin kaungkinoo The sad moment when you find an old conversation between you and someone you don't talk to japanese earthquake essay anymore. Don't let a bad day make you feel. 2006 albums , 2007 albums , 2008 singles 1216 Words | 3 Pages. I Knew This Was My Moment I was sitting on a chair, tied up, in bboy an isolated cabin. I felt very weary as I had just opened . my eyes after a deep sleep.

I had no idea of my sleeping hours, days or even months! It was damp and frosty inside the place. Cover Letter Internship! This wood cabin, if I were to use one word to bboy thesis trailer 2011 describe it would be ‘UNKEMPT’! Spider webs clouded every corner, refuse scattered all over, hordes of essays on dr king flies buzzing around it, scavenging for sustenance. A pungent smell arose from a stale, discarded. Anxiety , Black-and-white films , Kidnapping 1465 Words | 5 Pages. Melisa Rollins English Composition Mrs. Doran Narrative Essay Precious Moments I had always wanted to experience the natural birth of a . baby. Although I have five boys, they were all Cesarean births. I never really felt complete because I never got a chance to experience or see what it was like to deliver a baby naturally; that is, until October 1, 2009, when I was finally able to witness the birth of my little nephew, which made me feel connected as I experienced the bboy, tears, emotions.

2007 singles , Capitol Records albums , Childbirth 1180 Words | 4 Pages. Adventures and Perfect Moments Adventures and martin jr, perfect moments , two decievingly simple terms to the causal observer. The . Thesis Trailer 2011! philsopherJean-Paul Sartre discusses both of these topics in it wrong essay his novel, Nausea, and in his essay, “Existentialism is a Humanism.” Perfect moments are not easily defined because they can be different for 2011, each individual. One thing that remains constant is the need for there to be “priviliged situations” to prepare the way for the perfect moments . Adventures are not easily defined either. Existentialism , Eye color , Jean-Paul Sartre 829 Words | 3 Pages. Moment of Clarity Theories of Personality/PSY230 April 13, 2013 Moment of Clarity In the past five years I have graduated . high school, uprooted my life twice, almost died once and somewhere along the line realized what I want to do with my life. Paper Part! Following my first uprooting and near death experience I realized that family is bboy thesis 2011 something I have taken for granted throughout my life and need to get back to martin luther them to make amends. When I moved back home, I saw just how much my sisters not only missed. College , Family , Graduation 1063 Words | 3 Pages.

Moment Of My Life Life is not made up of minutes, hours, days, weeks, months or years, but of moments . You must . Thesis! experience each one before you can learn how to live it. Well, I can’t but agree with that. On Dr Jr! If I was asked to describe the meaning of the word “life”, I would compare it with making a movie which consists of enormous amount of shots. Each of 2011 these reflects a separate and unique moment , which can be happy , touching to the core of english writing your heart, those which make you laugh, shiver or even. 2006 albums , Ayumi Hamasaki , Meaning of life 654 Words | 2 Pages. My Most Significant Event I woke up to bboy thesis trailer what seemed to be a normal sunny day. I went outside to play with my younger brother, . which was the normal routine for us. On this particular day things just didn’t feel right. Usa And Canada Essay! My mom came to the door to call us back into bboy thesis trailer 2011 the house.

She did this often, when it was time to on dr martin luther jr eat or we had been out bboy thesis trailer 2011, too long, etc, this time the look in her eyes said different. The look in her eyes screamed “hopelessness” to me. It gave me a feeling that made me sick to my stomach. 2006 singles , Debut albums , English-language films 804 Words | 2 Pages. ?A Memorable Moment What does envy mean? Arresting Opening Scene During the month of October in Santa Fe, New Mexico, all the on dr king jr, schools . were preparing for another season of basketball. It’s a year that everyone looks forward to; all the athletes, coaches, spectators, and supporters. The girls’ basketball team at my school was very good and over the years I’ve heard growing up that it’s a lot of hard work and also how the coaches set very high standards for bboy 2011, their players. Conclusion Paper Part Research! In addition, the girls’.

2007 singles , Basketball , Basketball position 1328 Words | 3 Pages. Ana Vazquez Mrs. Bboy Trailer! Valdes English 51 7 February 2013 My Quinceanera Celebrating a quinceanera was not only about having a big party but . Luther! also a tradition that helped shape me into the person I am today. To nearly all teenage girls what comes to mind when they think or hear about a quinceanera is the party. They imagine the dress, the limousine, the enormous reception hall and the dance. Bboy Thesis Trailer 2011! Problem is; that most eager birthday girls including myself, it takes the whole experience to research really understand. Birthday , Debut albums , English-language films 921 Words | 3 Pages. A Moment in thesis 2011 My Life: a Wish Comes True.

years old I got a little sick - running nose and sore throat. But as we had a big Doors Open Day or as they say in paper research America “Open House” at the school I was . still forced to go. It was the bboy, beginning of spring and the first sun rays warmed me and essays king, my brother's happy faces. We were walking, hopping, running and pushing each other and laughter echoed in the street. Mom shouted for us to stop running, because we were a little late for event. The big sign on the gates of the school read Make A Wish . Everyone.

English-language films , Wish 1513 Words | 4 Pages. My name is trailer 2011 Yasmin binti Zainal Abidin. Currently I am a student in Universiti Selangor (UNISEL) which is compare one of the private institutions in . Selangor.I am now in the first semester doing Foundation in Management. At this very moment , I am writing an essay about ‘ MY LIFE’. It is an assignment for trailer, the Computer Applications subject given by my lecturer, Mr. Izwan Suhadak. My life started when I was born on canada 22nd October 1993 at about 6pm.I was born in Subang Jaya Medical Centre. I was given a name.

High school , Hussein Onn , Primary education 1816 Words | 5 Pages. The best moment of my life It’s the trailer, best moment of my life when I won the first prize in the . National English Competition for technique, College Students. People define the best moment of trailer 2011 their life in different ways. For instance, my friends thought that the best moment was to watch the football match of Barcelona in earthquake essay the Nou Camp Stadium or say love to thesis 2011 a girl in canada essay the university. Thesis 2011! However, mine is conclusion research different. It happened in bboy 2009 when I was a college student.

As you know, there were varieties of. Education , English-language films , Failure 685 Words | 2 Pages. ? My happy place I have so many happy places, but my favorite one is cover letter located in Spain. It’s a beach . Bboy Trailer! house where I grew up with my mom’s family. Earthquake! I went all summers and short holidays. My grandparents bought it long before I was born, my mom and uncle basically grew up there too.

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” Though pictures represent bygone moments in paper part time, they become extant through one’s own memories. 2011! The picture offers a subtle reality through . its manifestation of all five human senses thus allowing the technique, audience to vicariously experience the moment captured. Of the bboy thesis trailer 2011, thousands of photographs taken by and tsunami essay my family and I, there is one that I would call my favorite. The first thing that comes to mind while looking at bboy thesis trailer 2011 this picture, especially for someone not from my eclectic Bengali family, would be wow. Alfred Stieglitz , Anxiety , Family 1154 Words | 3 Pages. THREE BASIC REQUIREMENTS FOR A HAPPY FAMILY. requirements that make a happy family, let's try to define what a happy family is. What makes for family happy ? Is . it something material like a big house or a nice car? Is it financial stability? Is it a good paying job, vacations, a cabin by martin luther king jr the lake? I know that at least for me, a nice job, a big house, and a nice car I could drive to my cabin by the lake would definitely make my family at least a couple of notches happier.

But are those the things that really make a family happy . I think about the. The Main Ingredient 613 Words | 4 Pages. Memorable Moments It has been said that a picture can say a thousand words. Every time it is taken out of the 2011, box or turned into english essay an album, a . single snapshot can offer a lifetime of memories and stories to tell. In my family, photographic storytelling is so essential, that all of us own numerous cameras and bboy, have a simple point-and-shoot on us at all times. I have hundreds of photographs in my collection, but there is one beautiful shot in usa and canada particular that provided me with an amazing personal experience.

A picture is worth a thousand words , American films , English-language films 1115 Words | 3 Pages. 09-27-2013 Hero in bboy thesis my world Where would I have been without you mother? Destiny gives us opportunities to meet new people in our lives. Each . one bringing a unique flavor, molding us into what we will become. There is always that one person who will walk in when the rest of the world walks out, the person that won’t sleep if I don't sleep, the person that will run up and down looking for something for me to eat, the person that will pray to God to essay writing technique take her life instead of mine when I am sick: my sweet mother. Eye color , Family , Father 1463 Words | 4 Pages. “ HAPPY TEACHER” A Narrative Report on Practice Teaching 2011- 2012 Maria Regina D. Gile My parents would always tell me . how I dreamed of becoming a teacher in the future. I would usually be found holding a book and a pen, scribbling some notes and bboy 2011, cutting off sheets of paper. A chalk and a board was my favourite, they would say, with matching pointing stick. I guess ever since, I find teachers so majestic and powerful and smart that made me want to be one. That was BEFORE not until.

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I thought the opposite until I lived the moment and I knew yes this is it. This is the bboy thesis trailer 2011, happiest moment in cover letter development my life. Thesis! The day that my life changed, and made me happy is the 5th of conclusion research December 2013 at a beach resort in my hometown Jeddah. Bboy Trailer 2011! It was my wedding. I knew that my wife is special the first day we met. I knew my Mother-in-law for 14 years, but I never met her daughter, my wife Mayan. Arabian Peninsula , Jeddah , Marriage 735 Words | 2 Pages.

influential person in my life is my grandmother. She is a traditional Chinese woman. When I was a child, my . Essays On Dr Martin Luther King Jr! grandmother had been blind since I was not born, but she is nimbler than most people. Trailer! My grandmother took care of me when I was a baby. Although my grandmother is on dr dead, I still miss her, because she taught more experiences to bboy trailer 2011 me and compare usa and canada essay, these have changed many things in my mind. When I was a little girl, my parents went to another place for their work.

Therefore, my grandmother took care. 2007 albums , Anxiety , Need 1028 Words | 3 Pages. 3 304 Analysis of the text: The happy man William Somerset Maugham (1974 - 1966), a well-known English novelist, . short-story writer, playwright and bboy thesis, essayist, was the english, son of a British diplomat. He was educated at King’s School in Canterbury, studied painting in Paris, went to Heidelberg University in Germany and studied to be a doctor at thesis St. Thomas Hospital in japanese and tsunami essay England. Although Somerset Maugham did not denounce the contemporary social order, he was critical of the morals. Bette Davis , Cakes and Ale , Of Human Bondage 1410 Words | 4 Pages. embarrassing moment in our lives. Like the time someone tripped in front of bboy everyone, spilt a drink on themselves, called someone the wrong . name, and sang the usa and, wrong lyric to a song. In these situations, do we end up dwelling on that moment or do we make the bboy 2011, best of it and laugh in the end?

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Life 1628 Words | 4 Pages. ? My Guardian Angel At a young age I had to go through a mixture of bboy both good and bad experiences in japanese and tsunami my life. So it might not . be a surprise to learn that death has played a considerable part in bboy my life so far. But losing my Grandmother was one of the leading causes to cover letter internship the bad experiences I had to face in my young eventful life. The death of my grandmother has also had a pivotal role to play in the person that I’ve become today because my nana was my inspiration as I look up to her greatly. Bboy Thesis! Loosing.

2008 singles , American films , Ayumi Hamasaki 1227 Words | 3 Pages. Memorable Moment A memorable moment is conclusion paper part research a moment in a persons' life that is not easily forgotten, a . Thesis Trailer 2011! moment that raises whole and fresh in your mind, complete in every detail, the moment you recall it. For some it can be their wedding day, graduation, vacation, or in this case, the moment I found I was going to be a mother. Cover Letter For International Development Internship! It was a normal day, and bboy thesis trailer, I woke up, took a shower, brushed my teeth, combed my hair, got ready and paper part, headed straight to work. It was a normal routine until a regular conversation. Human chorionic gonadotropin , Mother , Pregnancy 1286 Words | 3 Pages. My Memorable Event: My Shadow And God. My Memorable Event: My shadow and God Introduction: - What is human life? Everybody has some memorable events in bboy trailer 2011 life; some are . Japanese And Tsunami! good and Some are bad.

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Molly Brost English 101.004 January 25, 2014 My Love for Music and bboy trailer 2011, the English Language As far back as I can remember, . music has always had a big impact on me. And Tsunami! I cannot imagine my life without music even for one day. 2011! If so, life must absolutely be dull and tasteless. One thing that I have found funny about my life is that whenever I am emotionally facing something, there is always a song that corresponds with my life at essay that moment . I sometimes wonder if the song writer could be someone. 2000 singles , 2006 albums , Debut albums 2013 Words | 5 Pages. TO BE HAPPY NOW Social Issues Articles | January 10, 2012 When you find it hard to be happy it can be downright - well, . depressing.

Nobody likes to be unhappy and feel down and no one wants to get stuck in that feeling for a long period of time. That's why finding ways to bboy trailer be happy is important. If you want to english essay be happy then you have to do something to make that happen. Trailer 2011! You can't just sit around and dwell on essays jr wanting to be happy ! Sometimes you have to go out and force yourself to be happy , and sometimes. 2006 singles , 2007 singles , 2008 singles 1423 Words | 4 Pages. GOALS OF MY LIFE There are many goals that I would love to achieve.

I am 30 and had dreamt of bboy thesis 2011 achieving a number of goals at 30 when I was . Essays King! 20, some I could but some alas! I couldn’t. ‘Goal achieving is bboy thesis something that you absolutely must do if you wish to fulfill your potential as human being. Goals enable you to do the work you want to do, to cover for international internship live where you want to thesis 2011 live, to be with the people you enjoy, and to become the kind of english essay person you want to trailer be.’ I have grown up learning something alike. Core issues in ethics , Debut albums , Happiness 844 Words | 3 Pages.

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A Cold War without Nuclear Weapons. The Cold War is given its name for a reason. The term ‘cold’ refers to indirect conflict, competition and sour relations between the USA and USSR from, in this author’s opinion, the dropping of the second American atomic bomb on Nagasaki in August 1945 to the fall of the USSR in 1991. The development and deployment of nuclear weapons was a pivotal point in human history. These weapons increased the trailer state’s destructive power, particularly after the development of thermonuclear weapons, with effectively no limits. Cover? With greater destructive yields and shorter delivery times courtesy of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBM), it is common understanding that had the cold war turned hot, it would have been the end of civilisation as we know it. The most critical factor in the preservation of the cold , in a manner of speaking, in this author’s opinion was one of the dynamics elaborated upon by Robert Jervis’ theory of the nuclear revolution.[1] While imperfect, there are observations that have plausible logic.

The most relevant to this essay is that nuclear weapons made wars suicidal and unwinnable, therefore major interstate war should be unlikely, if not likely to occur at all if leaders were sensible.[2] The aim of bboy thesis trailer this essay is to english essay, speculate whether, in bboy trailer, the absence of nuclear weapons, would the confrontation between the USA and essays luther king the USSR remained cold, or erupted into a conventional Third World War. Jervis claims that a bipolar system is inherently stable. This author believes otherwise due to Jervis’ own admission of other bipolar systems that have precipitated violent clashes.[3] This author believes that if nuclear weapons were taken out of international relations at a point of divergence in the 1945, a total war between the capitalist West and communist East would have been far more likely to occur. Rather than a nuclear standoff and a long peace developing, I would speculate on trailer 2011, a return to great-power politics. A brief counterfactual survey of actual history is required to speculate with any degree of realistic expectations of why is another world system. This author will predominantly look at the immediate post-war period and attempt to bboy thesis 2011, shape a bipolar international system without the shadow of luther king jr mutually assured destruction (MAD).

Nuclear weapons did not create the bipolar system, they merely strengthened it. Continental Europe was ruined, and Britain was financially wrecked. The USSR and the USA would still come out ‘on top’ from the ashes of World War II. However, the conventional capabilities of the allied/client states on both sides would factor more into bboy thesis war planning in the absence of nuclear weapons. Whilst such a topic as this is not a stranger to canada essay, science fiction and alternate history in popular culture,[4] this is a useful test of one of Jervis’ logics on the effect of nuclear weapons on the relationship between force and bboy thesis trailer statecraft. This author intends to answer the question by taking out nuclear weapons from the calculations of and tsunami essay states over dilemmas and crises. Also, this essay will prove to bboy thesis, be a vindication of the importance of nuclear weapons to major state relations stability. On Dr Luther King? Our violent human nature has been forced to come to terms with advances in technology. This author believes that the speculation that nuclear weapons prevented another conventional total war will argue against humanity ever aiming for bboy trailer 2011, a non-nuclear international system. Such insights are valuable, especially when the part US president is keen to express his desire for an end to trailer 2011, nuclear weapons.

He has insisted that such a goal would not be achieved within his lifetime. One here would speculate that the letter development USA, with its clear superiority in conventional forces, power projection and logistics would benefit greatly in a world without nuclear weapon-states to trump its advantages. A return to 3 rd Generation Warfare[5] in a multipolar international system would contain some of the hallmarks of European politics in the inter-war period in the 20 th Century. The point of divergence in this counterfactual alternate history could be in 1945, when American attempts to develop an bboy thesis atomic bomb failed. Truman would not have been able to notify Stalin of his new weapon of tremendous power at the Potsdam conference. In turn, Stalin’s spies would have been able to notify him of the failure, concordantly stopping Stalin from pursuing his own bomb. After scrapping all other research and development linked to the Manhattan project, I would first speculate that those resources would have be diverted to conventional weaponry, particularly to the American strategic bomber force. On the Soviet side a similar re-armament programme could have been initiated, perhaps to martin, replace Stalin’s nuclear ‘national problem #1’. This is by no means asserting that this is what would certainly have happened had the Manhattan project been a failure, there could have been another brainwave for another super weapon, but for the sake of the argument here we shall apply these factors to known circumstances of the period.

Japanese Conditional Surrender. Before studying an alternate bipolar system in further detail, the question of Japan must be addressed. There is considerable academic debate on whether the atomic bombs were needed to bboy thesis 2011, end the Pacific war, and whether they were used to end Japanese resistance as opposed to intimidating the it wrong essay Soviets. The argument that atomic weapons were not used on trailer 2011, Japan to force a surrender[6] is a compelling one in this author’s view. Essay? Alperovitz and Messer in the correspondence argue against Bernstein’s view that the effect of atomic weapons use on bboy thesis trailer 2011, the Soviets was merely a bonus to forcing surrender and saving American lives.[7] However, for the purpose of this essay, this author will accept Alperovitz’s and Messer’s argument that an compare usa and canada essay atomic bombing of 2011 Japan made the Soviets ‘more manageable in Europe’.[8] Speculating on a joint Soviet-American invasion of Japan or a fast Japanese surrender before Soviet involvement are both equally valid conjectures. Why Is It Wrong To Steal? However, to maintain simplicity in this essay’s scope, this author will preserve our historical line and thesis 2011 maintain American occupation in Japan as we knew it. Taking away the atomic weapons in the Japanese case nullifies any effect of a growth in American power.

The ‘changed power balance’[9] that Stalin perceived would not have happened. The ‘political offensive’ from the West would not have been as strong (had it occurred at all) without the American atomic monopoly. With the Red Army’s superiority in numbers in Europe, although Russia was an ‘exhausted giant’,[10] it was not to be trifled with. Why Is It Wrong? Stalin was a ruthless realpolitik er,[11] as much as in his domestic politics as he was on the international stage. Zubok states that Stalin was already planning for the next revolutionary war before the struggle over bboy thesis 2011 the survival of his own state was finished.[12] Unease in the Grand Alliance drove both sides to consolidate their spoils of war.

Existing Unease and Premier Molotov. Luther Jr? Nuclear weapons were not the cause of the bboy thesis 2011 political divisions of the Cold War. Ever since the part Bolsheviks took power in 1917 the West had attempted to overthrow or marginalise the USSR. Not until the USSR became essential in war planning had she been courted. In the trailer 2011 late 1930s Stalin had a healthy choice of ‘allies’. As already cited, Zubok states that Stalin wanted the capitalist powers in Europe to fight amongst each other. Stalin hoped to ferment worker’s revolutions in other European states in a similar fashion to that of the 1917 October revolution, despite his inward tendency on the international stage in cover for international development, the 1920s and 1930s. The West had rightly contracted the Red Terror.

The USSR and thesis Stalin was the anti-Christ of Western liberalism, democracy and capitalism. In the absence of nuclear weapons, and given the intense ideological differences between East and why is West, the inherent power-fear relationship[13] on both sides would have been very acute. In the absence of MAD, Molotov’s views as opposed to Khrushchev’s on “peaceful coexistence” would be more valid. Molotov had remained a staunch critic of Khrushchev’s foreign policy.[14] There would have been no dilemma on trying to reconcile Molotov’s desire to spread revolution through violence with the implications of MAD. Bboy 2011? This author believes that Molotov would have stood a greater chance of assuming power after Stalin for these reasons. Molotov had accumulated vast experience during his tenure as Foreign Minister and why is to steal as one of thesis trailer Stalin’s closest allies, and the post-war period in this alternate history would certainly allow Stalin (and those that behaved like him in the international system) to feel perfectly comfortable. Molotov would certainly have taken a similar line to Stalin, and there was a genuine fear of this in the West in our real history.[15] Kennan’s containment strategy would still have been applied. In the absence of the atomic monopoly, there would have been a greater impetus for the US to control geo-strategic vantage points to conclusion paper, make up for the Soviet’s vast numerical advantage.

Controlling (or at least allying with states in) areas such as Western Europe and thesis trailer 2011 Japan was a vital objective.[16] It is hard to imagine a tougher American policy in these times, nuclear weapons or not. More confrontational attitudes between the two sides would not have been as dangerous to the survival of the state if conventional war was its result. Jervis’ ‘hostage’ logic is research, useful to explain how a war would be more likely in this non-nuclear bipolar system.[17] States can prepare for a conventional war. All technologies and military applications have their corresponding defensive measures. Although the USSR had no strategic air force compared to the USA, the bboy thesis trailer USSR could certainly take measures against bombing. The western Europeans could certainly undertake fortifications to increase the compare difficulties for Soviet infantry and tanks to thesis trailer 2011, proceed westward in essays on dr luther king jr, a war in Europe. There is no anti-nuclear weapon or strategy, apart from not participating in thesis trailer, a nuclear war. Therefore, the game of chicken[18] between states would not fit this alternate bipolar system.

Also, in a Soviet attack on Western Europe, the US would not have to why is essay, immediately sacrifice its own cities to bboy 2011, aid its European allies. Conventional deterrence, and US reassurance would be more credible. Alternate Berlin Airlift and Korean War Outcomes? Assuming that the immediate post-War carving of Europe remained as we knew it, what could have gone differently in during the Berlin Airlift in the absence of nuclear weapons? Stalin could have given the orders to shoot down Allied aircraft, likely resulting in for international development, a war. A conventional war. Would Stalin have readily contemplated war with the West, knowing that the thesis trailer USSR have to take on the economic-industrial giant that was the USA? Perhaps the Red Army could overwhelm Western Europe, but the internship USSR would invite the consequences of long-range American bombers based in the UK, Japan and other bases.

Jervis argues that states can inflict massive costs on each other without weapons of mass destruction.[19] The USSR lacked the same kind of strategic bombing capability, therefore no credible means of inflicting costs on the American heartland. An even darker suggestion would be that Stalin could have decided to simply move into West Berlin without notice and hope that the West would accept the thesis trailer 2011 loss. To a similar degree we can speculate on the Korean War. Would Douglas MacArthur have wanted to compare, contemplate a further advance into China after eliminating North Korean forces without the use of nuclear weapons? Chinese forces could easily overwhelm UN forces through numbers. Ergo, would Mao have decided on bboy thesis trailer, kicking UN forces out of the entire Korean peninsula? Removing the nuclear factor in these two crises leaves many possible avenues unexplored, and includes the potential for an ever-widening conventional conflict that could have erupted into World War III. Realist Victory and the Continued Superiority of 3 rd Generation Warfare. Japanese And Tsunami? A return to great-power politics would have made a mockery of the United Nations (UN). As the nuclear revolution may have forced states to compromise, it is doubtful cooperation would have been so frequent in this alternate bipolar system.

Going to war would not seem insane. Trailer 2011? As the League of english essay writing technique Nations failed to bring states into line when they preferred to trailer 2011, use force,[20] the UN could not hope to stop the USSR or the USA from engaging in cover development, military operations against each other. 2011? Kennan could have been very accurate in attaching little significance to paper, the UN.[21] Decolonisation would most certainly have occurred, but it would hardly have affected the grand strategy between East and West. According to Mearsheimer, great powers fear each other because of the fear of aggression and the offensive military capabilities of other states.[22] However this author disagrees with Mearsheimer’s claim that alliances are marriages of convenience. In the NATO camp, there was a shared view of capitalism, liberal democracy and personal freedoms. Also the bboy trailer NATO alliance secured America’s marketplace.

A common fear bound those states too. In the Warsaw Pact states, they were held down from Moscow. Not an alliance per se, perhaps more akin to imperialism. However, the US was dominant in essays on dr, the NATO alliance. Nevertheless, fear pervaded US society at the time, and gave rise to the McCarthy communist witch-hunts. This red terror, placed on top of Mearsheimer’s state behaviour and the security paradox from a conventional arms race[23] (which in thesis trailer 2011, this alternate history could have replaced a nuclear arms race) would seriously increase the likelihood of World War III. This would make a mockery of Jervis’ views on bipolarity as an inherently stable system. Without nuclear weapons the weight of numbers, technology and essay writing technique battlefield tactics would come into play once more. The nuclear asset in the early Cold War served as an equaliser (and advantage) to the West against 2011 the Red Army’s massive size. How would NATO compensate for martin, this?

This would increase the thesis 2011 usefulness (and therefore the importance and influence) of NATO’s European members. Britain’s Royal Navy and RAF would be very useful in a conventional war against why is it wrong the Soviet Union. The French could once again provide mass troop numbers and 2011 West Germany would once more be an economic powerhouse. All these could complement US superiority on the sea and in the air. Essays On Dr Martin Luther King Jr? There was a genuine fear from Moscow that the west could whip the Soviets’ ‘asses’.[24] The perpetuation of 3 rd generation warfare would solidify the importance of numbers, technology and tactics to the state’s security and war planning.

There would not be the luxury of existential deterrence. A conventional war could be winnable in the eyes of the bboy thesis trailer opposing sides, and canada the states could be more willing to test their opponent’s strategies and military technologies. It would not mean the end of civilisation. Trailer? Conflict would be slower and immediately less destructive than a nuclear one. Any ICBM would be fitted with conventional warheads, and would have a limited destructive capability and would have to be extremely accurate to make them useful in war.

With the destructive utility of essay ICBMs diminished, could Sergei Korolev’s and Wernher von Braun’s dreams of bboy 2011 human spaceflight have ever been recognised? The lack of a space race would definitely have deprived the Soviet Union of one its most tremendous propaganda coups.[25] The importance of satellite reconnaissance could have been ignored after losing interest in the ICBMs’ destructive delivery capability without nuclear warheads. This author believes the above speculations and essay writing removing the nuclear factor from bboy trailer 2011, state thinking in conclusion paper part research, the early Cold War has painted a credible picture of 2011 how international politics could have progressed (or not at all) after the Second World War. The maintenance of a (initially biased to the Americans) bipolar system between the two most powerful states on Earth would have been likely. The US would have had a lead over the USSR in the balance of power for longer than the ‘atomic monopoly’ years in this alternate history.

The USA’s homeland was not materially ravaged by cover for international internship, war. This economic preponderance would serve the West well in a conventional confrontation with the communists. In our timeline the existential deterrence from nuclear weapons diminished the US notion of ‘free security’.[26] This decline in American security would still have happened, especially once the Soviets would have developed their own strategic bomber force as the trailer most effective way of levelling the playing field. Essays? However, I believe the economic importance of Europe and Japan to bboy thesis 2011, the US would have guaranteed the Americans against a reversion to the interwar isolationist policies. Letter For International Development? With American preponderance and thesis trailer 2011 relative security of its homeland, a pre-emptive war against the Soviet Union would have been a very credible option, in this author’s opinion.

If the Soviet ideology was to be believed, a future war would have been unavoidable. Stalinist or Molotovian politics would have stirred up the english system to promote the thesis 2011 cause of communism. Without MAD, force would have been a viable means to end communism. There would have been no dilemma of conciliating the use of english writing technique nuclear weapons with the irrationality of a suicidal war.[27] On the bboy trailer 2011 other side of this non-nuclear Cold War the USSR would not be pressured to seek coexistence, and could have benefited from the constant fear of invasion and crisis. For these reasons this author believes that nuclear weapons saved humanity from essays martin king, a darker Cold War that could have been more likely to trailer, have turned hot. Alperovitz, G., Messer, R.L. and Bernstein, B.J. (1992) ‘Correspondence’, International Security , 16:3. Booth, K. and Wheeler, N.J. Essay Writing Technique? The Security Dilemma (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008) Craig, C. and Logevall, F. Thesis? America’s Cold War: The Politics of english essay technique Insecurity (London: Harvard University Press, 2009) Fursenko, A. and Naftali, T. Khrushchev’s Cold War (London: W.W. Norton Company, 2006) Gaddis, J.L. Strategies of Containment (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005) Hammes, T.X.

The Sling and the Stone: On War in thesis trailer, the 21 st Century (St. Paul: Zenith Press, 2006) Jervis, R. The Meaning of the Nuclear Revolution (New York: Cornell University Press, 1989) Mearsheimer, J.J. The Tragedy of Great Power Politics (London: W.W. Japanese Essay? Norton Company, 2001) Morgenthau, H.J. (1964) ‘Four Paradoxes of Nuclear Strategy’, The American Political Science Review , 58:1. Bboy 2011? Sheehan, M. The International Politics of Space (Abingdon: Routledge, 2007) Zubok, V.M. A Failed Empire: The Soviet Union in compare essay, the Cold War from thesis, Stalin to Gorbachev (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009) [1] Jervis, R. The Meaning of the Nuclear Revolution (New York: Cornell University Press, 1989) [4] One example is the plotline in Westwood Studios’ (now Electronic Arts) Command and Conquer: Red Alert videogame. It portrays an East-West conflict over Europe with the Soviet and Allied armies waging a conventional war in a very different 1950s (in the absence of nuclear weapons). [5] Hammes, T.X. The Sling and cover the Stone: On War in the 21 st Century (St. Bboy Thesis Trailer 2011? Paul: Zenith Press, 2006) pp.

23-31. Hammes refers to 3 rd generation warfare as the mechanised manoeuvre warfare epitomised in the Second World War. [6] Alperovitz, G., Messer, R.L. and Bernstein, B.J. Japanese Earthquake Essay? (1992) ‘Correspondence’, International Security , 16:3. [9] Zubok, V.M. A Failed Empire: The Soviet Union in the Cold War from Stalin to Gorbachev (Chapel Hill: University of bboy thesis 2011 North Carolina Press, 2009) pp. 30-31. [13] Mearsheimer, J.J. The Tragedy of why is Great Power Politics (London: W.W. Norton Company, 2001) pp. 42-44. [14] Zubok, V. A Failed Empire… pp.99-100. [15] Fursenko, A. and Naftali, T. 2011? Khrushchev’s Cold War (London: W.W. Norton Company, 2006) pp. 25. [16] Gaddis, J.L. Strategies of Containment (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005) pp.28-29.

[17] Jervis, R. The Meaning of the Nuclear… pp. Japanese And Tsunami? 13-14. [19] Jervis, R. Thesis Trailer? The Meaning of the Nuclear… pp. 25. [20] For example: The Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931 and the Italian invasion of english writing Abyssinia in 1935. [21] Gaddis, J.L. Strategies of Containment pp. Thesis Trailer? 28. Part? [22] Mearsheimer, J.J. The Tragedy of Great… pp.

32-33. Bboy 2011? [23] Booth, K. and letter for international development Wheeler, N.J. The Security Dilemma (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008) pp.5-7. Bboy 2011? [24] Zubok, V. A Failed Empire… pp. 29. Quoting Soviet generals in 1946. [25] Sheehan, M. The International Politics of Space (Abingdon: Routledge, 2007) pp. 26-30. [26] Craig, C. and Logevall, F. America’s Cold War: The Politics of Insecurity (London: Harvard University Press, 2009) pp.

56-58. [27] Morgenthau, H.J. Essays? (1964) ‘Four Paradoxes of Nuclear Strategy’, The American Political Science Review , 58:1, pp. 25. Written by: Bleddyn E. Bowen. Written at: Aberystwyth University. Written for: Campbell Craig. Date: November 2009. All content on the website is published under the following Creative Commons License. Before you download your free e-book, please consider donating to support open access publishing. E-IR is an independent non-profit publisher run by an all volunteer team. Your donations allow us to invest in new open access titles and bboy thesis trailer pay our bandwidth bills to ensure we keep our existing titles free to letter for international, view.

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contruct a resume PACIFIC RAILROAD ACTS. ACT OF JULY 1, 1862. [12 Statutes at Large, 489.] AN ACT to aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the thesis trailer 2011 Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the government the use of the same for postal, military, and other purposes. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That Walter S. Burgess, William P. Blodget, Benjamin H. Cheever, Charles Fosdick Fletcher, of Rhode Island; Augustus Brewster, Henry P. Haven, Cornelius S. Bushnell, Henry Hammond, Of Connecticut; Isaac Sherman, Dean Richmond, Royal Phelps, William H. Ferry, Henry A. Paddock, Lewis J. Stancliff, Charles A. Secor, Samuel R. Campbell, Alfred E. Tilton, John Anderson, Azariah Boody, John S. English Essay Writing Technique! Kennedy, H. Carver, Joseph Field, Benjamin F. Camp, Orville W. Childs, Alexander J. Bergen, Ben. Holliday, D. M. Barney, S. De Witt Bloodgood, William H. Grant, Thos.

W. Olcott, Samuel B. Ruggles, James B. Wilson, of New York; Ephraim Marsh, Charles M. Harker, of New Jersey; John Edgar Thompson, Benjamin Haywood, Joseph H. Scranton, Joseph Harrison, George W. Cass, John H. Bryant, Daniel J. Morell, Thomas M. Howe, William F. Johnson, Robert Finney, John A. Green, E. R. Myre, Charles F. Wells, jr., of Pennsylvania; Noah L. Wilson, Amos Stone, William H. Clement, S. S. L’Hommedieu, John Brough, William Dennison, Jacob Blickinsderfer , of Ohio; William M. McPherson, R. W. Wells, Willard P. Hall, Armstrong Beatty, John Corby, of Missouri; S. J. Hensley, Teter Donahue, C. P. Huntingdon, T. D. Judah, James Bailey, James T. Thesis! Ryan, Charles Hosmer, Charles Marsh, D. It Wrong Essay! O. Mills, Samuel Bell, Louis McLane, George W. Mowe, Charles McLaughlin, Timothy Dame, John R. Robinson, of California; John Atchison and John D. Winters, of the Territory of Nevada; John D. Campbell, R. N.. Rice, Charles A. Trowbridge, Ransom Gardner, Charles W. Penny, Charles T. Gorham, William McConnell, of Michigan; William F. Coolbaugh, Lucius H. Langworthy, Hugh T. Reid, Hoyt Sherman, Lyman Cook, Samuel R. Curtis, Lewis A. Thomas, Platt Smith, of lowa; William B. Bboy Trailer! Ogden, Charles G. Canada! Hammond, Henry Farnum, Amos C. Babcock, W. Seldon Gale, Nehemiah Bushnell, and Lorenzo Bull, of thesis 2011 Illinois; William. H. Swift, Samuel T. Dana, John Bertram, Franklin S. Stevens, Edward R. Conclusion Paper! Tinker, of Massachusetts; Franklin Gorin, Laban J. Bradford, and John T. Levis, of Kentucky; James Dunning, John M. Wood, Edwin Noyes, Joseph Eaton, of Maine; Henry H. Baxter, George W. Collamer, Henry Keyes, Thomas H. Canfield, of Vermont; William S. Ladd, A. M. Berry, Benjamin F. Harding, of Oregon; William Bunn, junior, John Catlin, Levi Sterling, John Thompson, Elihu L. Bboy! Phillips, Walter D. McIndoe, T. B. Stoddard, E. H. Broadhead, A. H. Virgin, of Wisconsin; Charles Paine, Thomas A. Essays Martin King Jr! Morris, David E. Brandlham, Samuel Hanna, Jonas Votaw, Jesse L. Williams, Isaac C. Elston, of Indiana; Thomas Swan, Chauncey Brooks, Edward Wilkins, of Maryland; Francis R. E. Cornell, David Blakely, A. D. Seward, Henry A. Swift, Dwight Woodbury, John McKusick, John R. Jones, of Minnesota; Joseph A. Gilmore, Charles W. Woodman, of New Hampshire; W. H. Bboy Thesis Trailer! Grimes, J. C. Stone, Chester Thomas, John Kerr, Werter R. Davis, Luther C. Challis, Josiah Miller, of Kansas; Gilbert C. Monell, and essay Augustus Kountz, T. M. Marquette, William H. Taylor, Alvin Saunders, of Nebraska; and John Evans, or Colorado; together with five commissioners to be appointed by the Secretary of the thesis 2011 Interior, and all persons who shall or may be associated with them, and their successors, are hereby created and erected into a corporate and politic in deed and in law, by the name, style, and title of essays on dr luther The Union Pacific Railroad Company; and by that name shall have perpetual succession, and shall be able to sue and to be sued, plead and be impleaded, defend and be defended, in all courts of law and trailer equity within the United States, and may make and have a common seal; and the said corporation is conclusion part research hereby authorized and empowered to lay out, locate, construct, furnish, maintain, and enjoy a continuous railroad and telegraph, with the appurtenances, from a point on the one-hundredth meridian of longitude west from Greenwich, between the south margin of the valley of the thesis trailer 2011 Republican river and earthquake and tsunami essay the north margin of the 2011 valley of the Platte river, in writing, the Territory of trailer 2011 Nebraska, to the western boundary of Nevada Territory, upon the route and why is it wrong terms hereinafter provided, and is hereby vested with all the powers, privileges, and immunities necessary to carry into effect the purposes of this act as herein set forth. The capital stock of said company shall consist of one hundred thousand shares of one thousand dollars each, which shall be subscribed for and held in not more than two hundred shares by any one person, and shall be transferable in such manner as the by-laws of said corporation shall provide. The persons hereinbefore named, together with those to be appointed by bboy thesis 2011 the Secretary of the Interior, are hereby constituted and appointed commissioners, and such body shall be called the Board of Commissioners of the Union Pacific Railroad and Telegraph Company, and twenty-five shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. English Essay Technique! The first meeting of said board shall be held at Chicago, at such time as the commissioners from Illinois herein named shall appoint, not more than three nor less than one mouth after the passage of this act, notice of which shall be given by them to the other commissioners by depositing a call thereof in the post-office at Chicago, post-paid, to their address, at least forty days before said meeting, and also by publishing said notice in one daily newspaper in each of the cities of Chicago and St.

Louis. Bboy Thesis Trailer! Said board shall organize by the choice from its number of a president, secretary, and treasurer, and they shall require from said treasurer such bonds as may be deemed proper, and may from time to time increase the amount thereof as they may deem proper. It shall be the duty of said Board of Commissioners to open books, or cause books to be opened, at such times and in it wrong to steal essay, such principal cities in the United States as they or a quorum of them shall determine, to receive subscriptions to the capital stock of said corporation, and a cash payment of ten per centum on all subscriptions, and to receipt therefor. So soon as two thousand shares shall be in good faith subscribed for, and ten dollars per share actually paid into the treasury of the company, the said president and secretary of trailer said Board of Commissioners shall appoint a time and place for the first meeting of the subscribers to the stock of english technique said company, and shall give notice thereof in at least one newspaper in each state in which subscription-books have been opened, at least thirty days previous to the day of meeting, and such subscribers as shall attend the meeting so called, either in person or by proxy, shall then and there elect by ballot not less than thirteen directors for said corporation; and in such election each share of bboy trailer said capital shall entitle the owner thereof to and tsunami essay one vote. Thesis! The president and secretary of the Board of Commissioners shall act as inspectors of said election, and shall certify under their hands the names of the directors elected at said meeting, and the said commissioners, treasurer, and secretary shall then deliver over to said directors all the properties, subscription-books, and part other books in their possession, and thereupon the duties of said commissioners and the officers previously appointed by them shall cease and trailer 2011 determine forever, and thereafter the stockholders shall constitute said body politic and corporate.

At the time of the first and each triennial election of directors by the stockholders, two additional directors shall be appointed by the President of the United States, who shall act with the body of directors, and to be denominated directors on the part of the government; any vacancy happening in the government directors at anytime may be filled by the President of the United States. The directors to be appointed by the President shall not be stockholders in the Union Pacific Railroad Company. The directors so chosen shalt, as soon as may be after their election, elect from their own number a president and vice-president, and shall also elect a treasurer and earthquake and tsunami secretary. No person shall be a director in said company unless he shall be a bona fide owner of at least five shares of stock in the said company, except the two directors to be appointed by the President as aforesaid. Said company, at any regular meeting of the stockholders called for that purpose, shall have power to make by-laws, rules, and regulations as they shall deem needful and proper, touching the disposition of the stock, property, estate, and effects of the company, not inconsistent herewith, the transfer of shares, the term of office, duties and conduct of their officers and thesis servants, and all matters whatsoever which may appertain to the concerns of said company; and the said board of directors shall have power to appoint such engineers, agents, and subordinates as may from time to time be necessary to carry into effect the object of earthquake this act, and to do all acts and things touching the location and construction of said road and telegraph. Said directors may require payment of thesis 2011 subscriptions to the capital stock after due notice, at such times and in such proportions as they shall deem necessary to complete the railroad-and telegraph within the time in this act prescribed. Said president, vice-president, and directors shall bold their office for three years, and until their successors are duly elected and qualified, or for such less time as the by-laws of the japanese earthquake essay corporation may prescribe ; and a majority of said directors shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business.

The secretary and treasurer shall give such bonds, with such security, as the said board shall from time to time require, and shall bold their offices at the will and pleasure of the directors. Annual meetings of the stockholders of the said corporation, for the choice of officers (when they are to be chosen) and for the transaction of annual business, shall be holden at bboy trailer, such time and place and upon such notice as may be prescribed in the by-laws. SEC. 2 . And be it further enacted, That the right of way through the and tsunami essay public lands be, and the same is thesis hereby, granted to said company for the construction of said railroad and essays on dr martin king telegraph line; and bboy thesis trailer the right, power, and conclusion part authority is hereby given to said company to bboy thesis trailer 2011 take from the public lands adjacent to letter for international development internship the line of said road, earth, stone, timber, and trailer 2011 other materials for compare usa and essay the construction thereof; said right of way is granted to 2011 said railroad to the extent of’ two hundred feet in width on each side of said railroad, where it may pass over the public lands, including all necessary grounds for stations, buildings, workshops and depots, machine shops, switches, side tracks, turn-tables, and water stations. The United States shall extinguish as rapidly as may be, the Indian titles to all lands falling under the operation of this act, and required for the said right of way and grants hereinafter made. SEC. 3 . And be it further enacted, That there be, and is hereby, granted to conclusion paper research the said company, for the purpose of aiding in the construction of said railroad and telegraph line, and to secure the safe and speedy, transportation of the mails, troops, munitions of war, and public stores thereon, every alternate section of public land, designated by thesis trailer odd numbers, to the amount of five alternate sections per canada essay mile on each side of said railroad, on the line thereof, and within the limits of bboy thesis 2011 ten miles on each side of said road, not sold, reserved, or otherwise disposed of by the United States, and to which a preemption or homestead claim may not have attached, at the time the line of said road is definitely fixed: Pro vided, That all mineral lands shall be excepted from the operation of this act; but where the japanese earthquake essay same shall contain timber, the timber thereon is hereby granted to said company. And all such lands so granted by this section which shall not be sold or disposed of by said company within three years after the entire road shall have been completed, shall be subject to settlement and pre-emption like other lands, at a price not exceeding one dollar and twenty-five cents per acre, to bboy trailer be paid to said company.

SEC. 4 . And be it further enacted, That whenever said company shall have completed forty consecutive miles of any portion of said railroad or telegraph line ready for the service contemplated by this act, and supplied with all necessary drains, culverts, viaducts, crossings, sidings, bridges, turnouts, watering places, depots, equipments, furniture, and all other appurtenances of a first-class railroad —the rails and all the other iron used in the construction and equipment of said road to be American manufacture of the best quality, the President of the United States shall appoint three commissioners to examine the same and report to him in relation thereto; and if it shall appear to him that forty consecutive miles of said railroad and telegraph line have been completed and equipped in all respects as required by compare usa and canada this act, then, upon certificate of said commissioners to that effect, patents shall issue conveying the trailer 2011 right and title to said lands to said company, on each side of the road, as far as the to steal essay same is completed, to the amount aforesaid; and bboy patents shall in like manner issue as each forty miles of said railroad and telegraph line are completed, upon certificate of english technique said commissioners. Any vacancies occurring in said board of commissioners by death, resignation, or otherwise, shall be filled by the President of the United States: Provided, however, That no such commissioners shall be appointed by the President of the United States unless there shall be presented to him a statement, verified on oath by thesis trailer the president of said company, that such forty miles have been completed in luther, the manner required by this act, and setting forth with certainty the points where such forty miles begin and where the same end; which oath shall be taken before a judge of a court of record. SEC. 5 . And be it further enacted, That for the purposes herein mentioned, the Secretary of the Treasury shall, upon the certificate in writing of 2011 said commissioners of the completion and equipment of forty consecutive miles of said railroad and telegraph, in accordance with the provisions of conclusion part this act, issue to said company bonds of the United States of one thousand dollars each, payable in thesis, thirty years after date, bearing six per centum per annum interest (said interest payable semi-annually), which interest may be paid in United States treasury notes or any other money or currency which the United States have or shall declare lawful money and a legal-tender, to the amount of why is it wrong to steal sixteen of said bonds per mile for thesis such section of forty miles; and to secure the repayment to the United States, as hereinafter provided, of the letter amount of said bonds so issued and thesis 2011 delivered to said company, together with all interest thereon which shall have been paid by the United States , the issue of said bonds and delivery to the company shall ipso facto constitute a first mortgage on the whole line of the railroad and telegraph, together with the essay rolling-stock, fixtures, and property of every kind and description, and in consideration of which said bonds may be issued; and on refusal or failure of bboy thesis 2011 said company to redeem said bonds or any part of them, when required to do so by the Secretary of the Treasury, in accordance with the provisions of this act, the said road, with all the rights, functions, immunities, and it wrong essay appurtenances thereunto belonging, and also all lands granted to the said company by bboy trailer 2011 the United States, which, at the time of essays martin king said default, shall remain in the ownership of the said company, may be taken possession of by the Secretary of the trailer 2011 Treasury for the use and benefit of the United States: Provided, This section shall not apply to that part of any road now constructed. SEC. 6 . And be it further enacted, That the grants aforesaid are made upon condition that said company shall pay said bonds at maturity, and shall keep said railroad and telegraph line in repair and why is essay use, and shall at all times transmit dispatches over said telegraph line, and transport mails, troops, and munitions of war, supplies, and public stores upon said railroad for the government whenever required to do so by any department thereof, and that the government shall at 2011, all times have the preference in the use of the same for all the purposes aforesaid, (at fair and canada essay reasonable rates of compensation, not to exceed the amounts paid by private parties for the same kind of service); and all compensation for thesis services rendered for english technique the government shall be applied to the payment of thesis said bonds and interest until the whole amount is fully paid.

Said company may also pay the United States, wholly or in part, in the same or other bonds, treasury notes, or other evidences of debt against the United States, to be allowed at par; and after said road is completed, until said bonds and interest are paid, at least five per centum of the net earnings of said road shall also be annually applied to the payment thereof. SEC. 7 . And be it further enacted, That said company shall file their assent to this act, under the seal of said company, in the Department of the Interior, within one year after the passage of this act, and shall complete said railroad and telegraph from the point of beginning as herein provided, to the western boundary of Nevada Territory, before the first day of essay July, one thousand eight hundred and seventy-four: Provided, That within two years after the passage of this act said company shall designate the general route of said road, as near as may be, and shall file a map of the same in the Department of the Interior, whereupon the Secretary of the Interior shall cause the lands within fifteen miles of said designated route or routes to be withdrawn from pre-emption, private entry, and sale; and when any portion of said route shall be finally located, the Secretary of the Interior shall cause the said lands hereinbefore granted, to be surveyed and set off as fast as may be necessary for the purposes herein named: Provided, That in fixing the point of connection of the main trunk with the eastern connections it shall be fixed at the most practicable point for the construction of the trailer 2011 Iowa and Missouri branches, as hereinafter provided. SEC. 8 . For International Development! And be it further enacted, That the line of said railroad and telegraph shall commence at a point on the one hundredth meridian of longitude west from Greenwich, between the south margin of the valley of the thesis 2011 Republican river and the north margin of the valley of the Platte river, in the Territory of Nebraska, at a point to be fixed by the President of the United States, after actual surveys; thence running westerly upon the most direct, central, and practicable route, through the usa and territories of the United States, to the western boundary of the Territory of Nevada, there to meet and connect with the line of the Central Pacific Railroad Company of California . SEC. 9 . And be it further enacted, That the Leavenworth, Pawnee and Western Railroad Company of Kansas are hereby authorized to bboy thesis trailer 2011 construct a railroad and telegraph line from the english writing technique Missouri river, at the mouth of the Kansas river, on bboy thesis the south side thereof, so as to connect with the Pacific Railroad of Missouri, to the aforesaid point on the one- hundredth meridian of letter for international development longitude west from Greenwich, as herein provided, upon the same terms and bboy thesis trailer 2011 conditions in all respects as are provided in this act for the construction of the railroad and telegraph line first mentioned, and to meet and connect with the same at the meridian of longitude aforesaid; and in case the general route or line of road from the Missouri river to the Rocky Mountains should be so located as to require a departure northwardly from the proposed line of said Kansas railroad before it reaches the meridian of longitude aforesaid, the paper part research location of bboy thesis trailer said Kansas road shall be made so as to conform thereto; and said railroad through Kansas shall be so located between the mouth of the Kansas river, as aforesaid, and the aforesaid point on the one-hundredth meridian of longitude, that the several railroads from part, Missouri and Iowa, herein authorized to bboy connect with the same, can make connection within the limits prescribed in this act, provided the same can be done without deviating from the general direction of the whole line to essay technique the Pacific coast. The route in Kansas west of the meridian of bboy trailer Fort Riley, to the aforesaid point on the one-hundredth meridian of longitude, to be subject to the approval of the President of the United States, and to be determined by him on actual survey. English Essay Technique! And said Kansas company may proceed to build said railroad to bboy thesis 2011 the aforesaid point on the one-hundredth meridian of longitude west from essays martin luther jr, Greenwich, in the Territory of bboy trailer 2011 Nebraska. The Central Pacific Railroad Company of California, a corporation existing under the laws of the State of California, are hereby authorized to construct a railroad and telegraph line from the Pacific coast, at or near San Francisco, or the navigable waters of the Sacramento river, to cover letter for international internship the eastern boundary of California, upon the same terms and conditions, in all respects, as are contained in this act for the construction of said railroad and telegraph line first-mentioned, and to meet and connect with the 2011 first-mentioned railroad and telegraph line on the eastern boundary of California.

Each of said companies shall file their acceptance of the essay conditions of this act in the Department of the bboy thesis Interior within six months after the passage of this act. SEC. 10 . And be it further enacted, That the said company chartered by the State of Kansas shall complete one hundred miles of their said road, commencing at compare usa and canada essay, the mouth of the Kansas river, as aforesaid, within two years after filing their assent to the conditions of this act, as herein provided, and one hundred miles per year thereafter until the whole is completed; and the said Central Pacific Railroad Company of California shall complete fifty miles of their said road within two years after filing their assent to the provisions of this act, as herein provided, and fifty miles per bboy thesis trailer year thereafter until the whole is completed; and after completing their roads, respectively, said companies, or either of them, may unite upon equal terms with the first-named company in earthquake and tsunami essay, constructing so much of 2011 said railroad and telegraph line and branch railroads and telegraph lines in this act hereinafter mentioned, through the territories, from the State of California to the Missouri river, as shall then remain to be constructed, on the same terms and conditions as provided in this act in relation to the said Union Pacific Railroad Company. And the Hannibal and Saint Joseph railroad, the compare usa and essay Pacific Railroad Company of Missouri, and the first-named company, or either of them, on thesis trailer filing their assent to this act as aforesaid, may unite upon equal terms, under this act, with the said Kansas company, in constructing said railroad and why is essay telegraph to said meridian of longitude, with the consent of the said State of Kansas; and in case said first-named company shall complete their line to trailer 2011 the eastern boundary of California before it is completed across said state by the Central Pacific Railroad Company of California, said first-named company is paper research hereby authorized to continue in constructing the same through California, with the consent of said state, upon the terms mentioned in this act, until said roads shall meet and connect, and the whole line of bboy 2011 said railroad and telegraph is completed ; and the Central Pacific Railroad Company of California, after completing its road across said state, is authorized to continue the construction of said railroad and telegraph through the territories of the United States to compare canada the Missouri river, including the branch roads specified in this act, upon the routes hereinbefore and bboy thesis hereinafter indicated, on the terms and conditions provided in this act in relation to the said Union Pacific Railroad Company, until said roads shall meet and connect, and the whole line of said railroad and branches and telegraph is completed. SEC. 11 . And be it further enacted, That for three hundred miles of said road, most mountainous and difficult of construction, to wit, one hundred and fifty miles westwardly from the eastern base of the Rocky mountains, and one hundred and fifty miles eastwardly from the the western base of the Sierra Nevada mountains, said points to be fixed by the President of the United States, the bonds to be issued to aid in the construction thereof shall be treble the number per mile hereinbefore provided, and the same shall be issued, and the lands herein granted be set apart, upon the construction of every twenty miles thereof, upon the certificate of the commissioners as aforesaid that twenty consecutive miles of the same are completed ; and between the sections last named of one hundred and fifty miles each, the bonds to be issued to aid in the construction thereof’ shall be double the number per mile first mentioned, and the same shall be issued, and the lands herein granted beset apart, upon the construction of every twenty miles thereof, upon canada essay, the certificate of the commissioners as aforesaid that twenty consecutive miles of the same are completed: Provided, That no more than fifty thousand of said bonds shall be issued under this act to aid in constructing the trailer 2011 main line of said railroad and telegraph. SEC. 12 . And be it further enacted, That whenever the route of said railroad shall cross the boundary of any state or territory or said meridian of longitude, the english essay writing technique two companies meeting or uniting there shall agree upon its location at that point, with reference to the most direct and practicable through route, and in thesis trailer 2011, case of difference between them as to said location the President of the United States shall determine the said location; the companies named in each state and territory to locate the road across the paper research same between the bboy 2011 points so agreed upon, except as herein provided. The track, upon the entire line of railroad and branches shall be of uniform width, to be determined by the President of the United States, so that, when completed, cars can be run from the Missouri river to the Pacific coast; the grades and curves shall not exceed the maximum grades and curves of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad; the whole line of said railroad and branches and japanese earthquake and tsunami essay telegraph shall be operated and used for thesis trailer all purposes of communication, travel, and transportation, so far as the public and government are concerned, as one connected continuous line; and the companies herein named in Missouri, Kansas, and California, filing their assent to english essay the provisions of this act, shall receive and transport all iron rails, chairs, spikes, ties, timber, and all materials required for constructing and furnishing said first-mentioned line between the 2011 aforesaid point on english writing the one-hundredth meridian of longitude and western boundary of Nevada Territory, whenever the same is bboy thesis trailer 2011 required by said first-named company, at cost, over that portion of the roads of said companies constructed under the provisions of this act. SEC. 13 . And be it further enacted, That the Hannibal and japanese Saint Joseph Railroad Company of trailer Missouri may extend its road from Saint Joseph, via Atchison, to connect and unite with the road through Kansas, upon filing its assent to the provisions of part research this act, upon the same terms and conditions in all respects, for one hundred miles in length next to the Missouri river, as are provided in this act for the construction of the railroad and telegraph line first mentioned, and may for this purpose use any railroad charter which has been or may be granted by the legislature of Kansas: Provided, That if actual survey shall render it desirable, the said company may construct their road, with the consent of the 2011 Kansas legislature, on the most direct and practicable route west from St.

Joseph, Missouri, so as to connect and unite with the road leading from the western boundary of Iowa at any point east of the one-hundredth meridian of west longitude, or with the main trunk road at said point; but in no event shall lands or bonds be given to said company, as herein directed, to earthquake and tsunami aid in the construction of their said road for a greater distance than one hundred miles. And the Leavenworth, Pawnee and Western Railroad Company of Kansas may construct their road from Leavenworth to unite with the road through Kansas, SEC. 14 . And be it further enacted, That the said Union Pacific Railroad Company is hereby authorized and required to construct a single line of railroad and telegraph from a point on Me western boundary of the State of trailer 2011 Iowa, to be fixed by the President of the United States, upon the most direct and practicable route, to be subject to his approval, so as to form a connection with the line of said company at some point on the one-hundredth meridian of longitude aforesaid, from the point of english writing commencement on the western boundary of the bboy thesis State of Iowa, upon the same terms and conditions, in all respects, as are contained in this act for the construction of the said railroad and telegraph first mentioned; and the said Union Pacific Railroad Company shall complete one hundred miles of the road and telegraph in this section provided for in two years after filing their assent to the conditions of this act, as by the terms of this act required, and at the rate of one hundred miles per year thereafter until the whole is completed: Provided, That a failure upon the part of technique said company to make said connection in the time aforesaid, and to perform the obligations imposed on said company by this section, and to operate said road in the same manner as the main line shall be operated, shall forfeit to bboy thesis trailer the government of the essays on dr luther jr United States all the rights, privileges, and franchises granted to bboy trailer and conferred upon said company by this act. And whenever there shall be a line of railroad completed through Minne sota or Iowa to Sioux City, then the said Pacific Rail road Company is hereby authorized and required to con struct a railroad and telegraph from said Sioux City upon the most direct and practicable route to a point on, and so as to connect with, the branch railroad and telegraph in letter for international, this section hereinbefore mentioned, or with the said Union Pacific railroad, said point of junction to be fixed by the President of the United States, not further west than the thesis trailer one-hundredth meridian of longitude aforesaid, and on the same terms and conditions as provided in this act for the construction of the Union Pacific railroad as aforesaid, and to japanese earthquake essay complete the same at the rate of one hundred miles per year; and should said company fail to bboy thesis trailer comply with the requirements of this act in relation to paper the said Sioux City railroad and telegraph, the said company shall suffer the same forfeitures prescribed in relation to the Iowa branch railroad and telegraph hereinbefore mentioned. SEC.

15 . And be it further enacted, That any other railroad company now incorporated, or hereafter to be incorporated, shall have the right to connect their road with the road and thesis branches provided for by this act, at such places and upon such just and equitable terms as the President of the United States may prescribe. Wherever the word company is used in cover letter development internship, this act, it shall be construed to embrace the words their associates, successors, and assigns, the same as if the words had been properly added thereto. SEC. 16 . And be it further enacted, That at any time after the passage of thesis trailer 2011 this act all of the railroad companies named herein, and assenting hereto, or any two or more of them, are authorized to form themselves into one consolidated company; notice of earthquake and tsunami such consolidation, in writing, shall be filed in the Department of the Interior, and such consolidated company shall thereafter proceed to construct said railroad and branches and telegraph line upon the terms and conditions provided in this act. SEC. 17 . And be it further enacted, That in case said company or companies shall fail to comply with the terms and conditions of this act, by not completing said road and telegraph and branches within a reasonable time, or by not keeping the same in repair and use, but shall permit the same for bboy thesis an unreasonable time to remain unfinished or out of repair and unfit for use, Congress may pass any act to insure the speedy completion of said road and branches, or to put the same in repair and use, and may direct the income of said railroad and telegraph line to be thereafter devoted to the use of the United States to repay all such expenditures caused by the default or neglect of such company or companies: Provided, That if said roads are not completed, so as to japanese essay form a continuous line of railroad, ready for use, from the bboy thesis trailer Missouri river to the navigable waters of the earthquake essay Sacramento river in California, by the first day of July, eighteen hundred and seventy-six, the whole of all of trailer said railroads before mentioned, and to be constructed under the provisions of this act, together with all their furniture, fixtures, rolling-stock, machine shops, lands, tenements, hereditaments, and property of every kind and character, shall be forfeited to and taken possession of by the United States: Provided, That of the bonds of the United States in this act provided to be delivered for any and all parts of the roads to be constructed east of the one-hundredth meridian of west longitude from Greenwich, and for any part of the road west of the west foot of the Sierra Nevada mountains, there shall be reserved of each part and installment twenty-five per centum, to be and remain in the United States treasury, undelivered, until said road and all parts thereof provided for in this act are entirely completed; and of all the bonds provided to be delivered for the said road, between the two points aforesaid, there shall be reserved out of each installment fifteen per centum, to be and remain in conclusion paper research, the treasury until the whole of the road provided for thesis in this act is fully completed ; and if the said road or any part thereof shall fail of completion at the time limited therefor in this act, then and in that case the said part of said bonds so reserved shall be forfeited to conclusion part the United States. SEC. 18 . And be it further enacted., That whenever it appears that the net earnings or the entire road and telegraph, including the bboy thesis 2011 amount allowed for on dr martin services rendered for the United States, after deducting all expenditures—including repairs and the furnishing, running, and managing of said road—shall exceed ten per centum upon bboy, its cost, (exclusive of the five per centum to be paid to the United States,) Congress may reduce the rates of conclusion fare thereon, if unreasonable in amount, and may fix and establish the same by law. And the better to trailer 2011 accomplish the object of this act, namely, to promote the public interest and welfare by the construction of said railroad and telegraph line, and essay writing keeping the same in working order, and to secure to the government at all times (but particularly in time, of war) the use and benefits of the same for postal, military, and other purposes, Congress may at any time—having due regard for thesis the rights of said companies named herein—add to, alter, amend, or repeal this act. SEC.

19 . And be it further enacted, That the english several railroad companies herein named are authorized to enter into an arrangement with the Pacific Telegraph Company, the Overland Telegraph Company, and the California State Telegraph Company, so that the present line of telegraph between the Missouri river and San Francisco may be moved upon bboy 2011, or along the line of said railroad and branches as fast as said roads and branches are built; and essays martin king jr if said arrangement be entered into, and the transfer of said telegraph line be made in bboy thesis trailer, accordance therewith to the line of said railroad and earthquake and tsunami essay branches, such transfer shall, for all purposes of this act, be held and considered a fulfillment, on the part of said railroad companies, of the provisions of this act in regard to bboy thesis trailer 2011 the construction of said line of telegraph. And in case of disagreement, said telegraph companies are authorized to remove their line of telegraph along and upon the line of railroad herein contemplated without prejudice to the rights of said railroad companies named herein. SEC. 20 . And be it further enacted, That the earthquake essay corporation hereby created and the roads connected therewith, under the provisions of bboy thesis trailer 2011 this act, shall make to the Secretary of the Treasury an earthquake and tsunami essay, annual report, wherein shall be set forth : First. The names of the stockholders and their places of residence, so far as the same can be ascertained. Second. The names and residences of the directors and all other officers of the company. Third. The amount of stock subscribed, and the amount thereof actually paid in. Fourth.

A description of the lines of road surveyed, of the lines thereof fixed upon for the construction of the road, and the cost of such surveys. Fifth. Bboy 2011! The amount received from passengers on the road. Sixth. The amount received for freight thereon. Seventh. A statement of the expense of said road and martin king jr its fixtures. Eighth. A statement of the indebtedness of said company, setting forth the various kinds thereof; which report shall be sworn to by the president of the said company, and shall be presented to the Secretary of the Treasury on or before the first day of July in each year. Approved July 1, 1862. [12 Statutes at Large, 538.]

AN ACT to amend an act entitled An act to aid in the construction of a railroad and trailer 2011 telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the government the essay use of the same for postal, military, and bboy thesis trailer 2011 other purposes, approved July 1, 1862. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the japanese earthquake and tsunami first meeting of the commissioners named in the act entitled An act to aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the bboy thesis 2011 Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the government the japanese and tsunami use of the bboy thesis same for postal, military, and other purposes, approved July second, eighteen hundred and sixty-two, and of the five commissioners directed by english essay writing technique said act to be appointed by the Secretary of the Interior, shall be held at Bryan Hall, in the city of bboy thesis Chicago, in the State of Illinois, on the first Tuesday of September next, at twelve o’clock, at noon. A notice of why is it wrong said meeting, to be signed by at least ten of the commissioners named in said act, shall be published at least once a week during the six successive weeks commencing on the twentieth of July, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-two in bboy thesis 2011, one daily newspaper in each of the cities of Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Cincinnati, Chicago, and St. Louis, and no other notice of said meeting shall be requisite. Approved July 12, 1862. ACT OF MARCH 3, 1863—FIXING GAUGE. [12 Statutes at Large, 807.] AN ACT to establish the gauge of the Pacific railroad and its branches.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the gauge of the Pacific railroad and its branches throughout their whole extent, from the Pacific coast to the Missouri river, shall be, and hereby is, established at four feet eight and one-half inches. Approved March 3, 1863. ACT OF JULY 2, 1864. [13 Statutes at Large, 356.] AN ACT to amend an act entitled An act to aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the government the use of the same for postal, military, and other purposes, approved July first, eighteen hundred and sixty-two. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of english essay writing technique America in Congress assembled, That the capital stock of the thesis company entitled the Union Pacific Railroad Company, authorized by the act of which this act is amendatory, shall be in shares of one hundred dollars, instead of one thousand dollars, each; that the number of why is to steal essay shares shall be one million, instead of one hundred thousand; and that the bboy trailer 2011 number of shares which any person shall hold to entitle him to serve as a director in said company (except the five directors to be appointed by government) shall be fifty shares, instead of five shares; and that every subscriber to said capital stock for each share of one thousand dollars, heretofore subscribed, shall be entitled to a certificate for ten shares of one hundred dollars each; and that the following words in section first of said act, which shall be subscribed for and held in not more than two hundred shares by any one person, be and the same are hereby repealed. SEC. 2 . And be it further enacted, That the japanese earthquake and tsunami Union Pacific Railroad Company shall cause books to be kept open to receive subscriptions to the capital stock of said company, (until the entire capital of one hundred mil lions of dollars shall be subscribed,) at the general office of said company in the city of New York, and in each of the cities of Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Chicago, Cincinnati, and St.

Louis, at such. places as may be des ignated by the President of the United States, and in such other localities as may be directed by him. No subscription for said stock shall be deemed valid unless the bboy subscriber therefor shall, at the time of subscribing, or remit to the treasurer of the company an amount per share subscribed by him equal to the amount per essay share previously paid by the then-existing stockholders. The said company shall make assessments upon its stock holders of not less than five dollars per share, and at intervals of not exceeding six months from and after the passage of this act, until the par value of all shares sub scribed shall be full paid; and money only shall be receivable for any such assessments, or as equivalents for any portion of the capital stock hereinbefore authorized. The capital stock of bboy thesis said company shall not be increased beyond the why is it wrong to steal essay actual cost of said road. And the stock of the company shall be deemed personal property, and shall be transferable on the books of the company, at bboy thesis trailer, the general office of said company in the city of New York, or at compare, such other transfer office as the company may establish. SEC. 3 . And be it further enacted, That the bboy thesis trailer 2011 Union Pacific Railroad Company, and all other companies provided for in this act and the act to which this is an amendment, be, and hereby are, empowered to enter upon, purchase, take, and bold any lands or premises that may be necessary and proper for the construction and working of and tsunami essay said road, not exceeding in width one hundred feet on each side of its centre line, unless a greater width be required for the purpose of excavation or embankment; and also my lands or premises that may be necessary and proper for turnouts standing places for cars, depots, station house[s], or any other structures required in the construction and operating of trailer said road. And each of said companies shall have the right to cut and remove trees and it wrong to steal other materials that might by falling encumber its road-bed, though standing or being more than one hundred feet therefrom. And in case the owner or claimant of such lands or premises and thesis such company cannot agree as to the damages, the amount shall be determined by the appraisal of three disinterested commissioners, who may be appointed upon application by any party to any judge of a court of cover development internship record in any of the territories in bboy trailer 2011, which the lands or premises to be taken lie; and said commissioners, in their assessments of damages, shall appraise such premises at what would have been the value thereof if the why is road had not been built; and upon return into court of such ap praisement, and upon the payment to the clerk thereof of the amount so awarded by the commissioners for the use and benefit of the owner thereof, said premises shall be deemed to be taken by said company, which shall thereby acquire full title to the same for trailer the purposes aforesaid. And either party feeling aggrieved by said assessment may, within thirty days, file an king jr, appeal there from, and demand a jury of bboy trailer twelve men to estimate the damage sustained; but such appeal shall not interfere with the rights of said company to enter upon conclusion paper part, the premises taken, or to bboy thesis do any act necessary in the con struction of compare its road. And said party appealing shall give bonds, with sufficient surety or sureties, for bboy thesis the pay ment of any cost that may arise upon such appeal.

And in case the party appealing does not obtain a more favor Able verdict, such party shall pay the whole cost incurred by the appellee as well as its own. Conclusion Part! And the payment into court for the use of the owner or claimant of a sum equal to that finally awarded shall be held to vest in said company the title of thesis trailer said land, and the right to use and earthquake essay occupy the thesis trailer 2011 same for the construction, maintaining and operating of the road of said company. Arid in case any of the lands to be taken as aforesaid shall be held by any person residing without the territory or subject to any legal disability, the court may appoint a proper person, who shall give bonds, with sufficient surety or sureties, for the faithful execution of cover development his trust, and who may represent in court the person disqualified or absent as aforesaid, when the thesis 2011 same proceeding shall be bad in reference to the appraisement of the promises to be taken and english essay technique with tile same effect as have been already described. And the title of the company to bboy thesis the land taken by virtue of this act shall not be affected nor impaired by rea son of any failure by any guardian to discharge faithfully his trust, And in case it shall be necessary for either of the said companies to enter upon lands which are un occupied, and of which there is no apparent owner or claimant, it may proceed to take and use the same for the purpose of essays on dr luther jr its said railroad, and may institute proceedings in manner described for the purpose of bboy thesis trailer ascertaining the value of and and tsunami acquiring a title to the same; and the court may determine the bboy trailer kind of notice to be served on such owner or owners, and may in its discretion appoint an agent or guardian to represent such owner or owners in case of his or their incapacity or non-appearance. But in case no claimant shall appear within six years from the time of the compare opening of said road across any land, all claim to damges against said company shall be barred. It shall be competent for the legal guardian of any infant or any other person under guardianship to agree with the proper company as to damages sustained by reason of the taking of any lands of any such person under disability, as aforesaid, for the use as aforesaid; and upon such agreement being made, and bboy thesis 2011 approved by the court having supervision of the why is essay official acts of said guardian, the said guardian shall have full power to make and execute a conveyance thereof to bboy trailer the said company, which shall vest the title thereto in the said company. SEC. 4 . And be it further enacted, That section three of said act be hereby amended by usa and canada essay striking out the word five, where the same occurs in said section and by inserting in lieu thereof the word ten; and by striking out the word ten, where the same occurs in said section, and bboy thesis trailer 2011 inserting in lieu thereof the word twenty.’’ And section seven of said act is hereby amended by striking out the word fifteen, where the same occurs in said section, and inserting in lieu thereof the word twenty-five. And the term mineral lands, where ever the same occurs in why is to steal essay, this act, and the act to which this is an amendment, shall not be construed to include coal and iron land. And any lands granted by this act, or the act to which this is an amendment, shall not defeat or impair any pre-emption, homestead, swamp-land, or other lawful claim, nor include any government reservation or mineral lands, or the improvements of any bona fide settler on in any lands returned and denominated as mineral lands, and the timber necessary to bboy thesis 2011 support his said improvements is a miner or agriculturalist, to be ascertained under such rules as have been or may be established by cover letter for international development the Commissioner of the General Land Office, in conformity with the provisions of the pre-emption laws: Provided, That the quantity thus exempted by the operation of this act, and the act to which this is an amendment, shall not exceed one hundred and sixty acres for each settler who claims as an agriculturalist; and such quantity for each settler who claims as a miner, as the thesis trailer said commissioner may establish by general regulations: Provided, also, That the phrase but where the same shall contain timber, the timber thereon is hereby granted to said company, in the proviso to said section three, shall not apply to the tunber growing or being on any land farther than ten miles from the centre of the line of any one of said roads or branches mentioned in said act or in english essay writing technique, this act. And all lands shall be excluded from the operation of this act, and of the bboy act to which this is an amendment, which were located or selected to english writing technique be located under the provisions of an act entitled An act donating lands to the several states and territories which may provide colleges for the benefit of agriculture and the mechanic arts, approved July second, eighteen hundred and bboy thesis trailer sixty-two , and notice thereof given at the proper land office.

SEC. 5. And be it further enacted, That the time for designating the general route of said railroad, and of filing the essay writing technique map of the trailer same, and the time for the completion of on dr martin king that part of the railroads required by thesis trailer 2011 the terms of said act of each company, be and the same is english hereby extended one year from the time in said act designated; and that the Central Pacific Railroad Company of California shall be required to complete twenty-five miles of their said road in each year thereafter, and the whole to the state line within four years, and that only one-half of the compensation for bboy 2011 services rendered for the government by said companies shall be required to be applied to the payment of the writing technique bonds issued by the government in aid of the construction of said road. SEC. Trailer 2011! 6 . And be it further enacted, That the proviso to section four of said act is on dr hereby modified as follows, viz: And the President of the United States is hereby authorized, at any time after the passage of bboy thesis 2011 this act, to appoint for each and every of said roads three commissioners, as provided for in the part research act to which this act is amendatory; and the verified statement of the president of the California company, required by said section four, shall be filed in the, office of the United States surveyor general for the State of California, instead of being presented to the President of the United States; and the said surveyor-general shall thereupon notify the said commissioners of the filing of such statement, and the said commissioners shall thereupon proceed to examine the portion of said railroad and telegraph line so completed, and make their report thereon to 2011 the President of the essays on dr martin luther king jr United States, as provided by the act of which this is amandatory. 2011! And such statement may be filed and such railroad and telegraph line be examined and reported on by the said commissioners, and the requisite amount of martin luther jr bonds may be issued, and trailer 2011 the lands appertaining set apart, located, entered, and patented, as provided in research, this act and the act to which this is amendatory, upon the construction by said rail road company of California of any portion of not less than twenty consecutive miles of their said railroad and telegraph line, upon the certificate, of said commissioners that such portion is completed as required by bboy thesis 2011 the act to which this is amendatory. And section ten of the act of which this is amendatory is hereby amended by inserting after the words United States in the last clause, the english essay technique words and bboy states intervening. SEC. 7 . And be it further enacted, That so much of section seventeen of said act as provides for a reservation by the government of a portion of the bonds to be issued to aid in the construction of the said railroads is hereby repealed. And the failure of any one company to comply fully with the conditions and requirements of this act, or the act to which this is amendatory, shall not work a forfeiture of the english essay writing technique rights, privileges, or franchise of any other company or companies that shall have complied with the same.

SEC. 8 . And be it further enacted, That for the purpose of facilitating the work on said railroad, and of enabling the said company as early as practicable to commerce the grading of bboy said railroad in cover development, the region of the mountains, between the bboy eastern base of the Rocky mountains and the western base of the Sierra Nevada mountains, so that the same may be finally completed within the time required by law, it is hereby provided that whenever the chief engineer of the said company and said commissioners shall certify that a certain proportion of the work required to prepare the english writing technique road for the superstructure on any such section of twenty miles is done, (which said certificate shall be duly verified,) the Secretary of the thesis 2011 Treasury is hereby authorized and required, upon the delivery of such certificate, to issue to said company a proportion of said bonds, not exceeding two-thirds of the amount of bonds authorized to be issued under the earthquake and tsunami essay provisions of the act, to aid in the construction of such section of twenty miles, nor in any case exceeding two-thirds of the value of the work done, the remaining one-third to remain until the said section is fully completed and certified by the commissioners appointed by the President, according to the terms and provisions of the said act; and no such bonds shall issue to the Union Pacific Railroad Company for work done west of Salt Lake City under this section, more than three hundred miles in advance of the completed continuous line of bboy thesis 2011 said railroad from the point beginning on the one-hundredth meridian of longitude. SEC. 9 . And, be it further enacted, That to enable any one of said corporations to make convenient and necessary connections with other roads, it is hereby authorized to to steal essay establish and maintain all necessary ferries upon and across the Missouri river, and other rivers which its road may pass in its course; and authority is hereby given said corporation to bboy thesis trailer 2011 construct bridges over said Missouri river and all other rivers for the convenience of said road: Provided, That any bridge or bridges it may construct over the Missouri river, or any other navigable river on canada the line of said road, shall be constructed with suitable and proper draws for bboy trailer 2011 the passage of steamboats, and shall be built, kept, and maintained at the expense of said company, in such manner as not to impair the usefulness of said rivers for navigation to any greater extent than such structures of the most approved character necessarily do: And provided, further, That any company authorized by this act to why is construct its road and telegraph line from the Missouri river to the initial point aforesaid, may construct its road and telegraph line so as to connect with the Union Pacific railroad at any point westwardly of such initial point, in case such company shall deem such westward connection more practicable or desirable; and in aid of the construction of thesis 2011 so much of its road and essay technique telegraph line as shall be a departure from the route hereinbefore provided for its road, such company shall be entitled to all the trailer 2011 benefits and be subject to all the conditions and essay writing restrictions of this act: Provided, further, however, That the bonds of the United States shall not be issued to bboy thesis trailer such company for a greater amount than is why is to steal hereinbefore provided, if the same had united with the Union Pacific railroad on the one-hundredth degree of longitude; nor shall such company be entitled to receive any greater amount of alternate sections of public lands than are also herein provided. SEC. 10 . And be it further enacted, That section five of said act be so modified and amended that the Union Pacific Railroad Company, the Central Pacific Railroad Company, and any other company authorized to participate in the construction of said road, may, on the completing of each section of said road, as provided in this act, and the act to which this act is an amendment, issue their first mortgage bonds on trailer their respective railroad and telegraph lines to an amount not exceeding the amount of the bonds of the United States, and of even tenor and date, time of maturity, rate and character of interest, with the japanese essay bonds authorized to be issued to said railroad companies respectively. And the lieu of the United States bonds shalt be subordinate to that of the bonds of any or either of said companies hereby authorized to bboy thesis 2011 be issued on their respective roads, property, and essay equipments, except as to the provisions of the sixth section of the act to which this act is an amendment, relating to the transmission of dispatches and the transportation of mails, troops, munitions of war, supplies, and public stores for the government of the United States.

And said section is thesis trailer further amended by striking out the word forty, and inserting in lieu thereof the words on each and every section of compare usa and canada essay not less than twenty. SEC. 11 . And be it further enacted, That if any of the railroad companies entitled to bonds of the United States, or to issue their first mortgage bonds herein provided for, has, at trailer 2011, the time of the approval of this act, issued or shall thereafter issue any of its own bonds or securities in such form and manner as in writing, law or equity to entitle the same to priority or preference of payment to the said guaranteed bonds, or said first mortgage bonds, the amount of such corporate bonds outstanding and unsatisfied or uncancelled shall be deducted from the amount of such government and first mortgage bonds which the thesis trailer 2011 company may be entitled to receive and issue; and why is essay such an amount only of such government bonds and such first mortgage bonds shall be granted or permitted as, added to bboy thesis trailer 2011 such outstanding, unsatisfied, or uncancelled bonds of the essay company, shall make up the whole amount per mile to which the company would otherwise have been entitled: And provided further, That before any bonds shall be so given by the United States, the company claiming them shall present to 2011 the Secretary of the paper part Treasury an affidavit of the president and secretary of the company, to be sworn to before the judge of a court of record, setting forth whether said company has issued any such bonds or securities, and, if so, particularly describing the same, and such other evidence as the Secretary may require, so as to enable him to make the deduction herein required; and bboy trailer 2011 such affidavit shall then be filed and deposited in the office of the Secretary of the Interior. English Writing! And my person swearing falsely to any such affidavit shall be deemed guilty of perjury, and on conviction thereof shall be punished as aforesaid: Provided, also, That no land granted by this act shall be conveyed to any party or parties, and no bonds shall be issued to any company or companies, party or parties, on account of any road or part thereof made prior to the passage of the act to which this act is an amendment, or made subsequent thereto under the provisions of any act or acts other than this act and the act amended by this act. SEC. 12 . And be it further enacted, That the Leavenworth, Pawnee and Western Railroad Company, now known as the Union Pacific Railroad Company, Eastern Division, shall build the railroad from the bboy thesis trailer 2011 mouth of Kansas river, by the way of Leavenworth, or, if that be not deemed the best route, then the said company shall, within two years, build a railroad from the city of Leavenworth to unite with the main stem at cover letter for international internship, or near the city of bboy thesis trailer 2011 Lawrence ; but to aid in the construction of letter for international internship said branch the said company shall not be entitled to bboy thesis any bonds. And if the Union Pacific Railroad Company shall not be proceeding in good faith to build the said railroad through the territories when the Leavenworth, Pawnee and Western Railroad Company, now known as the Union Pacific Railroad Company, Eastern Division shall have completed their road to the hundredth degree of longitude, then the last-named company may proceed to make said road westward until it meets and Connects with the Central Pacific Railroad Company on essays luther the same line. And the bboy said railroad from the mouth of the Kansas river to the one-hundredth meridian of longitude shall be made by the way of Lawrence and Topeka, or on the bank of the Kansas river opposite said towns: Provided, That no bonds shall be issued or land certified by the United States to any person or company, for the construction of canada essay any part of the bboy thesis main trunk line of said railroad west of the one-hundredth meridian of longitude and east of the usa and Rocky mountains, until said road shall be completed from or near Omaha, on the Missouri river, to the said one-hundredth meridian of longitude.

SEC. 13 . And be it further enacted, That at and after the next election of trailer directors, the number of directors to be elected by the stockholders shall be fifteen; and the number of directors to be appointed by the President shall be five; and the President shall appoint three ad ditional directors to serve until the next regular elec tion, and thereafter five directors. At least one of said government directors shall be placed on each of the and at least one on every special committee that may be appointed. The government directors, shall, from time to time, report to it wrong to steal essay the Secretary of the Interior, in answer to bboy thesis 2011 any inquiries be may make of them, touching the condition, management, and progress of the work, and shall communicate to the Secretary of the Interior, at any time, such information, as should be in essay writing, the possession of the Deparment. They shall, as often as may be necessary to a full knowledge of the condition and management of the line, visit all portions of the thesis 2011 line of road, whether built or surveyed; and why is it wrong to steal while absent from home, attending to their duties as directors, shall be paid their actual travelling expenses, and be allowed and paid such reasonable compensation for their time actually employed as the board of bboy thesis trailer 2011 directors may decide. SEC.

14 . And be it further enacted. That the next election for directors of said railroad shall be held on the first Wednesday of October’ next, at the office of said company in the city of New York, between the hours of ten o’clock a. m. and four o’clock p. m. of it wrong said day ; and all subsequent regular elections shall be held annually thereafter at the same place; and the directors shall hold their offices for one year, and until their successors are qualified. SEC. 15 . And be it further enacted, That the several companies authorized to bboy 2011 construct the aforesaid roads are hereby required to operate and use said roads and telegraph for all purposes of communication, travel, and transportation, so far as the public and the government are concerned, as one continuous line; and in such operation and use, to afford and secure to each equal advantages and facilities as to rates, time, and transportation, without any discrimination of any kind in favor of the road or business of any or either of said companies, or adverse to the road or business of any or either of the others; and it shall not be lawful for the proprietors of any line of telegraph authorized by this act, or the act amended by this act, to refuse or fail to convey for all persons requiring the transmission of writing technique news and messages of like character, on pain of forfeiting to the person injured, for trailer 2011 each offence, the sum of one hundred dollars, and such other damages as he may have suffered on account of said refusal or failure, to essays on dr martin luther king jr be sued for and recovered in any court of the United States, or of any state or territory of competent jurisdiction. SEC. 16 . And be it further enacted, That any two or more of the companies authorized to participate in the benefits- of this act are hereby authorized at any time to unite and consolidate their organizations, as the same may or shall be, upon such terms and conditions, and in such manner as they may agree upon, and as shall not be incompatible with this act, or the laws of the state or states in trailer 2011, which the roads of such companies may be, and to assume and adopt such corporate name and cover letter for international style as they may agree upon, with a capital stock not to exceed the actual cost of the roads so to be consolidated, and thesis trailer 2011 shall file a copy of japanese earthquake essay such consolidation in the Department of the Interior, and thereupon such organization so formed and consolidated shall succeed to, possess and be entitled to receive from the government of the United States all and singular the grants, benefits and immunities, guarantees, acts, and things to be done and performed, and be subject to the same terms, conditions, restrictions, and requirements which said companies respectively at the time of such consolidation are or may be entitled or subject to under this act in place and substitution of said companies so consolidated respectively. Bboy Thesis 2011! And all other provisions of this act, so far as applicable, relating or in paper research, any manner appertaining to bboy trailer the companies so consolidated, or either thereof, shall apply and be of earthquake and tsunami essay force as to such consolidated organization. Thesis 2011! And in case, upon the completion by. such consolidated organization of the roads or either of them of the companies so consolidated, any other of the road or roads of either of the other companies authorized as aforesaid (and forming, or intended, or necessary to form a portion of a continuous line from each of the several points on and tsunami essay the Missouri river hereinbefore designated to the Pacific coast) shall not have constructed the number of miles of its said road within the time herein required, such consolidated organization is thesis hereby authorized to continue the technique construction of its road and telegraph in the general direction and route upon which such incomplete or unconstructed road is hereinbefore authorized to be built, until such continuation of the road of such consolidated organization shall reach the constructed road and telegraph of said other company, and at such point unite and connect therewith; and for and in aid thereof the thesis 2011 said consolidated organization may do and perform, in reference to such portion of road and telegraph as shall so be in continuation of its constructed road and telegraph, and to the construction and equipment thereof, all and singular the several acts and earthquake and tsunami things hereinbefore provided, authorized, or granted to be done by the company hereinbefore authorized to construct and equip the same, and shall be entitled to similar and like grants, benefits, immunities, guarantees, acts, and things to be done and performed by the government of the thesis 2011 United States, by the President of the United States, by the Secretaries of the Treasury and Interior, and by commissioners, in reference to such company, and to such portion of the road hereinbefore authorized to it wrong essay be constructed by it, and upon the like and bboy trailer similar terms and conditions, so far as the letter for international development same are applicable thereto.

And said consolidated company shall pay to bboy trailer 2011 said defaulting company the value, to be estimated by competent engineers, of all the english essay technique work done and material furnished by said defaulting company, which may be adopted and used by said consolidated company in the progress of the work under the provisions of this section: Provided, nevertheless, That said defaulting company may at any time, before receiving pay for its said work and material, as hereinbefore provided on its own election, pay said con solidated company the value of the bboy thesis trailer 2011 work done and material furnished by said consolidated company, to be estimated by competent engineers, necessary for and used in essays on dr luther king, the construction of the road of said defaulting company, and resume the thesis trailer control of its said road; and all the rights, benefits, and privileges which shall be acquired, possessed, or exercised, pursuant to this section, shalt be to that extent an abatement of the rights, benefits, and privileges hereinbefore granted to such other company. And in case any company authorized thereto shall not enter into such consolidated organization, such company, upon conclusion part research, the completion of trailer 2011 its road, as hereinbefore provided, shall be entitled to and is hereby authorized to continue and extend the same, under the circumstances, and in accordance with the provisions of this section, and to have all the benefits thereof, as fully and for international development completely as are herein provided touching such consolidated organization. And in case more than one such consolidated organization shalt be made pursuant to bboy thesis this act, the terms and conditions of this act, hereinbefore recited as to one, shall apply in to steal, like manner, force, and effect to the other: Provided however, That rights and bboy thesis interests at any time acquired by one such consolidated organization shall not be inipaired by another thereof. It is part research further provided, that, should the Central Pacific Railroad Company of bboy 2011 California complete their line to the eastern line of the State of California before the line of the Union Pacific Railroad Company shall have been extended westward so as to english technique meet the line of said first named company, said first-named company may extend their line of road eastward one hundred and bboy trailer fifty miles on cover letter the established route, so as to thesis 2011 meet and connect with the line of the Union Pacific Railroad, complying in all respects with the provisions and restrictions of this act as to said Union Pacific road, and upon doing so shall enjoy all the rights, privileges, and benefits conferred by cover for international internship this act on said Union Pacific Railroad Company. SEC. 17 . And be it further enacted, That so much of section fourteen of said act as relates to trailer 2011 a branch from Sioux City be, and the same is cover letter for international hereby, amended to read as follows: That whenever a line of railroad shall be completed through the States of Iowa or Minnesota to Sioux City, such company now organized or as may hereafter be organized under the laws of Iowa, Minnesota, Dacota, or Nebraska, as the President of the United States, by its request, may designate or approve for that purpose, shall construct and operate a line of railroad and telegraph from Sioux City, upon the most direct and practicable route to such a point on, and so as to connect with, the Iowa branch of the trailer Union Pacific railroad from Omaha, or the letter for international internship Union Pacific railroad, as such company may select, and on the same terms and conditions as are provided in this act and the act to bboy 2011 which this is all amendment, for writing technique the construction of the said Union and Pacific railroad and telegraph line and branches; and said company shall complete the same at thesis 2011, the rate of fifty miles per year: Provided, That said Union Pacific Railroad Company shall be, and is hereby, released from the. Conclusion Paper! construction of said branch.

And said company constructing said branch shall Dot be entitled to receive in bonds an amount larger than the said Union Pacific Railroad Company would be entitled to receive if it had constructed the branch under this act and the act to which this is an amendment; but said company shall be entitled to receive alternate seetions of land for ten miles in width on each side of the same along the whole length of said branch: And provided further, That if a railroad be not completed to Sioux City, across Iowa or Minnesota, within eighteen months from the date of this act, then said company, designated bythe President as aforesaid, may commence, continue, and bboy thesis complete the construction of said branch, as contemplated by the provisions of this act: Provided, however, That if the internship said company so designated by the President as aforesaid, shall not complete the said branch from Sioux City to the Pacific railroad within tell years from the bboy thesis trailer passage of why is it wrong this act, then, and in that case, all of the railroad which shall have been constructed by said company shalt be forfeited to and become the property of the United States, SEC. 18 . And be it further enacted, That the Burlington and Missouri River Railroad Company, a corporation organized under and by virtue of the laws of the State of Iowa, be and trailer hereby is authorized to extend is [its] road through the Territory of usa and canada Nebraska from the point where it strike the Missouri river, south of the mouth of the Platte river, to sonic point not further west than the one-hundredth meridian of west longitude, so as to connect, by the most practicable route, with the main trunk of the Union Pacific railroad, or that part of it which run, from Omaha to the said one-hundredth meridian of west longitude. And, for bboy thesis 2011 the purpose of enabling said Burlington and Missouri River Railroad Company to construct that portion of their road herein authorized, the right-of-way through the essays on dr martin king public lands is bboy trailer 2011 granted to said [c]ompany for canada essay the construction of said road. And the bboy trailer right, power, and authority is hereby given to said company to take from the public lands adjacent to the line of said road, earth, stone, timber, and other materials for the construction thereof. Said right-of-way is granted to writing said company to the extent of two hundred feet where it may pass over the public lands, including all necessary grounds for stations, buildings, workshops, depots, machine-shops, switches, side-tracks, turn-tables, and water-stations. And the United States shall extinguish, as rapidly as may be consistent with public policy and the welfare of the said Indians, the thesis Indian titles to usa and canada all lands falling under the operation of this section and required for the said right-of-way and grant of land herein made. SEC. 19 . And be it further enacted, That for the purpose of aiding in the construction of said road, there be and hereby is granted to the said Burlington and Missouri River Railroad Company, every alternate section of public land (excepting mineral lands as provided in this act) designated by odd numbers, to thesis trailer 2011 the amount of ten alternate sections per mile on each side of said road, on the line thereof and not sold, reserved, or otherwise disposed of by the United States, and to which a preemption or homestead claim may not have attached at the time the line of said road is definitely fixed: Provided, [That] said company shall accept this grant within one year from the passage of this act, by filing such acceptance with the on dr martin luther Secretary of the Interior; and shall also establish the line of said road, and file a map thereof with the Secretary of the Interior within one year of the date of said acceptance, when the bboy trailer said Secretary shall withdraw the lands embraced in this grant from market. SEC. 20 . And be it further enacted, That whenever said Burlington and Missouri River Railroad Company shall have completed twenty consecutive miles of the road mentioned in the foregoing section, in the manner provided for other roads mentioned in this act, and the act to which this is an amendment, the President of the United States shall appoint three commissioners to examine and report to him in relation thereto; and if it shall appear to him that twenty miles of said road have been completed as required by this act, then, upon paper part, certificate of said commissioner[s] to that effect, patents shall issue conveying the thesis trailer 2011 right and title to said lands to said company on each side of said road, as far as the same is completed, to the amount aforesaid; and such examination, report, and earthquake conveyance, by patents, shall continue from time to time, in like manner, until said road shall have been completed.

And the President shall appoint said commissioners, [and] fill vacancies in said commission, as provided in relation to other roads mentioned in the act to which this is an bboy trailer, amendment. And the said company shall be entitled to all the privileges and immunities granted to the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad Company by the said last-mentioned act, so far as the conclusion research same may be applicable: Provided, That no government bonds shall be issued to the said Burlington and Missouri River Railroad Company to aid in the construction of said extension of its road: And provided further, That said extension shall be completed within the period of ten years from the passage of this act. SEC. 21 . And be it further enacted, That before any land granted by this act shall be conveyed to any company or party entitled thereto under this act, there shall first be paid into the treasury of the United States the cost of surveying, selecting and conveying the same by the said company or party in bboy trailer, interest as the titles shall be required by said company, which amount shall, without any further appropriation, stand to the credit of the proper account, to be used by the Commissioner of the General Land Office, for the prosecution of the survey of the public lands along the line of said roads, and so from year to year, until the whole shall be completed, as provided under the provisions of this act. SEC. 22 . Essays Luther King Jr! And be it further enacted, That Congress may at any time alter, amend, or repeal this act. Approved July 2, 1864. ACT OF MARCH 3, 1865. [13 Statutes at Large, 504.] AN ACT to amend an act entitled An act to aid in trailer, the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river to essays on dr the Pacific ocean, and to secure to trailer the government the part use of the same for postal, military, and other purposes, approved July 1st, eighteen hundred and sixty-two, and to amend an act amendatory thereof, approved July second, eighteen hundred and sixty-four.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That section ten of said act of July second, eighteen hundred and sixty-four, be so modified and amended as to allow the Central Pacific Railroad Company and the Western Pacific Railroad Company, of thesis California, the usa and canada Union Pacific Railroad Company, the Union Pacific Railroad Company, Eastern Division, and all other companies as provided for in the trailer 2011 said act of the second July, eighteen hundred and sixty-four, to issue their six per centum thirty years’ bonds, interest payable in any lawful money of the United States, upon their separate roads. And the said companies are hereby authorized to issue, respectively, their bonds to the extent of one hundred miles in advance of a continuous completed line of construction. SEC. 2 . And be it further enacted, That the assignment made by the Central Pacific Railroad Company of California, to the Western Pacific Railroad Company of said state, of the right to essay construct all that portion of said railroad and telegraph from the 2011 city of San José to conclusion the city of Sacramento is hereby ratified and confirmed to the said Western Pacific Railroad Company, with all the privileges and benefits of the several acts of Congress relating thereto, and subject to all the conditions thereof : Provided, That the time within which the said Western Pacific Railroad Company shall be required to construct the first twenty miles of their said road, shall be one year from the first day of bboy thesis trailer 2011 July, eighteen hundred and sixty-five, and that the entire road shall be completed from San José to Sacramento, connecting at the latter point with the said Central Pacific railroad within four years thereafter. Approved March 3, 1865. ACT OF JUNE 15, 1866. [14 Statutes at english technique, Large, 66.] AN ACT to facilitate commercial, postal, and military communication among the several states.

WHEREAS, The Constitution of the United States confers upon Congress, in express terms, the power to regulate commerce among the several states, to establish post-roads, and to raise and support armies: Therefore, Be it enacted by the Senate and thesis trailer 2011 House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That any railroad company in the United States, whose road is operated by steam, its Successors and assigns, be, and is hereby, authorized to carry upon and over letter for international development its road, boats, bridges, and ferries, all passengers, troops, government supplies, mails, freight, and thesis trailer 2011 property, on their way from any state to another state, and to receive compensation therefor, and to connect with reads of other states so as to why is form continuous lines for the transportation of the same to bboy thesis 2011 the place of destination: Provided, That this act shall not affect any stipulation between the government of the United States and any railroad company for transportation or fares without compensation, nor impair or change the conditions imposed by the terms of any act -ranting lands to usa and canada essay any such company to aid in the construction of its road, nor shall it be construed to authorize any railroad company to thesis 2011 build any new road or connection with any other road without authority from the state in which said railroad or connection may be proposed. SEC. 2. And be it further enacted, That Congress may at martin king jr, any time alter, amend, or repeal this act. Approved June 15, 1866. [Inserted because of its application to inter-state commerce, and not on account of any special reference to thesis trailer 2011 Kansas Pacific railway.] JOINT RESOLUTION OF MAY 7, 1866. [14 Statutes at Large, 355.]

A RESOLUTION extending the time for earthquake the completion of the Union Pacific railway, eastern division. Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of thesis trailer America in Congress assembled, That the time for the completion of the first one hundred miles of railroad and telegraph line by the Leavenworth, Pawnee and Western Railroad Company, (since called the Union Pacific Railroad Company, Eastern Division,) mentioned in the tenth section of the charter of the for international Union Pacific Railroad Company, of July first, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-two, and in the fifth section of the bboy trailer 2011 amendment thereof, of July second, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-four, be, and the same is hereby, extended until the twenty-seventh day of June, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-six; and that the time for completing each succeeding section of canada essay one hundred miles shall be reckoned from the said twenty-seventh day of June in said year. SEC. 2. And be it further resolved, That the time for thesis trailer 2011 commencing and cover letter for international development internship completing the Northern Pacific railroad, and all its several sections, is bboy trailer 2011 extended for the term of two years. Approved May 7, 1866. ACT OF JULY 3, 1866.

[14 Statutes at Large, 79.] AN ACT to amend an act entitled An act to amend ‘An act entititled an act to on dr luther king aid in the construction of bboy thesis 2011 a railroad and english essay telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to thesis secure to the government the use of the same for postal, military, and other purposes,’ approved July 1, 1862, approved July 2, 1864. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That that the Union Pacific Railway Company, Eastern Division, is hereby authorized to conclusion paper research designate the general, route of their railroad, and to file a map thereof, as now required by law, at any time before the first day of bboy thesis trailer 2011 December, eighteen hundred and sixty-six; and upon conclusion part, the filing of the said map, showing the bboy thesis trailer general route of said road, the lands along the usa and entire line thereof, so far as the same may be designated, shall be reserved from sale by order of the Secretary of the Interior: Provided, That said company shall be entitled to only the same amount of the bboy trailer 2011 bonds of the United States to aid in the construction of their line of railroad and telegraph as they would have been entitled to if they had connected their said line with the Union Pacific railroad on the one-hundreth degree of longitude as now required by law: And provided further, That said company shall connect their line of railroad and telegraph with the conclusion research Union Pacific railroad, but not at trailer 2011, a point more than fifty miles westwardly from the meridian of Denver, in Colorado. SEC. 2 . And be it further enacted, That the Union Pacific Railroad Company, with the it wrong to steal essay consent and approval of the Secretary of the Interior, are hereby authorized to locate, construct, and continue their road from Omaha, in Nebraska Territory, westward, according to the best and most practicable route, and thesis trailer without reference to the initial point on the one-hundredth meridian of west longitude, as now provided by law, in a continuous completed line, until they shall meet and connect with the Central Pacific Railroad Company of California; and the Central Pacific Railroad Company of California, with the consent and approval of the Secretary of the Interior, are hereby authorized to locate, construct, and continue their road eastward, in why is it wrong to steal, a continuous completed line, until they shall meet and connect with the Union Pacific railroad: Provided, That each of the above-named companies shall have the right, when the nature of the work to be done, by reason of deep cuts and tunnels , shall for the expeditious construction of the Pacific railroad requIre it, to work for an extent of bboy thesis trailer not to exceed three hundred miles in advance of their continuous completed lines. Approved July 3, 1866. ACT OF JULY 25, 1866.

[14 Statutes at Large, 241.] AN ACT granting lands to aid in the construction of earthquake and tsunami a railroad and telegraph line from the Central Pacific railroad, in trailer, California, to Portland, in Oregon. SECTION 7 . And be it further enacted, That the said companies named in this act are hereby required to operate and use the portions or parts of essay said railroad and telegraph mentioned in section one of this act for bboy 2011 all purposes of on dr martin luther jr transportation, travel, and communication, so far as the government and public are concerned, as one connected and 2011 continuous line; and in why is to steal essay, such operation and use to afford and secure to each other equal advantages and facilities as to rates, time, and transportation, without any discrimination whatever, on thesis trailer 2011 pain of english writing forfeiting the full amount of damages sustained on account of such discrimination, to be sued for and recovered in bboy thesis 2011, any court of the United States, or of any state, of competent jurisdiction. Approved July 25, 1866. [Introduced to show the care taken by Congress to it wrong to steal secure fair and equal treatment of thesis 2011 each other, by the railroads mentioned in the act.] JOINT RESOLUTION, JULY 26, 18[6]6. [14 Statutes at Large, 367.] A RESOLUTION granting the right-of-way through military reserves to the Union Pacific Railroad Company and its branches. Resolved by on dr martin luther king the Senate and House of bboy thesis trailer 2011 Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That, subject to approval by luther the President, the right-of-way, one hundred feet in width, is hereby granted to the Union Pacific Railroad Company and the companies constructing the branch roads connecting therewith, for the construction and operation of their roads over and upon all military reserves tbrough which the same may pass; and the President is hereby authorized to set apart to the Union Pacific Railway Company, Eastern Division, twenty acres of the bboy Fort Riley military reservation, for depot and other purposes, in the bottom opposite Riley City; also, fractional section one on japanese essay the west side of said reservation, near Junction City, for the same purposes; and also to thesis restore, from time to time, to the public domain, any portion of said military reserve over which the Union Pacific railroad, or any of its branches, may pass, and which may not be required for military purposes: Provided, That the President shall not permit the location of any such railroad, or the diminution of any such reserve in any manner so as to impair its useful ness for military purposes, so Ion as it shall be required therefor. Approved, July 26, 1866.

[15 Statutes at Large, p. 39.] AN ACT restoring lands to market along the line of the technique Pacific railroad and bboy thesis trailer branches. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That nothing in the act approved July 1st, eighteen hundred and paper research sixty-two, entitled An act to aid in the construction of railroad and telegraph line from the bboy 2011 Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the use of the english technique same for postal, military, and other purposes, and the act:, amendatory thereof, shall be held to authorize the withdrawal or exclusion from bboy 2011, settlement and entry, under the provisions of the pre-emption or home stead laws, the even-numbered sections, along the routes of the several roads therein mentioned which have been or may be hereafter located: Provided, That such sections shall be rated at two dollars and fifty cents per acre and subject only to entry under those laws ; and part the Secretary of the Interior be, and is hereby, authorized and directed to restore to homestead settlement, pre-emption or entry, according to existing laws, all the even numbered sections of land belonging to trailer 2011 the government, and now withdrawn from market, on both sides of the Pacific railroad and branches, wherever said road and branches have been definitely located. Approved March 6, 1868. [15 Statutes at Large, p. 79.] AN ACT relative to filing reports of railroad companies. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in conclusion part, Congress assembled, That the reports required to be made to the Secretary of the Treasury on or before the first day of bboy trailer 2011 July of each year, by and tsunami essay the corporations created by or entitled to subsidies under the provisions of an act entitled An act to aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to bboy trailer the government the use of the essays on dr martin luther king same for postal, military, and bboy 2011 other purposes, approved July first, eigheen hundred and sixty-two, and the acts supplemental to and amendatory thereof, shall hereafter be made to the Secretary of the Interior, on english or before the first day of October of each year. Said reports shall give full and specific information upon the several points mentioned in the twentieth section of the said act of eighteen hundred and sixty-two, and shall be verified as therein prescribed, and on failure to make the same as herein required, the issue of bonds or patents to the company in default shall be suspended until the requirements of this act shall be complied with by such company.

And the bboy trailer reports hitherto made to japanese earthquake essay the Secretary of the Treasury under the said act of July first, eighteen hundred and sixty-two, shall be transferred and delivered by him to trailer 2011 the Secretary of the Interior to be filed by english writing him. SEC. 2 . And be it further enacted, That the corporations created by the provisions of the acts of thesis trailer 2011 Congress approved July second, eighteen hundred and sixty-four, and July twenty-seventh, eighteen hundred and sixty-six, and known as the Northern Pacific Railroad Company, the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad Company, and the Southern Pacific Railroad Company, shall make reports to the Secretary of the conclusion part research Interior on or before the first day of October of each year, are required to be made by the Union Pacific Railroad and branches, under the thesis trailer 2011 provisions of the first section of this act, and on failure so to do shall be subject to the like suspension. SEC. Japanese Essay! 3. And be it further enacted, That the reports required from the commissioner appointed to examine and thesis trailer report in relation to the road of japanese and tsunami essay any of the thesis 2011 corporations, whereto reference is made in conclusion part, this act, shall be addressed to and filed in the Department of the Interior; and all such reports, heretofore made, shall be transferred to and filed in said Department of the Interior; and so much of any and bboy thesis trailer 2011 all acts as requires any reports from such companies, or any officers thereof, to be made to the Secretary of the Treasury, is hereby repealed. SEC. 4. And be it further enacted, That, in addition to the eight subjects referred to in section twenty of the act of why is to steal essay July, eighteen hundred and sixty-two, to be reported upon, there shall also be furnished, annually, to the Secretary of the Interior, all reports of engineers, superintendents, or other officers who make annual reports to any of said railroad companies. Approved June 25, 1868. AN ACT to authorize the transfer of lands granted to the Union Pacific Railroad Company, Eastern Division, between Denver and the point of its junction with the Union Pacific railroad, to the Denver Pacific Railway and Telegraph Company, and to bboy thesis 2011 expedite the completion of railroads to Denver, in the Territory of Colorado. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the to steal essay United States of America in bboy thesis trailer 2011, Congress assembled, That the Union Pacific Railway Company, Eastern Division, be, and it hereby is, authorized to contract with the Denver Pacific Railway and Telegraph Company, a corporation existing under the laws of the Territory of Colorado, for the construction, operation, and maintenance of that part of its line of railroad and telegraph between Denver City and usa and canada essay its point of connection with the Union Pacific railroad, which point shall be at Cheyenne, and to adopt the road-bed already graded by the said Denver Pacific Railway and Telegraph Company as said line, and to grant to said Denver Pacific Railway and Telegraph Company the perpetual use of its right-of-way and depot- grounds, and to transfer to it all the bboy thesis trailer rights and privileges, subject to all the english writing obligations pertaining to said part of bboy thesis 2011 its line. SEC.

2. And be it further enacted, That the said Union Pacific Railway Company, Eastern Division, shall extend its railroad and telegraph to a connection at the city of Denver, so as to form, with that part of cover letter for international development its line herein authorized to be constructed, operated, and maintained by the Denver Pacific Railway and Telegraph Company, a continuous line of railroad and telegraph from bboy thesis trailer 2011, Kansas City, by way of Denver, to Cheyenne. And all the provisions of law for the operation of the Union Pacific railroad, its branches and connections, as a continuous line, without discrimination, shall apply the same as if the road from Denver to Cheyenne had been constructed by the said Union Pacific Railway Company, Eastern Division; but nothing herein shall authorize the said Eastern Division Company to conclusion part operate the road or fix the rates of tariff for the Denver Pacific Railway and Telegraph Company. SEC. Trailer 2011! 3. And be it further enacted, That said companies are hereby authorized to mortgage their respective portions of and tsunami said road, as herein defined, for an amount not exceeding thirty-two thousand dollars per mile, to bboy trailer 2011 enable them respectively to borrow money to construct the essay writing same; and that each of said companies shall receive patents to the alternate sections of bboy thesis land along their respective lines of road, as herein defined, in like manner and within the same limits as is provided by law in why is, the case of lands granted to the Union Pacific Railway Company. Eastern Division: Provided, That neither of the companies hereinbefore mentioned shall be entitled to subsidy in thesis trailer 2011, United, States bonds, under the provisions of this act. Approved March 3,1869. JOINT RESOLUTION MARCH 3, 1869. [15 Statutes at Large, p. Cover Letter For International Development Internship! 348.] JOINT RESOLUTION authorizing the Union Pacific Railway Company, Eastern Division, to change its name to the Kansas Pacific Railway Company. Be it resolved by the Senate and trailer House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the Union Pacific Railway Company, Eastern Division, is why is hereby authorized by thesis resolution of its board of directors, which shall be filed in the office of the Secretary of the Interior, to change its name to the Kansas Pacific Railway Company. Approved March 3, 1869.

JOINT RESOLUTION OF 1869. [16 Statutes at Large, p. 56-7.] JOINT RESOLUTION for the protection of the interests of the United States in the Union Pacific Railroad Company, the Central Pacific Railroad Company, and for other purposes. Be it resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the stockholders of the Union Pacific Railroad Company, at a meeting to be bold on japanese the twenty-second day of April, eighteen hundred and sixty-nine, at the city of Boston, (with power to adjourn from bboy, day to day,) shall elect a board of directors for the ensuing year; and said stockholders are hereby authorized to essays on dr martin king establish their general office at such place in the United States as they may select at said meeting: Provided, That the passage of this resolution shall not confer any other right upon said Union Pacific Railroad Company than to hold such election, or to thesis trailer 2011 be held in any manner to usa and canada essay relinquish or waive any rights of the bboy trailer United States to take advantage of any act or neglect of said Union Pacific Railroad Company heretofore done or omitted, whereby the rights of the general government have been or may be prejudiced: And provided further, That the common terminus of the Union Pacific and the Central Pacific railroads shall be at or near Ogden; and the Union Pacific Railroad Company shall build, and the Central Pacific Railroad Company pay for and own the railroad from the terminus aforesaid to Promontory Summit, at which point the rails shall meet and connect and form one continuous line. SEC. 2 . And be it further resolved, That, to ascertain the letter development condition of the Union Pacific railroad and bboy thesis trailer 2011 the Central Pacific railroad, the President of the United States is authorized to appoint a board of eminent citizens, not exceeding five in number, and cover for international development who shall not be interested in thesis 2011, either road, to examine and report upon usa and canada essay, the condition of, and what sum or sums, if any, will be required to complete each of thesis trailer said roads, for the entire length thereof, to the said terminus as a first-class railroad in usa and canada, compliance with the several acts relating to said roads; and the expense of such board, including an allowance of ten dollars to each for their services for each day employed in such examination or report, to be paid equally by said companies. SEC. 3 . And be it further resolved, That the trailer President is hereby authorized and required to withhold from why is it wrong, each of said companies an amount of subsidy bonds authorized to be issued by the United States, under said acts sufficient to secure the full completion as a first-class road of all sections of thesis trailer 2011 such road upon which bonds have already been issued, or in lien of such bonds he may receive as such security an and tsunami, equal amount of the first-mortgage bonds of such company ; and if it shall appear to the President that the amount of subsidy bond yet to bboy trailer be issued to either of said companies is insufficient to insure the full completion of conclusion paper part such road, he may make requisition upon such company for a sufficient amount of bonds already issued to said company, or in his discretion of their first-mortgage bonds, to secure the full completion of the same. And in bboy trailer, default of obtaining such security as [is] in this section provided, the President may authorize and direct the and tsunami Attorney-General to institute such suits and proceedings on behalf and in the name of the United States in any court of the United States having jurisdiction, as shall be necessary or proper to compel the giving of such security, and trailer 2011 thereby, or in any manner otherwise, to protect the interests of the United States in said road and to insure the full completion thereof as a first-class road, as required by compare usa and canada essay law and the statutes in that case made. SEC. 4 . 2011! And be it further resolved, That the japanese earthquake Attorney-General of the United States be, and he is hereby, authorized and directed to investigate whether or not the charter and all the franchises of the Union Pacific Railroad Company and bboy trailer 2011 of the Central Pacific Railroad Company have not been forfeited, and to institute all necessary and paper proper legal proceedings; also to investigate whether or not said companies have or have not made any illegal dividends upon their stock, and if so, to institute the necessary proceedings to have the same reimbursed; and also to investigate whether any of the directors or any other agents or employees of said companies have or have not violated any penal law, and if so, to institute the bboy thesis 2011 proper criminal proceedings against all persons who have violated such laws.

Approved April 10, 1869. [16 Statutes at Large, p. 121-2.] AN ACT to fix the point of junction of the Union Pacific Railroad Company and the Central Pacific Railroad Company. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the common terminus and point of junction of the Union Pacific Railroad Company and the Central Pacific Railroad Company shall be definitely fixed and established on the line of railroad as now located and constructed, northwest of the station at Ogden, and within the limits of the sections of land hereinafter mentioned, viz., section thirty-six of township seven, of range two, situate north and west of the principal meridian and base line in the Territory of Utah, and sections twenty-five, twenty-six and essays on dr luther thirty-five of township seven, of range two, and section six of township six, and sections thirty and thirty-one of township seven, of bboy thesis range One, and japanese earthquake sections one and two of township six, of range two, all situate north and west of said principal meridian and base line; and said companies are hereby authorized to enter upon, use, and possess said sections, which are hereby granted to them in equal shares, with the same rights, privileges, and obligations now by law provided with reference to other lands granted to thesis trailer said railroads: Provided, however, That the letter development internship Secretary of the Interior shall designate a section of land in said township seven, of range two, belonging to said companies, and reserve the same for bboy 2011 the benefit of schools in said territory, in accordance with the act of February twenty-one, eighteen hundred and fifty-five, establishing the office of surveyor-general of Utah, and to grant land for school and university purposes: Provided, also, That said companies shall pay for any additional lands acquired by this act, at the rate of two dollars and japanese earthquake fifty cents an acre: And provided further, That no rights of private persons shall be affected by this act. Approved May 6, 1870. [16 Statutes at Large, p. 515.] AN ACT making appropriations for the support of the army for the year ending June thirty, eighteen hundred and seventy-two, and for other purposes. SEC.

9. That in accordance with the fifth section of the thesis trailer 2011 act approved July two, eighteen hundred and sixty-four, entitled An act to amend an act entitled ‘An act to aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the government the use of the english writing same for postal, military, and bboy thesis trailer other purposes,’ approved July first, eighteen hundred and six-two, the Secretary of the Treasury is hereby directed to pay over in money to the Pacific Railroad Companies ment[i]oned in essay, said act, and performing services for the United States, one-half of the compensation at bboy trailer, the rate provided by earthquake law for such services heretofore or hereafter rendered: Provided, That this section shall not be construed to affect the legal rights of the government in the obligations of the companies,except as herein specifically provided. Approved March 3,1871. [17 Statutes at Large, p. 508.] AN ACT making appropriations for the legislative, executive, and judicial expenses of the government for the year ending June 30, 1874, and for other purposes. SEC. 2. That the Secretary of the Treasury is directed to withhold all payments to bboy thesis trailer 2011 any railroad company and its assigns, on account of freights or transportation over their respective roads, of any kind, to the amount of payments made by the United States for interest upon bonds of the United States issued to any such company, and letter development which shall not have been reimbursed, together with the five per cent. of net earnings due and unapplied, as provided by law; and any such company may bring suit in the Court of Claims to recover the price of such freight and transportation ; and in such suit the right of such company to recover the same upon the law and the facts of the bboy thesis case shall be determined, and compare usa and also the rights of the United States, upon the merits of all the points presented by it in answer thereto by them, and either party to such suit may appeal to the Supreme Court; and both said courts shall give such cause or causes precedence of all other business. SEC.

4. That the bboy 2011 Attorney-General shall cause a suit in equity to be instituted in the name of the United States against the Union Pacific Railroad Company and against all persons who may, in their own names, or through any agents, have subscribed for or have received capital stock in said road, which stock has not been paid for in full in money, or who may have received, as dividends, or otherwise, portions of the capital stock of said road, or the proceeds or avails thereof, or other property of said road, unlawfully and contrary to equity, or who may have received as profits or proceeds of contracts for construction or equipment of said road, or other contracts therewith, moneys or other property, which ought in equity to english essay belong to said railroad corporation, or who may, under pretence of having complied with the acts to which this is an bboy trailer 2011, addition, have wrongfully and unlawfully received from the United States bonds, moneys, or lands, which ought, in equity, to be accounted for and paid to said railroad company or to the United States, and to compel payment for said stock and the collection and payment of why is it wrong essay such moneys, and the restoration of such property or its value, either to said railroad corporation or to trailer 2011 the United States, whichever shall in equity be held entitled thereto. Japanese Earthquake And Tsunami! Said suit may be brought in the circuit court in any circuit, and all said parties may be made defendants in one suit. Decrees may be entered and enforced against any one or more parties defendant without awaiting the thesis final determination of the cause against other parties. The court where said cause is pending may make such orders and decrees and issue such process as it shall deem necessary to bring in new parties, or the representatives of parties deceased, or to carry into effect the purposes of this act. On filing the bill writs of subpoena may be issued by said court against any parties defendant, which writ shall run into any district, and shall be served, as other like process, by the marshal of such district.

The books, records, correspondence, and all other documents Of the Union Pacific Railroad Company, shall at all times be open to inspection by the Secretary of the Treasury, or such persons as he may designate for why is it wrong essay that purpose. The laws of the United States providing for proceedings in bankruptcy shall not be held to apply to said corporation. No dividend shall hereafter be made by such company, but from the actual net-earnings thereof; and no new stock shall be issued, or mortgages or pledges made on the property or future earnings of the company without leave of Congress, except for the purpose of bboy thesis trailer funding and essays on dr luther securing debt now existing, or the renewals thereof. No director or officer of said road shall hereafter be interested, directly or indirectly, in bboy thesis, any contract therewith, except for his lawful compensation as such officer. Any director or officer who shall pay or declare, or aid in why is it wrong to steal, paving or declaring, any dividend, or creating any mortgage or pledge prohibited by bboy thesis trailer 2011 this act, shall be punished by imprisonment not exceeding two years, and by fine not exceeding five thousand dollars. The proper circuit court of the United States shall have jurisdiction to bear and determine all cases of mandamus to compel said Union Pacific Railroad Company to operate its road as required by usa and law. Approved March 3, 1873. [18 Statutes at Large, p. 111-12.]

AN ACT making additions to the fifteenth section of the act approved July 2, 1864 , entitled An act to amend an thesis trailer 2011, act entitled ‘An act to aid in the construction of a railroad and telegrapb line from the english essay technique Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the government the use of the same for bboy postal, military, and other purposes,’ approved July 1, 1862. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of canada essay Representatives of the United States of America in bboy 2011, Congress assembled, That there shall be, and is hereby, added to the fifteenth section of the act approved July second, eighteen hundred and sixty-four, entitled An act to amend an act entitled ‘An act to aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the ‘government the use of the same for postal, military, and other purposes,’ approved July first, eighteen hundred and sixty-two, the follow ing words, namely: And any officer or agent of the companies authorized to it wrong to steal essay construct the aforesaid roads, or of bboy thesis trailer 2011 any company engaged in operating either of said roads, who shall refuse to operate and use the road and telegraph under his control, in which he is engaged in operating for why is it wrong all purposes of communication, travel, and transportation, so far as the public and the govern ment are concerned, as one continuous line, or shall refuse, in such operation and use, to afford and trailer secure to each of said roads equal advantages and facilities as to rates, time, or transportation, without any discrimination of any kind in favor of, or adverse to, the road or business of any or either of said companies, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon paper, conviction thereof, shall be fined in any sum not exceeding one thousand dollars, and may be imprisoned not less than six months. In case of failure or refusal of the Union Pacific Railroad Company, or either of said branches, to comply with the requirements of this act and the acts to which this act is amendatory, the party injured, or the company aggrieved may bring an action in the district or circuit court of the United States in the territory, district, or circuit in which any portion of the thesis road of the paper part research defendant may be situated, for damages on account of such failure or refusal; and, upon recovery, the plaintiff shall be entitled to judgment for treble the amount of all excess of freight and fares collected by the defendant, and for treble the amount of damages sustained by the plaintiff by such failure or refusal; and for each and every violation of or failure to comply with the requirements of this act, a new cause of action shall arise; and in case of suit in any such territory, district, or circuit, process may be served upon any agent of the defendant found in the territory, district, or circuit in thesis trailer 2011, which said suit may be brought, and such service shall be by earthquake and tsunami the court held to be good and bboy sufficient; and it is hereby provided that for all the purposes of said act, and english essay technique of the acts amendatory thereof, the railway of the Denver Pacific Railway and Telegraph Company shall be deemed and taken to be a part and extension of the trailer 2011 road of the Kansas Pacific railroad, to the point of junction thereof with the earthquake and tsunami essay road of the Union Pacific Railroad Company at 2011, Cheyenne, as provided in paper research, the act of March third, eighteen hundred and sixty-nine. Approved June 20, 1874. [18 U. S. Bboy Thesis Trailer! Statutes at Large, p. And Tsunami Essay! 200.] AN ACT providing for the collection of moneys due the United States from the Pacific railroad companies. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, That the Secretary of the bboy thesis trailer 2011 Treasury be, and hereby is, directed to require payment of the railroad companies, their successors and cover assigns, or the successors or assigns of 2011 any or either of said companies, all sums of money due or to become due the United States for the five per centum of the net earnings provided for by the english essay act entitled An act to aid in the construction of a rail road and telegraph line from. the Missouri river to bboy thesis trailer 2011 the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the government the conclusion part research use of the same for postal, military, and other purposes, approved July first, eighteen hundred and sixty-two, or by any other act or acts in relation to the companies therein named, or any other such company or companies; and in case either of said railroad companies shall neglect or refuse to pay the same within sixty days after demand therefor made upon the treasurer of such railroad company, the Secretary of the Treasury. Bboy Trailer! shall certify that fact to the Attorney-General, who shall thereupon institute the necessary suits and proceedings to collect and otherwise obtain redress in respect of the same in the proper circuit courts of the United States, and prosecute the same, with all convenient despatch, to a final determination.

Approved June 22, 1874. NOTE: in the original appear within the text above in blue boldface type enclosed in . Courtesy CPRR.org Collection. Use of this Web site constitutes acceptance of the User Agreement ;

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Flags of Our Fathers Essay Questions. Discuss the role that mothers play for the six flag raisers. Mothers are a theme that links all men in battle: in his comparison of the Japanese, German, and American troops, Bradley points out that they are connected by their dying word, which is thesis trailer invariably, Mother! In the case of the six flag raisers, mothers are also important as religious influences. After the death of her young daughter Mary Ellen, Kathryn Bradley concentrates on raising John devoutly Catholic; Mike Strank's Catholic faith is also the result of his mother's influence. Goldie Sousley and japanese and tsunami her son, Franklin, are extremely close after the deaths of his brother and father. Belle Block strongly opposes Harlon's joining the football team, but her influence on 2011, him in terms of his Seventh-Day Adventist beliefs is clear. Ira Hayes learned what he knew about the Bible from his mother, Nancy, who also made sure he got a good education.

Likewise, Rene Gagnon's mother is the most important person in conclusion paper part research, his life until he marries Pauline Harnois. After she divorces his father, Irene Gagnon takes Rene to work with her and showers him with attention. Belle Block's role as a mother is especially important. When the thesis trailer, 5th Division makes National Service Life Insurance policies available to the Marines, Harlon purchases a ten-thousand-dollar policy with his mother, Belle, as the sole beneficiary. Belle Block is convinced that her son, Harlon, is one of the men in the famous flag-raising photograph, though everyone else thinks it is impossible to be sure. After she learns of Harlon's death on Iwo Jima, something in her had been broken. Are the six flag raisers religious? How is religion used to characterize them?

As the flag raisers are introduced in Chapter 2, it is why is essay clear how religion influences each of the flag raisers in their childhoods. John Bradley and bboy thesis 2011 Mike Strank are devout Catholics. Letter For International? Harlon Block is more influenced by the Seventh-Day Adventist Church than his other siblings are, though he leaves his religious school to bboy trailer, play football at Welasco High School. Ira Hayes lived just a few steps from the church in which his mother was an important figure. Letter writing demonstrates the role religion played in the lives of the to steal, flag raisers. In Chapter 4, a letter from Ira Hayes to his parents mentions a sermon Alcohol versus Christianity and how it touched him. When Harlon Block enlisted with his entire football team, Belle Block pleaded with her son to claim conscientious objection as a Seventh-Day Adventist to avoid battle, like his brothers had.

Bradley focuses on Harlon's religion when he points out that, after Harlon landed on Bougainville, Harlon, the Seventh-Day Adventist, was getting his first glimpse of the bboy 2011, world's wickedness as he trudged past these remains of friends and enemy dead. After getting married, John and Betty Bradley get in the habit of praying together before bed, and Betty notices that Jack adds on, Blessed Mother, please help us so everything turns out all right, a prayer he had often said on Iwo Jima. How does James Bradley characterize Ira Hayes as both an innocent boy and a man? The tension between boyhood and on dr king manhood is a constant theme in thesis trailer 2011, this book, especially with relation to Ira. Letter Internship? A letter from bboy thesis 2011, Ira Hayes to his parents from training in San Diego is used to show that his boyish innocence did not vanish overnight. When he returns home on furlough after fighting in paper research, Bougainville, the slim, quiet boy had been transformed into a very formidable-looking young man. his words were typically thoughtful and gentle, but they were no longer the words of a boy. A man was talking now, a man who had seen things. In Chapter 5, Ira writes home to his parents, Don't worry about thesis 2011, me.

I'm a man now, no young guy. However, according to anecdotes from those who trained with him at this time, his behavior was erratic and he was often depressed. The theme of the tension between boyhood and manhood reappears in the opening sentence of Chapter 18: They were no longer boys now; they were postwar men. Usa And Canada? This line implies that the thesis, flag raisers now have assumed a level of responsibility for japanese essay their lives that they didn't have before. Ira Hayes is offered help (whatever the motivation) from the Chicago Sun-Times and from Elizabeth Martin, but is unable to pull his life together. Bboy Thesis Trailer 2011? In a letter home to his parents, he writes, So I was cured in their eyes. They had done their part. Now the real test is up to me. Writing Technique? all I need is the will power. Does James Bradley believe that the six flag raisers are heroes?

At the end of the book, Bradley admits that after researching their lives, the six flag raisers seem like heroes to him, if not for their role in raising the flag on Mount Suribachi. However, he adheres to his father's insistence that, The heroes of Iwo Jima are the guys who didn't come back. Heroism is a theme that is often misunderstood or misrepresented by the media, in Bradley's opinion. One of the bboy trailer 2011, main reasons Jack Bradley refuses to talk about his experiences on Iwo Jima, according to James Bradley his son, is that he doesn't want to seek fame as a hero. He believes that heroes are heroes because they have risked something to help others. In contrast, the flag raising contained no action worthy of remembering, and thus doesn't make him a hero; he is made a hero by his actions in saving his fellow Marines and in attempting to save those who ended up dying on the island. What does the author think about the media's coverage of the flag raising on Iwo Jima and the following events? Give examples.

The media's influence becomes a main theme in the book, as the symbol of the flag raising and the flag raisers themselves are distorted and packaged by the media in essays king, ways that will serve the interests of the government, but that are not necessarily reflective of the truth. Bboy Trailer? Here, John Daly of the NBC Red declares that the Japanese had attacked Pearl Harbor by air, and Americans are described as poring over their newspapers to learn more about Japan, their new enemy. The photos published in Life magazine in 1938 of Japanese atrocities at Nanking sowed terror not only in the American public, but also in japanese and tsunami, the Marines who arrived at Guadalcanal. After the devastating battle at Tarawa, Bradley recounts how newspaper editorials announced, This Must Not Happen Again! alongside pictures of dead Marines floating in the ocean around the island. The theme of the misguided media is extremely relevant as newspapers largely ignore the raging battle on Iwo Jima, since it does not adhere to their fake story of valor climbing Mount Suribachi. Bboy Trailer 2011? Bradley addresses the members of the press with a degree of disdain, sarcastically referring to them as gentlemen of the press in contrast to earthquake, the soldiers fighting the bboy thesis, battle. Time magazine propagates an essay, unverified rumor on its radio program when it broadcasts that the photograph was staged. Rosenthal demands and receives a public apology from Time, but the photograph would cause him much frustration in the future. Though the Marines continue to fight on Iwo Jima, the bboy, March 5 edition of Time magazine published the photograph of the english essay technique, flag raising on its front page as if the battle had been won. Bboy Thesis 2011? Jack Bradley is mistrustful of the media and refuses to give interviews to the journalists who often call his home for the rest of essays on dr martin king his life. The media is also targeted as contributing to trailer, Ira Haye's destructive behavior.

Bradley claims, The more helpless and vulnerable Ira grew, the compare usa and, more brazen was the press's exploitation of him. A reporter from the Chicago Sun-Times visits him in jail and takes his photograph, and that newspaper posts his bail and enrolls him in a rehabilitation program. Bboy Thesis? They promote fixing his life as their sanctimonious mission, but in the process, they put pressure on earthquake and tsunami essay, him that contributes to his demise. How does James Bradley's view of the Japanese government during World War II differ from bboy trailer 2011, his characterization of english writing individual Japanese soldiers? The theme of 2011 individuals versus country is introduced with respect to Japan as Bradley describes the compare essay, atmosphere leading up to World War II for that country. Throughout the thesis trailer 2011, 1930s, Japan, as a country led by a military regime, conquered Manchuria and China.

Though the Japanese army employed ruthless tactics, the citizens themselves are described as being squeezed in an iron vise, totally brainwashed and manipulated into carrying out the will of the government. In relating the atrocities committed by the Japanese soldiers at Nanking, the capital of China, Bradley distinguishes the Japanese from the Germans, the conclusion paper research, Americans' other enemy in World War II. The sense of restraint that dictated even the most brutal front in Europe was absent from the war in the Pacific. Japanese soldiers believed they were fighting in the Way of the trailer, Warrior, or the Bushido tradition, but in fact they were being forced to operate within a twisted version of this warrior ideal; the Japanese military in cover development, the 20th century was more of a cult of death, and its warriors were viewed as expendable. During the air raid in Chapter 9, an American on board a ship offshore of Iwo Jima reports that he could see the trailer 2011, face of the Japanese pilot.

You could see the fear of cover letter death on his face. This type of description humanizes the Japanese kamikaze fighters as real people with real fear. Likewise, as Bradley tells of the soldiers ordered by thesis 2011 Colonel Kanehiko Atsuchi to abandon Mount Suribachi, their plight is unfortunate at why is essay, the hands of the Japanese navy guard, which punishes them for surrendering. How does the American public's view of the flag raising on Iwo Jima differ from the view of the six flag raisers? The press is responsible for the American peoples' perception of the war, and during the majority of the battle on Iwo Jima, that perception contrasted with the ideas of the trailer 2011, flag raisers themselves. The flag raising had been turned into on dr king jr, a symbol of success and thesis trailer victory, a convenient symbol of a 'happy ending.' Attention had now begun to shift away from paper research, Iwo Jima, even as the great bulk of the bboy thesis, bloodletting began. Research? The contrast between perception and reality is also clear in Bradley's relation of Representative Homer Angell of thesis Oregon's oration in the House of compare essay Representatives, in which he declares the photograph to be a representation of 'the dauntless permanency of the American spirit.' Half a world away, the boys did not look so dauntless.

Later, as described in Chapter 14, Jack Bradley is mistrustful of the media and bboy thesis refuses to give interviews to technique, the journalists who often call his home for the rest of his life. Give examples of rhetorical techniques used often by James Bradley in Flags of Our Fathers. Bradley often uses short, emphatic sentences or sentence fragments, rhetorical questions, and direct address. For example, at the conclusion of thesis trailer 2011 Chapter 5, he writes, December 1944. The last Christmas for too many young boys. Then off for why is it wrong to steal the forty-day sail to Iwo Jima. In Chapter 6, describing the upcoming battle: The boys would have only their buddies to depend upon, buddies who were willing to die for one another. As soon they would. Finally, these techniques appear in a letter in bboy thesis, the final chapter of the book from his daughter, Alison, to essays on dr king, her deceased grandfather, John Bradley, where she asks him why he kept so silent about bboy trailer 2011, his war experience. Other than narrative, what tools does Bradley use to tell the stories of the six flag raisers?

In gathering evidence for this book, James Bradley relied heavily on anecdotes, interviews, and letters from those who served with the six flag raisers. Canada Essay? The letters with descriptions of the thesis, flag raisers are often used as characterization tools, demonstrating others' opinions of the men. For example, in japanese earthquake essay, Chapter 5, Bradley quotes a letter from one Joe Rodriguez, who reported to Mike Strank, to demonstrate how Mike was the quintessential Marine: He was a born leader, a natural leader, and a leader by example. He had real concern for thesis 2011 us, he was a big brother to us. Likewise, a letter from one Kenneth Milstead characterizes Ira: Ira was always depressed. Bradley also uses the technique of why is it wrong to steal essay direct address, especially in the last chapters. In explaining why he felt such an immediate bond with Rene Gagnon, Jr., he tells the reader, Imagine six boys from your youth.

Line them up in your mind. They are eighteen to twenty-four years old. Thesis? Select them now; see them. How many marriages, how many children will intersect their lives? These rhetorical questions are used again when Bradley refutes reporter Mary Elson's analysis of his father's comment about the fact that there happened to be a flag attached to the pole he put in the ground: Odd? Irrelevant? A casual afterthought? I don't think so.

How does Bradley characterize America during World War II and immediately following? The six flag raisers are all raised in small towns, and Bradley describes them as representative of the cover development internship, hard-working families that made up the bboy thesis trailer, core of America at why is to steal, that time. He says that the Antigo Daily Journal got it right in thesis trailer, describing his father's quiet, modest nature and philanthropic efforts as an example of the best of small-town American values. These values include support for soldiers fighting abroad, in japanese earthquake, Europe and in bboy trailer, the Pacific, and compare canada are manifested by donations to thesis trailer 2011, the bond tours. A Treasury Department source is quoted as nostalgically relating that, We were one then, implying that the country united in support of their young men in a way it would no longer do. How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/flags-of-our-fathers/study-guide/essay-questions in MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About Flags of japanese essay Our Fathers Flags of Our Fathers Summary Character List Glossary Themes Quotes and Analysis Summary And Analysis Chapters 1 and 2 Chapters 3 and trailer 4 Chapters 5, 6, and 7 Chapters 8, 9, and 10 Chapters 11 and 12 Chapters 13 and 14 Chapters 15 and letter for international internship 16 Chapters 17 and 18 Chapters 19 and 20 Flags of Our Fathers and bboy trailer Letters from Iwo Jima: The Movies Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Q A Mini-Store James Bradley Biography. Flags of Our Fathers Questions and Answers.

The Question and Answer section for research Flags of Our Fathers is a great resource to thesis 2011, ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. In the nation's memory, the flagraisers' transforation from individuals to anonymous representative figures had begun. The true heroes of paper part research Iwo Jima were the ones who didn't come back. I think the answer is summed up in his belief that the true heroes of Iwo Jima were the ones who didn't come back. People follow the media. Trailer 2011? People, in a democracy, elect governments.

I would say the media is the strongest. Study Guide for Flags of Our Fathers. Flags of Our Fathers study guide contains a biography of martin luther jr James Bradley, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis.