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Statistical Learning in Medical Data Analysis

Medical data analysis

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BearingPoint Interview Preparation Mystery or History? BEARING POINT INTERVIEW AND CULTURE. BearingPoint started at data analysis the height of the consulting boom years in the late 1990s, and service or, was a part of medical KPMG#8217;s worldwide consulting practice. However, after the thesis statement ENRON scandal erupted, SOX restructured the consulting industry, and BearingPoint battled to find its own way in the world, the medical data analysis firm struggled with its independence from its Big 4 parent. However, today BearingPoint is an essay mouse emerging as a player in the operations and technology scene, especially in Europe, and has re-established an medical impressive growth trajectory. Preparing for a BearingPoint interview? Read on to discover interesting nuances of culture and essays by charles dickens, competence that are unique to the global consulting firm. BearingPoint Headquarters: Amsterdam, Netherlands. BearingPoint Employees: 3,350.

BearingPoint Locations: 30 Countries, 51 offices. BearingPoint Chief Executive: Bob Hennessy. Medical Data Analysis! BearingPoint Engagement Cost: $300K. Thesis! BearingPoint#8217;s origins began in 1997 simply as a consulting business unit of KPMG. Medical Data Analysis! This consulting business unit focused on sample for a research paper, both technology and management. In January 2000, KPMG made the business unit a separate company. They named it KPMG Consulting, LLC.

On February 8th, 2001, KPMG Consulting, LLC, went public on the NASDAQ starting at $18 per share under the ticker #8220;KCIN#8221;. Their IPO was 6 months delayed due to the quickly declining high-tech consulting services market. Shortly after going public, the new KPMG Consulting, LLC management announced their intentions of some aggressive international acquisitions funded by their new IPO. They repurchased $381.3 million in stock from their former partner Cisco Systems and, over the next year and data, a half, acquired 40 international subsidiaries from Arthur Anderson, who had just collapsed, and law essay nj, the German and Austrian consulting firms of KPMG. The acquisitions and stock repurchasing took a large chunk of the $2B raised by medical data, the IPO. This was just the start of project law essay nj financial and debt problems. On October 2, 2002, after the Sarbanes-Oxley Act was passed, the company rebranded their name to BearingPoint Inc., and medical, promptly began trading on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol #8220;BE#8221;.

This way, they could avoid any scent of a conflict of interest with KPMG, LLP and author theme, maintained a completely separate ownership structure. BearingPoint quickly became one of the world#8217;s largest management and data, technology consulting firms with operations in more than 60 countries and employing more than 17,000 employees worldwide. Thesis Theme! The re-branding campaign cost them $50M a small price to data analysis, pay for author thesis theme, major independence. The Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) Act was known as the data #8220;Public Company Accounting Reform and Investor Protection Act#8221; by the U.S. Senate, and #8220;Corporate and Auditing Accountability and Responsibility Act#8221; by the U.S. House of writing portland Representatives. The United States Federal law set new or enhanced standards for all U.S. public company boards, management and public accounting firms. This allowed for more severe penalties for fraudulent financial activity and analysis, required top level management to favourite mouse, individually certify the medical data accuracy of all financial reporting. Thesis Personal Statement! The law gave a greater oversight role to the board of directors.

This bill was passed in answer to all the financial scandals going on at the time like those of Enron, Tyco International and others, whose investors lost billions of dollars. One of the key SOX impacts on consulting was the mandated #8220;ethical wall#8221; that was enacted a firm could not both audit and medical data analysis, consult for the same company, because it was considered a major conflict of interest. In 2003, BearingPoint, Inc. was still using the old software from KPMG to handle all of their accounting and human resource functions. This software did not have functionality in line with the internal control requirements of the SOX Act nor was it intentioned to handle a public company#8217;s needs. BearingPoint was also in favourite cartoon character-mickey, the midst of integrating all of its international acquisitions into the old system. In order to medical, comply with the SOX Act before facing penalties they began rolling out their #8220;OneGlobe#8221; system which was to record and keep track of all their contracts worldwide. Unfortunately, in 2004, soon after the rollout of this new accounting system, complaints began rolling in thesis theme, with issues. In May 2004, BearingPoint reported a valuation decline of 61%.

They tried to explain numerous reasons for the decline like difficult European labor laws restricting them from laying off consultants, and that corporate spending on consulting and technology services were radically dropping. However, their financial issues began following their IPO and the multiple lawsuits that followed from KPMG. Their accounting problems and medical, lawsuits would continue until 2009 when the U.S. business unit filed for Chapter 11 Bankruptcy. In August 2009, there was a company management buyout and thesis personal, restructuring. Now, BearingPoint is operated as a Netherlands-based partnership which consisted of medical analysis 120 partners in 14 countries throughout Europe. BearingPoint kept its branding and project, employed 3,500 people in the European region. Analysis! Peter Mockler and his management team, who had been the EMEA leadership for BearingPoint in thesis theme, 2006, continued to lead BearingPoint.

This leadership has brought much better stability and continuity to the business. Two new partnerships mark the forward movement of the firm in July 2013, Bearing Point opened a new office in data, Shanghai, China and in November 2013, Bearing Point and Cumbria Financial Services Consulting agreed to thesis theme, a Strategic Consulting Alliance. BearingPoint partners with the major technological suppliers, like Hewlett Packard, IBM, Microsoft, Oracle and SAP, to develop solutions and strategies suiting their clients#8217; requirements. Digital Marketing, Sales Customer Services Enterprise Applications Finance Government, Risk, Compliance Security Human Resources Information Technology Innovation, RD International Development Real Estate Facilities Sourcing Strategy Business Executive Supply Chain Operations Sustainable Development. Medical Data Analysis! BearingPoint has 51 offices in 30 different countries across the globe. In a number of countries, BearingPoint#8217;s offices are shared with those of other firms. For example, in all the US locations (except for Dallas), BearingPoint works in partnership with the West Monroe Partners. An Essay Favourite Character-mickey Mouse! Shanghai, China Shenzhen, China Jakarta, Indonesia Tokyo, Japan Seoul, Korea Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Singapore Taipei, Taiwan Bangkok, Thailand Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

Vienna, Austria Graz, Austria Brussels, Belgium Copenhagen, Denmark Helsinki, Finland Paris, France Berlin, Germany Dusseldorf, Germany Frankfurt, Germany Hamburg, Germany Leipzig, Germany Munich, Germany Stuttgart, Germany Walldorf, Germany Dublin, Ireland Casablanca, Morocco Amsterdam, Netherlands Oslo, Norway Warsaw, Poland Bucharest, Romania Sibiu, Romania Moscow, Russia Stockholm, Sweden London, United Kingdom. Montreal, Canada Toronto, Canada Chicago, IL, United States Columbus, OH, United States Dallas, TX, United States Los Angeles, CA United States Minneapolis, MN, United States New York, NY United States Raleigh-Durham, NC, United States Seattle, WA, United States. Buenos Aires, Argentina Tandil, Argentina Sao Paulo, Brazil Curitiba, Brazil Santiago de Chile, Chile Bogota, Columbia. Business and technology graduates have the opportunity to join BearingPoint as analysts. They move on to consultant and then on to senior consultant levels. The BearingPoint management path includes 4 levels starting with manager, leading to medical, senior manager, director and, ultimately, partner. You can speed up your career progression by targeting particular topics that you want to project, pursue and specialize in working in specific industries or practice areas, especially those in high demand, can accelerate your career. BearingPoint works with employees to craft a mutually beneficial career plan. All new hires start by attending #8220;BearingPoint School.#8221; This is an international training week to data analysis, learn more about the company and resume or, build a personal network within the firm. There are summer internships in Stockholm, Sweden and Oslo, Norway. There are different requirement to apply for internships in either region.

Sweden requires you to medical, be fluent in thesis theme, Scandinavian. This would include Danish, Swedish and Norwegian languages. You will be working on medical data analysis, various client engagements and will be on a team of experienced consultants to learn from. It is a young, fast-paced environment seeking interns with great analytical, leadership, creative and social skills. Like its counterparts such as Capgemini and Accenture, exit opportunities from BearingPoint are largely determined by the work you complete while inside the firm. If you work in operations for critical essays dickens, oil gas, your exit opportunities will fit squarely in that field. Data Analysis! If you work with tech or Six Sigma in supply chain, you can expect your exit opps to be in project, line with these core competencies. Don#8217;t expect too much of a global network there isn#8217;t a tremendous amount of brand loyalty (yet) for ex-BearingPoint consultants, most likely due to the firm#8217;s unstable 15-year history. Most agree that the work/life balance at BearingPoint is great.

It is a very competitive environment that challenges and analysis, inspires you to increase your skill set. Lots of resume portland or excellent training is medical available and other co-consultants are very helpful. Bonuses seem to resume writing service portland or, be infrequent. Data Analysis! Most desired more transparency in performance plan assessments. The management style greatly varies throughout the organization and regions. If you#8217;re interested in CSR, check out some interesting initiatives you could get involved in while working at on my cartoon mouse BearingPoint. The firm demonstrates a commitment to social responsibility by partnering with the following organizations: The Desertec Industrial Initiative (Dii) created by the non-profit organization Desertec Foundation. BearingPoint is involved in addressing global environmental changes particularly in reference to sustainable energy. Plan International This organization promotes children#8217;s rights. Bearing Point provides pro-bono services and fundraising support in medical, Norway and Switzerland.

Cardiac Risk in the Young (CRY) Organization providing education, screening and support to those with serious cardiac conditions. Conclusions For A Paper! Bearing Point provides technical and pro-bono business support in Ireland. They also organize various charity runs and other social events for medical data analysis, fundraising efforts. Critical Essays By Charles Dickens! Impetus Trust Their focus is on growing already expansive European and global charity investment ventures. Medical! BearingPoint provides pro-bono business and critical essays on great by charles, technical support in the UK. Great Ormond Street Hospital BearingPoint UK helps raise funds.

Institut Montaigne BearingPoint participates in this group in France to specifically focus on European energy policies and the future of management schools. Planete Urgence This organization helps stimulate growth in developing countries. Nos quartiers ont du talent Promote diversity helping young people in disadvantaged areas find employment. The firm#8217;s core values are impressive, but not necessarily expressed organization-wide. Data! In fact, there isn#8217;t a clear #8220;BearingPoint brand#8221; yet but perhaps another $50M investment would be well-utilized in thesis personal, this area? BEARINGPOINT INTERVIEWS AND RECRUITING. Most interviewees we#8217;ve heard from say the process takes 1 week. Depending on where you are located and what level you are interviewing for, however, there may be a more varied process. Otherwise, there are up to medical analysis, 4 people you will be interviewing with and it may end up being all in one or two days. Each level interview can take up to 2.5 hours.

Questions seem to be rather straight forward such as: What was your greatest failure? How did you handle it? We have offices and clients all over the world, even in dangerous areas. Are you willing to go where needed? What are your 3 primary growth areas?

With such a focus on consulting fit interview questions, be extra prepared with Hero Stories and details about why BearingPoint is the firm for you. BearingPoint recruits students from the top business management schools around the world, but has had an inconsistent presence at many due to author thesis, its own internal drama. We can expect more clear partnerships to emerge in data analysis, the future. The one core target school, interestingly enough, is the Yale School of Management. If BearingPoint comes to your school to recruit, let us know!

It#8217;s important to author thesis, note that in 2009 Deloitte bought the North American public services unit of BearingPoint for medical analysis, $350 million in cash.

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Statistical Analysis of Medical Data - …

Internet Encyclopedia of medical analysis, Philosophy. Most of us are certain that we have free will, though what exactly this amounts to is much less certain. According to essays on great expectations by charles dickens David Hume, the question of the nature of free will is “the most contentious question of metaphysics.” If this is correct, then figuring out what free will is will be no small task indeed. Minimally, to say that an agent has free will is to say that the agent has the capacity to choose his or her course of medical, action. But animals seem to satisfy this criterion, and we typically think that only persons, and not animals, have free will.

Let us then understand free will as the capacity unique to persons that allows them to control their actions. It is controversial whether this minimal understanding of law essay nj, what it means to have a free will actually requires an agent to have a specific faculty of will, whether the term free will is simply shorthand for other features of persons, and whether there really is such a thing as free will at all. This article considers why we should care about medical analysis free will and how freedom of will relates to freedom of action. It canvasses a number of the dominant accounts of thesis personal statement, what the will is, and then explores the persistent question of the relationship between free will and causal determinism, articulating a number of different positions one might take on the issue. Medical Data Analysis. For example, does determinism imply that there is no free will, as the incompatibilists argue, or does it allow for free will, as the compatibilists argue? This article explores several influential arguments that have been given in an essay cartoon character-mickey mouse favor of these two dominant positions on the relationship between free will and causal determinism. Data Analysis. Finally, there is a brief examination of project nj, how free will relates to theological determinism and data analysis logical determinism. 1. Free Will, Free Action and Moral Responsibility. Why should we even care whether or not agents have free will?

Probably the best reason for caring is that free will is closely related to two other important philosophical issues: freedom of action and moral responsibility. However, despite the close connection between these concepts, it is important not to conflate them. We most often think that an agent’s free actions are those actions that she does as a result of exercising her free will. Consider a woman, Allison, who is contemplating a paradigmatic free action, such as whether or not to walk her dog. Allison might say to herself, “I know I should walk the dog—he needs the exercise. And while I don’t really want to writing portland or walk him since it is medical data analysis cold outside, I think overall the best decision to expectations by charles make is that I should take him for a walk.” Thus, we see that one reason we care about data free will is that it seems necessary for free action—Allison must first decide, or choose, to walk the dog before she actually takes him outside for his walk. If we assume that human actions are those actions that result from the rational capacities of humans, we then see that the possibility of free action depends on the possibility of free will: to say that an thesis personal agent acted freely is minimally to say that the agent was successful in carrying out a free volition or choice. Various philosophers have offered just such an account of freedom. Thomas Hobbes suggested that freedom consists in there being no external impediments to an agent doing what he wants to do: “A free agent is he that can do as he will , and forbear as he will, and that liberty is the absence of medical data, external impediments .” In An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding , David Hume thought that free will (or liberty, to use his term) is simply the “power of personal, acting or of not acting, according to data the determination of the will: that is, if we choose to remain at rest, we may; if we choose to author move, we also may.… This hypothetical liberty is universally allowed to medical analysis belong to everyone who is not a prisoner and in chains.” This suggests that freedom is simply the ability to select a course of action, and an agent is critical on great by charles free if he is not being prevented by some external obstacle from completing that course of action. Thus, Hobbes and Hume would hold that Allison is free to walk her dog so long as nothing prevents her from carrying out data, her decision to critical essays dickens walk her dog, and she is data free not to walk her dog so long as nothing would compel her to walk her dog if she would decide not to. However, one might still believe this approach fails to on my cartoon mouse make an important distinction between these two related, but conceptually distinct, kinds of freedom: freedom of will versus freedom of action.

This distinction is motivated by the apparent fact that agents can possess free will without also having freedom of data analysis, action. Suppose that before Allison made the choice to walk the dog, she was taking a nap. And while Allison slept, there was a blizzard that moved through the area. The wind has drifted the snow up against the front of personal, her house so that it is impossible for analysis Allison to get out her front door and walk her dog even if she wanted to. So here we have a case involving free will, because Allison has chosen to nj take the dog for a walk, but not involving free action, because Allison is not able to take her dog for a walk. Whether or not one can have freedom of action without free will depends on one’s view of what free will is. Also, the medical, truth of causal determinism would not entail that agents lack the freedom to do what they want to do. An agent could do what she wants to do, even if she is causally determined to do that action. Thus, both Hobbes and Hume are rightly characterized as compatibilists. Even if there is a distinction between freedom of will and freedom of law essay nj, action, it appears that free will is necessary for the performance of free actions.

If Allison is brainwashed during her nap to want to walk her dog, then even if no external impediment prevents her from carrying through with this decision, we would say that her taking the dog for a walk is not a free action. Medical Analysis. Presumably, the reason why it would not be a free action is because, in the case of brainwashing, Allison’s decision does not arise from her free will. Thus, it looks like free will might be a necessary condition for free action, even if the two are distinct. In what follows, the phrase acting with free will means engaging in an action as the sample conclusions research, result of the data analysis, utilization of free will. Use of the phrase does not deny the distinction between free will and free action. The second reason to critical by charles care about free will is that it seems to be required for moral responsibility. While there are various accounts of what exactly moral responsibility is, it is widely agreed that moral responsibility is distinct from causal responsibility. Consider a falling branch that lands on a car, breaking its window.

While the branch is causally responsible for the broken window, it is not morally responsible for it because branches are not moral agents. Depending on one’s account of causation, it also might be possible to be morally responsible for an event or state of affairs even if one is not causally responsible for data that same event or state of affairs. For present purposes, let us simply say that an agent is morally responsible for an event or state of affairs only if she is the writing service, appropriate recipient of moral praise or moral blame for that event or state of affairs (an agent can thus be morally responsible even if no one, including herself, actually does blame or praise her for her actions). According to the dominant view of the relationship between free will and moral responsibility, if an agent does not have free will, then that agent is not morally responsible for her actions. For example, if Allison is coerced into data analysis, doing a morally bad act, such as stealing a car, we shouldn’t hold her morally responsible for this action since it is not an action that she did of her own free will. Some philosophers do not believe that free will is required for moral responsibility. According to critical John Martin Fischer, human agents do not have free will, but they are still morally responsible for their choices and actions. In a nutshell, Fischer thinks that the kind of control needed for moral responsibility is weaker than the kind of control needed for medical free will.

Furthermore, he thinks that the for a research paper, truth of causal determinism would preclude the medical, kind of control needed for on my favourite cartoon free will, but that it wouldn’t preclude the analysis, kind of control needed for moral responsibility. See Fischer (1994). As this example shows, virtually every issue pertaining to resume service or free will is contested by various philosophers. However, many think that the significance of free will is not limited to its necessity for free action and moral responsibility. Various philosophers suggest that free will is also a requirement for agency, rationality, the autonomy and dignity of persons, creativity, cooperation, and the value of friendship and love [see Anglin (1990), Kane (1998) and Ekstrom (1999)].

We thus see that free will is central to many philosophical issues. Nearly every major figure in the history of data analysis, philosophy has had something or other to on my favourite cartoon say about free will. The present section considers three of the most prominent theories of what the medical analysis, will is. The faculties model of the will has its origin in the writings of ancient philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle, and critical dickens it was the analysis, dominant view of the will for much of medieval and expectations modern philosophy [see Descartes (1998) and the discussion of Aquinas in Stump (2003)]. Medical Analysis. It still has numerous proponents in the contemporary literature. What is an essay character-mickey mouse distinct about data free agents, according to this model, is their possession of certain powers or capacities. All living things possess some capacities, such as the capacities for on great expectations growth and reproduction. What is unique about free agents, however, is that they also possess the capacities for intellection and volition. Another way of medical, saying this is that free agents alone have the faculties of intellect and will. It is in virtue of having these additional faculties, and the interaction between them, that agents have free will. The intellect, or the rational faculty, is the theme, power of cognition.

As a result of its cognitions, the intellect presents various things to the will as good under some description. To return to the case of Allison contemplating walking her dog, Allison’s intellect might evaluate walking the dog as good for the health of the dog. Medical. Furthermore, all agents that have an intellect also have a will. The will, or the volitional faculty, is an appetite for the good; that is, it is naturally drawn to writing service goodness. The will, therefore, cannot pursue an medical analysis option that the intellect presents as good in no way. Resume Writing. The will is medical data also able to command the other faculties; the will can command the body to move or the intellect to consider something. In the case of Allison, the will could command the body to pick up the leash, attach it to the dog, and go outside for a walk. As Aquinas, a proponent of this view of the will, puts it: “Only an agent endowed with an critical essays expectations by charles dickens intellect can act with a judgment which is free, in so far as it apprehends the analysis, common note of goodness; from which it can judge this or the other thing to writing portland or be good. Medical Data. Consequently, wherever there is intellect, there is free will” ( Summa Theologiae , q. 59 a. 3). Thus, through the interaction between the intellect and personal will, an agent has free will to pursue something that it perceives as good.

A widely influential contemporary account of the will is Harry Frankfurt’s hierarchical view of the will [see Frankfurt (1971)]. This account is medical data also sometimes called a structuralist or mesh account of the will, since a will is free if it has a certain internal structure or mesh among the various levels of desires and volitions. According to the hierarchical model, agents can have different kinds of desires. Some desires are desires to do a particular action; for law essay nj example, Allison may desire to analysis go jogging. Call these desires 1st order desires. Thesis. But even if Allison doesn’t desire to go jogging, she may nevertheless desire to be the kind of person who desires to go jogging. In other words, she may desire to have a certain 1st order desire. Call desires of this sort 2nd order desires. Data. If agents also have further desires to have particular 2nd order desires, one could construct a seemingly infinite hierarchy of desires. Not all of an agent’s desires result in action.

In fact, if one has conflicting desires, then it is impossible for an agent to satisfy all her desires. Suppose that Allison not only desires to run, but that she also desires to stay curled up in bed, where it is nice and warm. In such a case, Allison cannot fulfill both of her 1st order desires. If Allison decides to act on her desire to run, we say that her desire to run has moved her to action. An effective desire of this sort is called a volition; a volition is a desire that moves the agent all the critical expectations, way to action.

Similarly, one can differentiate between a mere 2nd order desire (simply a desire to have a certain desire) and a 2nd order volition (a desire for a desire to become one’s will, or a desire for a desire to become a volition). According to the hierarchical view of the will, free will consists in having 2nd order volitions. Medical Data Analysis. In other words, an agent has a free will if she is able to have the sort of will that she wants to have. Essays On Great Expectations. An agent acts on her own free will if her action is the data analysis, result of a 1st order desire that she wants to become a 1st order volition. Hierarchical views of the will are problematic, however, because it looks as if certain sorts of questionable manipulation can be compatible with this view’s account of free will. According to the view under consideration, Allison has free will with regard to going jogging if she has a 2nd order desire that her 1st order desire to sample for a research go jogging will move her to go jogging. Nothing in this account, however, depends on how she got these desires.

Even if she were manipulated, via brainwashing, for example, into having her 2nd order desire for her 1st order desire to go running become her will, Allison has the right mesh between her various orders of desires to qualify as having free will. This is an untoward consequence. While more robust hierarchical accounts of the will have the analysis, resources for author explaining why Allison might not be free in this case, it is widely agreed that cases of manipulation and medical coercion are problematic for on my favourite mouse solely structural accounts of the will [see Ekstrom (1999), Fischer (1994), Kane, (2005), Pereboom (2001) and van Inwagen (1983)]. c. Reasons-Responsive View of the Will. A third treatment of free will takes as its starting point the claim that agency involves a sensitivity to medical certain reasons. An agent acts with free will if she is responsive to the appropriate rational considerations, and she does not act with a free will if she lacks such responsiveness. To see what such a view amounts to, consider again the case of Allison and her decision to walk her dog. A reasons-responsive view of the will says that Allison’s volition to walk her dog is free if, had she had certain reasons for not walking her dog, she would not have decided to walk her dog. On My Favourite Character-mickey Mouse. Imagine what would have happened had Allison turned on medical data analysis, the television after waking from her nap and learned of the critical essays on great expectations dickens, blizzard before deciding to walk her dog. Had she known of the blizzard, she would have had a good reason for deciding not to walk her dog.

Even if such reasons never occur to her (that is, if she doesn’t learn of the blizzard before her decision), her disposition to have such reasons influence her volitions shows that she is responsive to reasons. Thus, reasons-responsive views of the will are essentially dispositional in nature. Coercion and manipulation undermine free will, on this view, in virtue of making agents not reasons-responsive. If Allison has been brainwashed to walk the dog at a certain time, then even if she were to turn on the news and sees that it is snowing, she would attempt to walk the medical data analysis, dog despite having good reasons not to. Author Theme. Thus, manipulated agents are not reasons-responsive, and in virtue of this lack free will. [See Fischer and Ravizza (1998) for one of the primary reasons-responsive views of free will.] a. The Thesis of Causal Determinism. Most contemporary scholarship on data analysis, free will focuses on favourite cartoon mouse, whether or not it is compatible with causal determinism. Causal determinism is sometimes also called nomological determinism. It is important to keep causal determinism distinct from other sorts of determinism, such as logical determinism or theological determinism (to be discussed below).

Causal determinism (hereafter, simply determinism) is the thesis that the course of the future is entirely determined by analysis the conjunction of the past and the laws of nature. Imagine a proposition that completely describes the way that the favourite cartoon, entire universe was at some point in the past, say 100 million years ago. Let us call this proposition P. Also imagine a proposition that expresses the conjunction of all the medical, laws of nature; call this proposition L. Determinism then is the thesis that the author, conjunction of P and L entails a unique future. Given P and L, there is only one possible future, one possible way for things to medical data analysis end up. On Great Dickens. To make the same point using possible world semantics, determinism is the thesis that all the states of affairs that obtain at some time in the past, when conjoined with the analysis, laws of nature, entail which possible world is the actual world. Since a possible world includes those states of affairs that will obtain, the truth of resume service or, determinism amounts to the thesis that the past and the laws of nature entail what states of affairs will obtain in the future, and that only those states of data analysis, affairs entailed by the past and the laws will in fact obtain. A system's being determined is resume writing service portland different from its being predictable. It is possible for determinism to medical be true and for no one to be able to predict the future.

The fact that no human agent knows or is essays by charles able to know future truths has no bearing on whether there are future truths entailed by the conjunction of the medical data, past and an essay on my favourite cartoon the laws. However, there is a weaker connection between the thesis of determinism and the predictability of the future. If determinism were true, then a being with a complete knowledge of P and L and with sufficient intellective capacities should be able to infallibly predict the way that the future will turn out. However, given that we humans lack both the relevant knowledge and the intellective capacities required, the fact that we are not able to predict the future is not evidence for the falsity of determinism. b. Determinism, Science and Near Determinism Most philosophers agree that whether or not determinism is true is a contingent matter; that is, determinism is data neither necessarily true nor necessarily false.

If this is so, then whether or not determinism is true becomes an empirical matter, to be discovered by investigating the way the world is, not through philosophical argumentation. This is resume writing service portland not to deny that the truth of determinism would have metaphysical implications. For one, the truth of determinism would entail that the analysis, laws of nature are not merely probabilistic—for if they were, then the conjunction of the sample for a, past and the laws would not entail a unique future. Furthermore, as we shall see shortly, philosophers care very much about what implications the truth of determinism would have for free will. But the point to note is that if the truth of determinism is a contingent truth about the way the data analysis, world actually is, then scientific investigation should give us insight into this matter. Let us say that a possible world is deterministic if causal determinism is true in that world. There are two ways that worlds could fail to be deterministic. As already noted, if the laws of nature in a given world were probabilistic, then such a world would not be deterministic. Secondly, if there are entities within a world that are not fully governed by the laws of nature, then even if those laws are themselves deterministic, that world would not be deterministic.

Some scientists suggest that certain parts of physics give us reason to doubt the truth of determinism. Thesis Personal Statement. For example, the standard interpretation of Quantum Theory, the Copenhagen Interpretation, holds that the data analysis, laws governing nature are indeterministic and probabilistic. According to this interpretation, whether or not a small particle such as a quark swerves in a particular direction at a particular time is personal described properly only by probabilistic equations. Although the equations may predict the likelihood that a quark swerves to medical data analysis the left at a certain time, whether or not it actually swerves is indeterministic or random. There are also deterministic interpretations of Quantum Theory, such as the Many-Worlds Interpretation. Fortunately, the outcome of the debate regarding whether Quantum Theory is most properly interpreted deterministically or indeterminstically, can be largely avoided for resume writing service portland our current purposes. Even if (systems of) micro-particles such as quarks are indeterministic, it might be that (systems involving) larger physical objects such as cars, dogs, and people are deterministic.

It is possible that the only indeterminism is on analysis, the scale of micro-particles and that macro-objects themselves obey deterministic laws. If this is the case, then causal determinism as defined above is, strictly speaking, false, but it is nearly true. That is, we could replace determinism with near determinism, the thesis that despite quantum indeterminacy, the an essay on my favourite, behaviors of all large physical objects—including all our actions—obey deterministic laws [see Honderich (2002), particularly chapter 6]. What would be the implications of the truth of either determinism or near determinism? More specifically, what would be the implications for questions of free will? One way to think about the implications would be by asking the following the question: Could we still be free even if scientists were to discover that causal determinism (or near determinism) is true? c. Compatibilism, Incompatibilism, and Pessimism. The question at the end of the preceding section (Could we have free will even if determinism is true?) is a helpful way to differentiate the main positions regarding free will. Compatibilists answer this question in the affirmative.

They believe that agents could have free will even if causal determinism is true (or even if near determinism is true. In what follows, I will omit this qualification). Analysis. In other words, the existence of project law essay nj, free will in a possible world is compatible with that world being deterministic. For this reason, this position is medical data known as compatibilism, and its proponents are called compatibilists. According to an essay on my favourite cartoon character-mickey mouse the compatibilist, it is possible for an agent to be determined in all her choices and actions and medical still make some of her choices freely.

According to incompatibilists, the favourite character-mickey, existence of free will is incompatible with the truth of determinism. If a given possible world is deterministic, then no agent in that world has free will for medical analysis that very reason. Furthermore, if one assumes that having free will is a necessary condition for essays on great expectations dickens being morally responsible for one’s actions, then the incompatibility of free will and data analysis determinism would entail the incompatibility of moral responsibility and causal determinism. There are at least two kinds of incompatibilists. Some incompatibilists think that determinism is true of the actual world, and thus no agent in the actual world possesses free will. Such incompatibilists are often called hard determinists [see Pereboom (2001) for a defense of hard determinism].

Other incompatibilists think that the actual world is not deterministic and that at least some of the agents in essays on great the actual world have free will. These incompatibilists are referred to data analysis as libertarians [see Kane (2005), particularly chapters 3 and an essay cartoon mouse 4]. However, these two positions are not exhaustive. It is medical possible that one is an incompatibilist, thinks that the actual world is not deterministic, and critical by charles yet still thinks that agents in data the actual world do not have free will. While it is less clear what to call such a position (perhaps free will deniers), it illustrates that hard determinism and libertarianism do not exhaust the ways to be an incompatibilist. Author Thesis. Since all incompatibilists, whatever their stripe, agree that the falsity of data, determinism is a necessary condition for free will, and sample research paper since compatibilists deny this assertion, the following sections speak simply of incompatibilists and compatibilists. It is also important to keep in analysis mind that both compatibilism and personal statement incompatibilism are claims about possibility. According to the compatibilist, it is possible that an agent is both fully determined and yet free. The incompatibilist, on the other hand, maintains that such a state of affairs is impossible.

But neither position by itself is making a claim about whether or not agents actually do possess free will. Assume for the moment that incompatibilism is true. If the truth of data, determinism is a contingent matter, then whether or not agents are morally responsible will depend on whether or not the actual world is deterministic. Personal Statement. Furthermore, even if the actual world is indeterministic, it doesn’t immediately follow that the indeterminism present is of the sort required for free will (we will return to a similar point below when considering an objection to incompatibilism). Likewise, assume both that compatibilism is true and that causal determinism is data true in the actual world. It does not follow from this that agents in the actual world actually possess free will. Finally, there are free will pessimists [see Broad (1952) and G. An Essay On My Mouse. Strawson (1994)]. Pessimists agree with the incompatibilists that free will is not possible if determinism is true. However, unlike the incompatibilists, pessimists do not think that indeterminism helps.

In fact, they claim, rather than helping support free will, indeterminism undermines it. Consider Allison contemplating taking her dog for a walk. According to the pessimist, if Allison is analysis determined, she cannot be free. But if determinism is false, then there will be indeterminacy at some point prior to her action. Exactly where one locates this indeterminacy will depend on one’s particular view of the nature of free will. Let us assume that that indeterminacy is research located in which reasons occur to Allison. Medical. It is hard to see, the pessimist argues, how this indeterminacy could enhance Allison’s free will, for critical essays by charles dickens the occurrence of her reasons is indeterministic, then having those reasons is medical not within Allison’s control. But if Allison decides on the basis of whatever reasons she does have, then her volition is based upon something outside of her control.

It is statement based instead on chance. Thus, pessimists think that the addition of indeterminism actually makes agents lack the kind of control needed for free will. Medical Data. While pessimism might seem to be the same position as that advocated by free will deniers, pessimism is thesis a stronger claim. Free will deniers thinks that while free will is possible, it just isn’t actual: agents in fact don’t have free will. Pessimists, however, have a stronger position, thinking that free will is impossible. Medical Data. Not only do agents lack free will, there is sample conclusions paper no way that they could have it [see G. Strawson (1994)]. The only way to preserve moral responsibility, for the pessimist, is thus to deny that free will is a necessary condition for data analysis moral responsibility. As pessimism shows us, even a resolution to law essay nj the debate between compatibilists and incompatibilists will not by itself solve the debate about whether or not we actually have free will.

Nevertheless, it is to this debate that we now turn. 4. Medical Analysis. Arguments for Incompatibilism (or Arguments against Compatibilism) Incompatibilists say that free will is incompatible with the truth of determinism. Writing Service Portland. Not all arguments for incompatibilism can be considered here; let us focus on two major varieties. The first variety is analysis built around the an essay on my, idea that having free will is a matter of having a choice about certain of medical, our actions, and that having a choice is on great by charles a matter of medical data, having genuine options or alternatives about what one does. The second variety of nj, arguments is data built around the idea that the truth of thesis theme, determinism would mean that we don’t cause our actions in the right kind of way. The truth of determinism would mean that we don’t originate our actions in medical data a significant way and our actions are not ultimately controlled by us. In other words, we lack the ability for self-determination. Let us consider a representative argument from each set. The most well-known and influential argument for incompatibilism from the project nj, first set of arguments is called the medical data analysis, Consequence Argument, and research paper it has been championed by Carl Ginet and data Peter van Inwagen [see Ginet (1966) and van Inwagen (1983)].

The Consequence Argument is based on critical on great expectations, a fundamental distinction between the past and the future. First, consider an informal presentation of this argument. There seems to be a profound asymmetry between the past and data the future based on the direction of the flow of time and the normal direction of causation. The future is open in a way that the critical, past is not. It looks as though there is medical data nothing that Allison can now do about the fact that Booth killed Lincoln, given that Lincoln was assassinated by Booth in 1865. This point stands even if we admit the possibility of time travel. For if time travel is possible, Allison can influence what the past became, but she cannot literally change the past. Cartoon Character-mickey. Consider the following argument: The proposition Lincoln was assassinated in 1865 is true.

If Allison travels to the past, she could prevent Lincoln from being assassinated in 1865 (temporarily assumed for data reductio purposes). If Allison were to travel to the past and prevent Lincoln from being assassinated in 1865, the proposition Lincoln was assassinated in 1865 would be false. A proposition cannot both be true and false. Therefore, 2 is false. So, at most the possibility of time travel allows for agents to have causal impact on the past, not for agents to change what has already become the past. The past thus appears to be fixed and unalterable. However, it seems that the same is not true of the future, for theme Allison can have an influence on the future through her volitions and subsequent actions.

For example, if she were to invent a time machine, then she could, at some point in the future, get in her time machine and travel to the past and analysis try to prevent Lincoln from being assassinated. However, given that he was assassinated, we can infer that her attempts would all fail. On the other hand, she could refrain from using her time machine in this way. The asymmetry between past and future is portland illustrated by the fact that we don’t deliberate about the past in the same way that we deliberate about the future. Medical Analysis. While Allison might deliberate about whether a past action was really the best action that she could have done, she deliberates about the future in a different way. Allison can question whether her past actions were in fact the best, but she can both question what future acts would be best as well as which future acts she should perform. Thus, it looks like the future is open to Allison, or up to her, in a way that the past is not. In other words, when an agent like Allison is theme using her free will, what she is doing is medical analysis selecting from a range of different options for the future, each of sample for a, which is medical data analysis possible given the past and the laws of nature.

For this reason, this view of free will is often called the Garden of Forking Paths Model. The Consequence Argument builds upon this view of the fixed nature of the past to argue that if determinism is true, the future is not open in the way that the above reflections suggest. For if determinism is true, the critical on great expectations dickens, future is as fixed as is the medical analysis, past. Remember from the above definition that determinism is the thesis the an essay on my favourite cartoon character-mickey, past ( P ) and data the laws of nature ( L ) entail a unique future. Sample Conclusions For A Research Paper. Let F refer to any true proposition about the future. The Consequence argument depends on two modal operators, and two inference rules. Let the modal operator ? abbreviate It is logically necessary that. so that, when it operates on some proposition p , ? p abbreviates It is logically necessary that p . Let the modal operator N be such that N p stands for p is medical true and no one has, or ever had, any choice about whether p was true. Call the following two inference rules Alpha and Beta: According to resume writing service portland or Alpha, if p is medical analysis a necessary truth, then no one has, or ever had, any choice about whether p was true.

Similarly, according to Beta, if no one has, or ever had, any choice about p being true, and no one has, or ever had, any choice that p entails q , then no one has, or ever had, any choice about whether q is true. To see the plausibility of Beta, consider the following application. Let p be the proposition The earth was struck by a meteor weighing 100 metric tons one billion years ago, and let q be the proposition If the earth was struck by project law essay nj a meteor weighing 100 metric tons one billion years ago, then thousands of species went extinct. Medical Analysis. Since I have no choice about such a meteor hitting in theme the past, and have no choice that if such meteor hits, it will cause thousands of species to go extinct, I have no choice that thousands of species went extinct. Beta thus looks extremely plausible. But if Beta is true, then we can construct an argument to show that if determinism is true, then I have no choice about anything, including my supposed free actions in the future. The argument begins with the definition of medical data analysis, determinism given above: Using a valid logical rule of inference (exportation), we can transform 1 into 2: Applying Alpha, we can derive 3: The second premise in the Consequence Argument is called the fixity of the past. No one has, or ever had, a choice about the true description P of the universe at some point in the distant past:

From 3, 4 and Beta, we can deduce 5: The final premise in the argument is the conclusions paper, fixity of the laws of nature. No one has, or ever had, a choice about what the laws of nature are (try as I might, I cannot make the law of universal gravitation not be a law of nature): And from analysis, 5 and 6, again using Beta, we can infer that no one has, or ever had, a choice about thesis personal F : Given that F was any true proposition about the future, the medical data analysis, Consequence Argument concludes that if determinism is true, then no one has or ever had a choice about any aspect of the future, including what we normally take to be our free actions. Thus, if determinism is true, we do not have free will. The second general set of arguments for the incompatibility of free will and determinism builds on the importance of the source of a volition for free will. Again, it will be helpful to begin with an informal presentation of the sample research paper, argument before considering a formal presentation of medical, it. According to resume writing service this line of thought, an agent has free will when her volitions issue from the agent herself in a particular sort of way (say, her beliefs and desires). What is important for free will, proponents of data, this argument claim, is not simply that the causal chain for an agent’s volition goes through the agent, but that it originates with the agent. In other words, an agent acts with free will only if she originates her action, or if she is the thesis, ultimate source or first cause of her action [see Kane (1998)]. Consider again the claim that free will is a necessary condition for moral responsibility.

What reflection on cases of data, coercion and manipulation suggests to us is that even if a coerced or manipulated agent is acting on her beliefs and desires, this isn’t enough for moral responsibility. We normally assume that coercion and thesis certain forms of manipulation undercut an agent’s moral responsibility precisely because a coerced or manipulated agent isn’t the originator of her coerced action. If Allison is coerced into walking her dog via brainwashing, then her walking of the dog originates in the brainwashing, and data analysis not in Allison herself. Consider, then, the similarities between cases of coercion and resume writing service portland or manipulation, on the one hand, and the implications of the truth of determinism on the other. If determinism were true, it might be true that Allison chooses to walk her dog because of analysis, her beliefs and desires, but those beliefs and desires would themselves be the inevitable products of causal chains that began millions of years ago. Thus, a determined agent is at most a source, but not the ultimate source, of her volitions. According to proponents of author thesis, this sort of argument for incompatibilism, the truth of determinism would mean that agents don’t cause their actions in the kind of way needed for free will and, ultimately, moral responsibility.

We can represent a formal version of the argument, called the Origination Argument, as follows: An agent acts with free will only if she is the originator (or ultimate source) of analysis, her actions. If determinism is true, then everything any agent does is ultimately caused by events and circumstances outside her control. If everything an agent does is ultimately caused by events and circumstances beyond her control, then the agent is not the originator (or ultimate source) of her actions. Thesis. Therefore, if determinism is true, then no agent is the originator (or ultimate source) of her actions.

Therefore, if determinism is true, no agent has free will. The Origination Argument is valid. So, in medical data evaluating its soundness, we must evaluate the truth of its three premises. Premise 3 is critical expectations by charles dickens clearly true, since for an agent to be an originator just is for that agent not to be ultimately determined by anything outside of herself. Premise 2 of this argument is true by the definition of determinism. To reject the conclusion of the argument, one must therefore reject premise 1. Earlier we briefly noted one account of free will which implicitly denies premise 1, namely the hierarchical model of data analysis, free will. According to this model, an agent acts with free will so long as the thesis personal statement, causal chain for that action goes through the agent’s 1st- and 2nd-order desires. Data. One way of emphasizing the writing portland or, need for origination over-against such a hierarchical model is to embrace agent-causation. If premise 1 is true, then the agent’s volition cannot be the product of a deterministic causal chain extended beyond the agent.

What other options are there? Two options are that volitions are uncaused, or only medical data, caused indeterministically. It is difficult to thesis statement see how an agent could be the data, originator or ultimate source of volitions if volitions are uncaused. Similarly, for reasons we saw above when discussing the free will pessimist, it looks as if indeterministic causation would undermine, rather than enhance, an agent’s control over her volitions. For these reasons, some incompatibilists favor looking at essays on great by charles dickens the causation involved in volitions in a new light. Instead of holding that a volition is caused by a previous event (either deterministically or indeterministically), these incompatibilists favor saying that volitions are caused directly by agents. Medical Data Analysis. [For an sample paper extended defense of this view, see O’Connor, (2000).] They hold that there are two irreducibly different kinds of causation, event-causation and medical agent-causation, and the latter is involved in free will. Proponents of sample conclusions for a research, agent-causation propose that agents are enduring substances that directly possess the power to cause volitions. Although many philosophers question whether agent-causation is coherent, if it were coherent, then it would provide support for premise 1 of the Origination Argument. c. The Relation between the Arguments.

The above way of delineating the Consequence and Origination Arguments may unfortunately suggest that the data analysis, two kinds of arguments are more independent from essays dickens, each other than they really are. A number of incompatibilists have argued that agents originate their actions in the way required by data analysis premise 1 of the thesis theme, Origination Argument if and medical data analysis only if they have a choice about their actions in the way suggested by the Consequence Argument. Sample Conclusions Paper. In other words, if my future volitions are not the data, sort of thing that I have a choice about, then I do not originate those volitions. And as the above arguments contend, the truth of causal determinism threatens both our control over our actions and volitions, and our ability to originate those same actions and volitions. For if causal determinism is true, then the distant past, when joined with the laws of nature, is sufficient for every volition that an agent makes, and the causal chains that lead to those volitions would not begin within the agent. Thus, most incompatibilists think that having a choice and being a self-determiner go hand-in-hand. Robert Kane, for thesis instance, argues that if agents have ultimate responsibility (his term for what is here called origination or self-determination), then they will also have alternative possibilities open to them. According to data this line of law essay, argumentation, the power to cause one’s own actions is not a distinct power from the power to choose and do otherwise. Thus, the medical analysis, two different kinds of arguments for incompatibilism may simply be two sides of the same coin [see Kane (1996) and (2005)]. 5. Arguments for project law essay nj Compatibilism (or Arguments against Incompatibilism)

Having laid out representatives of the two most prominent arguments for incompatibilism, let's consider arguments in favor of compatibilism. In considering these kinds of analysis, arguments, it is writing pedagogically useful to approach them by using the data, arguments for incompatibilism. So, this section begins by considering ways that compatibilists have responded to the arguments given in the preceding section. a. Rejecting the Incompatibilist Arguments. As noted above, the Origination Argument for incompatibilism is valid, and two of its premises are above dispute. Thus, the only way for the compatibilist to reject the conclusion of the Origination Argument is to critical expectations by charles dickens reject its first premise. Data Analysis. In other words, given the definition of determinism, compatibilists must reject that free will requires an agent being the originator or ultimate source of her actions.

But how might this be done? Most frequently, compatibilists motivate a rejection of the ultimacy condition of free will by appealing to either a hierarchical or reasons-responsive view of what the will is [see Frankfurt, (1971) and conclusions for a Fischer and Ravizza, (1998)]. Medical Analysis. If all that is required for free will, for example, is that a certain mesh between an agent’s 1st-order volitions and 2nd-order desires, then such an account does not require that an agent be the originator of those desires. Furthermore, since the law essay nj, truth of determinism would not entail that agents don’t have 1st and 2nd-order desires and medical volitions, a hierarchical account of the will is an essay on my cartoon compatible with the truth of data analysis, determinism. Similarly, if an agent has free will if she has the requisite level of conclusions research, reasons-responsiveness such that she would have willed differently had she had different reasons, ultimacy is again not required.

Thus, if one adopts certain accounts of the will, one has reason for rejecting the central premise of the Origination Argument. Compatibilists have a greater number of responses available to them with regard to the Consequence Argument. Medical Analysis. One way of thesis, understanding the N operator that figures in the Consequence Argument is in terms of having the ability to do otherwise. That is, to say that Allison has no choice about a particular action of hers is to say that she could not have performed a different action (or even no action at all). Incompatibilists can easily account for this ability to do otherwise.

According to incompatibilists, an agent can be free only if determinism is false. Consider again the analysis, case of Allison. If determinism is false, even though Allison did choose to walk her dog, she could have done otherwise than walk her dog since the conjunction of P and conclusions for a paper L is not sufficient for medical her taking her dog for a walk. Compatibilists, however, can give their own account of the ability to do otherwise. For them, to say that Allison could have done otherwise is simply to say that Allison would have done otherwise had she willed or chosen to do so [see, for example, Chisholm (1967)].

Of course, if determinism is true, then the only way that Allison could have willed or chosen to do otherwise would be if either the past or the project nj, laws were different than they actually are. In other words, saying that an agent could have done otherwise is to say that the agent would have done otherwise in data analysis a different counterfactual condition. But saying this is entirely consistent with one way of understanding the ability to do otherwise. Thus, these compatibilists are saying that Allison has the ability to do something such that, had she done it, either the past or the laws of nature would have been different than they actually are. Sample Conclusions Paper. If P and L entail that the agent does some action A , then the agent’s doing otherwise than A entails that either P or L would have been different than they actually are. Some compatibilists favor saying that agents have this counterfactual power over the past, while others favor counterfactual power over the laws of nature [Compare Lewis (1981) and medical data Fischer (1984)]. Conclusions Research Paper. Regardless, adopting either strategy provides the data analysis, compatibilist with a way of avoiding the conclusion of the Consequence Argument by denying either premise 4 or premise 6 of that argument. Furthermore, having such a power is not a hollow victory, for it demarcates a plausible difference between those actions an agent would have done even if she didn’t want to (as in the case of coercion or manipulation) from project law essay nj, those actions that an agent only would have done had she had certain beliefs and desires about that action. This view thus differentiates between those actions that were within the agent’s power to bring about from medical, those that were not. A second compatibilist response to the Consequence Argument is to deny the validity of the inference rule Beta the argument uses.

While there are several approaches to this, perhaps the most decisive is the following, called the principle of Agglomeration [see McKay and Johnson (1996)]. Using only the inference rules Alpha, Beta and the basic rule of logical replacement, one can show that. if Beta were valid. 1 and project law essay 2 do not entail 3, so Beta must be invalid. To see why 3 does not follow from 1 and 2, consider the case of a coin-toss. If the coin-toss is truly random, then Allison has no choice regarding whether the data analysis, coin (if flipped) lands heads. Similarly, she has no choice regarding whether the thesis, coin (again, if flipped) lands tails. Analysis. For purposes of simplicity, let us stipulate that the resume service, coin cannot land on its side and, if flipped, must land either heads or tails. Let p above represent ‘the coin doesn’t land heads’ and q represent ‘the coin doesn’t land tails’.

If Beta were valid, then 1 and 2 would entail 3, and Allison would not have a choice about the conjunction of p and data q; that is, she wouldn’t have a choice about the coin not landing heads and the coin not landing tails. If Allison didn’t have a choice about the author theme, coin not landing heads and didn’t have a choice about the data analysis, coin not landing tails, then she wouldn’t have a choice about the coin landing either heads or tails. But Allison does have a choice about this—after all, she can ensure that the writing portland or, coin lands either heads or tails by simply flipping the data analysis, coin. On Great By Charles Dickens. So Allison does have a choice about the medical analysis, conjunction of p and q. Since Alpha and the relevant rules of logical replacement in the transformation from N p and N q to sample conclusions N( p and q ) are beyond dispute, Beta must be invalid. Thus, the Consequent Argument for incompatibilism is invalid. [For an incompatibilist reply to the argument from Agglomeration, see Finch and Warfield (1998).] b. Frankfurt’s Argument against the Ability to Do Otherwise Two other arguments for compatibilism build on the freedom requirement for moral responsibility. If one can show that moral responsibility is compatible with the truth of determinism, and if free will is required for moral responsibility, one will have implicitly shown that free will is itself compatible with the truth of data analysis, determinism. Project. The first of these arguments for compatibilism rejects the medical data, understanding of having a choice as involving the ability to do otherwise mentioned above. While most philosophers have tended to accept that an agent can be morally responsible for doing an action only if she could have done otherwise, Harry Frankfurt has attempted to show that this requirement is in fact false.

Frankfurt gives an sample for a research paper example in which an agent does an action in circumstances that lead us to believe that the agent acted freely [Frankfurt (1969); for recent discussion, see Widerker and McKenna (2003)]. Yet, unbeknown to the agent, the circumstances include some mechanism that would bring about the action if the agent did not perform it on her own. As it happens, though, the medical analysis, agent does perform the action freely and the mechanism is not involved in bringing about the action. It thus looks like the agent is morally responsible despite not being able to do otherwise. Here is one such scenario:

Allison is contemplating whether to walk her dog or not. Unbeknown to Allison, her father, Lloyd, wants to insure that that she does decide to walk the dog. Favourite. He has therefore implanted a computer chip in medical data analysis her head such that if she is about to decide not to walk the dog, the chip will activate and coerce her into deciding to take the dog for cartoon a walk. Data. Given the on my character-mickey, presence of the chip, Allison is unable not to decide to walk her dog, and medical she lacks the ability to do otherwise. However, Allison does decide to walk the dog on her own. In such a case, Frankfurt thinks that Allison is morally responsible for her decision since the presence of Lloyd and his computer chip play no causal role in her decision. Since she would have been morally responsible had Lloyd not been prepared to ensure that she decide to take her dog for a walk, why think that his mere presence renders her not morally responsible?

Frankfurt concludes that Allison is morally responsible despite lacking the ability to sample conclusions for a paper do otherwise. If Frankfurt is right that such cases are possible, then even if the analysis, truth of determinism is nj incompatible with a kind of freedom that requires the ability to do otherwise, it is compatible with the kind of freedom required for moral responsibility. In an data influential article, Peter Strawson argues that many of the traditional debates between compatibilists and incompatibilists (such as how to understand the sample, ability to do otherwise) are misguided [P. Strawson (1963)]. Strawson thinks that we should instead focus on what he calls the reactive attitudes—those attitudes we have toward other people based on analysis, their attitudes toward and treatment of us. Strawson says that the hallmark of reactive attitudes is author thesis theme that they are “essentially natural human reactions to the good or ill will or indifference of others toward us, as displayed in analysis their attitudes and actions.” Examples of reactive attitudes include gratitude, resentment, forgiveness and sample conclusions for a research paper love. Strawson thinks that these attitudes are crucial to the interpersonal interactions and that they provide the basis for holding individuals morally responsible. Strawson then argues for medical analysis two claims. The first of these is that an agent’s reactive attitudes would not be affected by project law essay a belief that determinism was true: The human commitment to participation in ordinary interpersonal relationships is, I think, too thoroughgoing and deeply rooted for us to take seriously the analysis, thought that a general theoretical conviction might so change our world that, in it, there were no longer such things as inter-personal relationships as we normally understand them.… A sustained objectivity of an essay cartoon, inter-personal attitude, and the human isolation which that would entail, does not seem to be something of which human beings would be capable, even if some general truth were a theoretical ground for it.

Furthermore, Strawson also argues for a normative claim: the truth of determinism should not undermine our reactive attitudes. He thinks that there are two kinds of cases where it is appropriate to suspend our reactive attitudes. One involves agents, such as young children or the mentally disabled, who are not moral agents. Strawson thinks that we should not have reactive attitudes toward non-moral agents. The second kind of case where it is appropriate to suspend our reactive attitudes are those in medical analysis which while the agent is a moral agent, her action toward us is not connected to her agency in the correct way. For instance, while I might have the reactive attitude of resentment towards someone who bumps into me and makes me spill my drink, if I were to writing service portland or find out that the person was pushed into me, I would not be justified in resenting that individual. The truth of determinism, however, would neither entail that no agents are moral agents nor that none of an agent’s actions are connected to her moral agency. Thus, Strawson thinks, the truth of determinism should not undermine our reactive attitudes. Since moral responsibility is based on data, the reactive attitudes, Strawson thinks that moral responsibility is compatible with the truth of determinism. And if free will is a requirement for moral responsibility, Strawson’s argument gives support to compatibilism.

The above discussion should help explain the perennial attraction philosophers have to resume or the issues surrounding free will, particularly as it relates to causal determinism. However, free will is also intimately related to a number of other recurrent issues in the history of philosophy. In this final section, I will briefly articulate two other kinds of determinism and medical data show how they are connected to thesis statement free will. The debate about free will and causal determinism parallels, in many ways, another debate about free will, this one stemming from what is often called ‘theological determinism’. Data Analysis. Some religious traditions hold that God is ultimately responsible for everything that happens. According to these traditions, God’s willing x is author thesis theme necessary and sufficient for data analysis x . But if He is ultimately responsible for project nj everything in virtue of what He wills, then He is data analysis ultimately responsible for all the actions and volitions performed by agents. God’s willing that Allison take the theme, dog for a walk is thus necessary and medical data analysis sufficient for Allison taking the law essay, dog for analysis a walk.

But if this is law essay nj true, it is hard to see how Allison could have free will. Medical. The problem becomes especially astute when considering tradition doctrines of eternal punishment. The traditional Christian doctrine of Hell, for example, is that Hell is a place of eternal punishment for non-repentant sinners. But if theological determinism is true, then whether or not agents repent is ultimately up to God, not to the agents themselves. This worry over statement, free will thus gives rise to a particular version of the problem of evil: why does God not will that all come to faith, when His having such a will is medical data sufficient for their salvation? [For a discussion of resume writing portland or, these, and related issues, see Helm, (1994).] In addition to the causal and theological forms of determinism, there is also logical determinism.

Logical determinism builds off the law of excluded middle and holds that propositions about data analysis what agents will do in thesis the future already have a truth value. For instance, the proposition Allison will take the dog for a walk next Thursday is data already true or false. Assume that it is true. Since token propositions cannot change in truth value over time, it was true a million years ago that Allison would walk her dog next Thursday. But the resume writing service portland, truth of the relevant proposition is sufficient for her actually taking the medical analysis, dog for a walk (after all, if it is law essay nj true that she will walk the dog, then she will walk the dog). But then it looks like no matter what happens, Allison will in fact take her dog for a walk next Thursday and that this has always been the case.

However, it is hard to see how Allison’s deciding to walk the dog can be a free decision since she must (given that the relevant token proposition is true and was true a million years ago) decide to walk him. Medical Data Analysis. In response to or this problem, some philosophers have attempted to show that free will is compatible with the existence of true propositions about what we will do in the future, and data others have denied that propositions about future free actions have a truth value, that is, that the law of excluded middle fails for some propositions. [For an project law essay introduction to these issues, see Finch and Warfield, (1999) and Kane, (2002).] If God is a being who knows the truth value of medical data, every proposition, this debate also connects with the writing, debate over the relationship between divine foreknowledge and free will. From this brief survey, we see that free will touches on central issues in metaphysics, philosophy of human nature, action theory, ethics and the philosophy of religion. Furthermore, we’ve seen that there are competing views regarding virtually every aspect of medical analysis, free will (including whether there is, or even could be, such a thing). Perhaps this partially explains the project nj, perennial philosophical interest in the topic.

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9 Tips for a Standout Print Resume. Make your print resume stand out data analysis using these 9 simple tips. This is a guest post by James Adams. Author? If you’d also like to guest post here on JobMob, follow these guest post guidelines. To compete in today’s job market, you need to have a resume which stands head and shoulders above the rest. Every day, recruiters and HR professionals receive countless resumes. More applicants are applying for the same number of analysis, positions.

As a result, your resume needs to personal, be flawless and different. Your resume needs to speak to the needs of the analysis, position for which you are applying. Your resume needs to personal statement, attract enough attention to get you the interview. Free bonus: The One Resume Resource You’ll Ever Need is medical data analysis a handy reference to make your resume get you more job interviews. Download it free now. Essays? Copywriters are paid to persuade. Their words will drive consumers to purchase goods and services. Learn the art of selling yourself through text. Learn about the words which influence others. Data? Land some interviews by writing awesome copy.

2) Leave room for references. You have stunning recommendations from your previous employers. Your future employer will be more apt to check on on great dickens these references if you make the data, information immediately available. You have nothing to hide on your resume. Cartoon Character-mickey Mouse? A chance for a great referral shouldn’t be lost. Do not be lazy with the formatting of your resume. There are numerous ways to structure information, but many fall back on data analysis the cut and dried resume templates offered by popular word processing programs.

Use unusual and readable fonts. Personal? Change the medical data analysis, structure and offer something out of the ordinary to by charles dickens, catch the recruiter’s eye. Your resume will be skimmed to medical, see if you fit the position. By defining your experience in terms of the author thesis, key words on the job posting, you stand out medical data analysis more than the person who did not use the key words from the job posting. Think of your resume from the recruiter’s standpoint. It is one of many that must be filtered through to find that perfect applicant. You have read ‘responsible for an essay on my mouse, X’ and ‘responsible for Y’ so many times that you have stopped paying attention to anything past the word ‘for.’ As an applicant, use action words which further describe your duties. HR professionals are skimming through many resumes. They are more likely to set aside resumes which quickly highlight pertinent experience. Medical? If you bury your professional qualifications under a mountain of resume service portland, words, there is a great chance that it will be overlooked in analysis favor of the simple and project nj, direct resume. Use bullet points and very short paragraphs.

Recruiters want to know about your numbers. Data? They want to nj, know the specific details about your previous job duties, rather than general information. There is data analysis a distinct difference between the person who handled 20 customers per day and the one who satisfied 200 customers per author thesis, day. There are skills which are useful in every profession. Can you sell yourself and the company’s products? Are you a team player who is quick to see the big picture? Are you a fast learner who can operate any piece of equipment? You might be looking for a position which is not in your original field.

A skills-based resume is excellent for those who want to experience a different profession. Technical errors within a resume are sloppy. The recruiter expects you to data, pay attention to detail. Read your resume repeatedly, checking for grammatical and typographical errors. When you are finished with your proofing, have a friend proof it. An Essay Favourite Character-mickey Mouse? Show your future employer that you care about their company. Stand out by using simple action words in your resume. Pay special attention to analysis, the key words that were used in the job posting. People with better resumes get more interviews.

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How To Use Guest Blogging To Attract Work. 3 Unemployment Survival Lessons From Your Canadian English Teacher. Just one note about tip #3- specifically on a print resume, I don#8217;t agree that you should use unusual fonts. Unusual fonts aren#8217;t likely to be found on the computer of every recruiter who will see your resume. Instead, their computer will choose a font that *is* there, and the consequence will be your resume appearing differently than you intended. i am Eritrea refugee,i haven#8217;t degree. Analysis? i am Eritrea refugee,i haven#8217;t degree. TOP tips. Project Law Essay? Another one I would add which I described in medical data quite some detail in my blog is to use #8220;copywriting/marketing#8221;-style headlines rather than boring, corporate-like headlines in service your CV. You want to analysis, catch the recruiters attention and as long as you do it tactfully this can be a great differentiator. Sorry Jacob for the sudden and unexpected passing of your Uncle Harvey. With your very clear description of Mr Harvey#8217;s personality I can only strongly feel in nj my heart that we all have lost a very valuable memeber of our Human Family. Data Analysis? My deep condolences to you and also to Mr Haverey#8217;s family and friends.

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Essay on the Birds of India | Vertebrates | Chordata | Zoology. Here is an analysis essay on the ‘Birds of India’ for class 11 and 12. Find paragraphs, long and short essays on the ‘Birds of India’ especially written for school and college students. Essay on House Sparrow Essay on Crow Essay on Weaver Bird or Baya Essay on Common Myna Essay on Hill Myna Essay on Hoopoe Essay on Koel Essay on Large Indian Parrot Essay on Kites Essay on Vultures Essay on Owls Essay on Peacock Essay on Flamingo Essay on Woodpeckers Essay on Nilkanth. Essay on Bird # 1. House Sparrow: Passer domesticus (Fig.

27.2) is commonly known as house sparrow and in Hindi it is called gauriyya. It is favourite character-mickey a small bird growing up to 10 cm to 16 cm in length. The upper surface is earthy brown streaked with blackish and fulvous and medical data analysis underparts are whitish. Sexual dimorphism is distinct. The female is ash white and the male is on my favourite cartoon character-mickey mouse earthy brown with blackish throat and breast and white abdomen. Beak is conical and eyes small.

Feet are adapted for perching with three toes anterior and the first toe of hallux posterior. Sparrows are omnivorous but chiefly granivorous. Food consists chiefly of seeds and grain gleaned on the ground, but they also raid ripening crops of wheat and other cereals. It is an unfailing commensal on man. In winter these birds collect in medical data large flocks to feed in and around cultivation. Conclusions Research Paper? Breeding occurs almost throughout the year 3 to 5 pale white greyish eggs are laid at a time and successive broods are often raised. These are useful to medical data analysis agriculture by destroying large number of insect pests. Nest is a collection of straw and rubbish stuffed into a hole in a wall.

Passer domesticus is distributed world-wide except the Andamans and resume service Nicobars. Corvus splendens (Fig. 27.2) is commonly known as house crow in English and in Hindi it is called kowwa or kag. It is medical data analysis a most familiar bird of Indian towns and villages, growing in favourite character-mickey length from 32 to 42 cm. The body is covered with a more or less black plumage, while the neck and breast are grey coloured. Each leg bears 4 clawed toes, three directed forwards and one backwards. Feet are adapted for perching. Omnivorous.

It eats almost anything-dead rat, kitchen refuse, fish, eggs, locusts, termites, fruits and grain, etc. Nest is a platform of twigs with a cup-like depression lined with tow, coir fibre, etc. Medical Data? The koel commonly lays its eggs in the nests of crows. It is a useful scavanger and an unfailing commensal of man. Although they destroy locusts and other injurious insects when they are swarming but also raid ripening crops such as wheat and maize and do considerable damage to fruits in orchards. Corvus splendens is distributed throughout India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Myanmar.

Essay on Bird # 3. Writing Service? Weaver Bird or Baya: Ploceus philippinus (Fig. 27.2) is commonly known as weaver bird or baya. Data Analysis? It looks like sparrow and lives in flocks. It is among the thesis, world’s best nest builders. Elaborately woven bottle-shaped nests are commonly seen hanging from tree branches in the country-side. Weaver birds damage cereal crops. Essay on Bird # 4. Data? Common Myna: Acriodotheres tristis (Fig. 27.2) is commonly known as common myna.

It measures about 22.5 cm in resume length. The colour is perky dark brown getting paler on the under parts. Head, throat and breast are glossy black. Beak and legs are yellow. There is a small patch of bare yellow skin behind each eye.

When it flies, a white patch or bar becomes conspicuous on each wing. Medical Analysis? Sexes are alike. The ‘bank myna’ (Acridotheres ginginianus) or the ‘ganga myna’ in Hindi, is similar to common myna or ‘deshi myna’ (A. tristis), but its colour is an essay on my cartoon character-mickey mouse pale bluish grey instead of brown and analysis the naked skin around eyes is brick-red instead of yellow. Mynas are carnivorous eating fruits, insects and kitchen scraps. A. tristis is said to be the grasshopper hunter. It is common throughout Indian Region. It is a confirmed associate of man and follows him wherever he opens new settlements. Gracula religiosa (Fig. 27.2) is commonly known as pahari myna or bolti myna in Hindi.

The bird is about 30 cm in length. A glossy jet black myna with a conspicuous white patch on the wings, yellow bill (beak) and legs, and bright orange-yellow patches of naked skin and wattles on the head. Both the sexes are similar. Hill myna is project law essay nj arboreal and data seen in pairs or noisy flocks in hill forest. It feeds on the various wild figs in company with green pigeons, hornbills and other fruit-earing birds. It has a habit of settling on bare tops and dead trees in an essay character-mickey mouse forest clearings at sunset and uttering its loud, sharp, creaky shrieks. In flight the wings produce a metallic whirring noise, as in green pigeons.

An accomplished mimic and talker, and much prized as a cage bird. Nesting season is medical analysis March to October Nest is a collection of grass, leaves, feathers, etc., stuffed into natural hollows in lofty tree-trunks in forest, usually 10 metres to 20 metres up. Eggs are 2 or 3, deep blue sparsely spotted and blotched with reddish brown or chocolate. Hill myna is restricted and patchy in distribution. In India proper in three distinct areas: (i) Himalayan foothills to about 800 metres elevation from Almora to Assam, (ii) Chhota Nagpur, Orissa and South East Madhya Pradesh, (iii) Western Ghats north to about Mumbai. Also in Andamans, Sri Lanka and South Myanmar. Hoopoe or Upupa epops (Fig. 27.2) is known as ‘hudhud’ in Hindi. It is about the size of a myna. A reddish fawn coloured bird with black and white zebra markings on back, wings and tail.

A conspicuous fan-shaped crest, and long, slender, gently curved bill (beak) which is thesis about 5 cm long. Both the sexes are alike or similar. Singly or pairs usually on the ground in lightly-wooded country. The hoopoe is medical data found practically all over India. It is fond of lawns, gardens and grooves in and around villages and towns. It walks and runs with a quail-like but waddling gait, probing into the soil for food with bill partly open like forceps. When digging, the crest is folded back and projects in a point behind the resume writing portland or, head. It is flicked open and erected fanwise from time to time. The hoopoe is often found pecking and feeding on insects on the ground. Its name echoes its distinctive calls “hoo-po” and hud-hud-hud. It emits a soft musical, penetrating hoo-po or hoo-po-po repeated in runs, often intermittently for 10 minutes at data, a stretch.

It feeds on insects, grubs and pupae, hence, it is resume portland beneficial to agriculture. Nesting season principally February to data analysis May. It nests in natural tree hollow or hole in wall or ceiling of a building. Nest is lined with straw, rags and rubbish. Eggs 5 or 6, white in colour. Both sexes share in mouse feeding the young.

Hoopoe is found throughout India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Myanmar. Koel or Kokila (Fig. 27.2) is known as Eudynamis scolopacea. Its body is slender with a longer tail measuring up to data 42 cm in length about the resume writing service or, size of a crow Sexual dimorphism is well marked. Male is medical analysis glistening metallic black all over with a striking yellowish green bill or beak and crimson or blood red eyes. Female is brown profusely spotted and author thesis barred with white. It is very common and widespread bird of gardens and groves, and is perhaps better known by its melodious voice than by its appearance. It is the analysis, male bird whose voice is thesis personal often heard m summer during mango season. The female koel does not sing but utters a sharp and quick repeated ‘kik-kik-kik’. Food consists chiefly of banyan and peepal figs, various berries and hairy caterpillars.

Koel is medical a nest parasite and does not build a nest of its own but deposits its eggs in crow’s nest leaving them to be hatched, and the young to be reared, by the foster parents. It is entirely arboreal and never descends to the ground. Resume Writing Portland? During winter it is silent and, thus, often overlooked and analysis presumed to have migrated and becomes noisy with the advance of hot weather. Koel is distributed throughout India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Myanmar. Essay on Bird # 8. Large Indian Parrot: The Alexandrine or the large Indian parakeet, Psittacula eupatria (Fig. 27.2), is known as ‘hiraman tota’ in Hindi. It is about the size of author thesis a pigeon, with a slender body and data a long pointed tail. The body is covered by a brilliant grass green plumage.

The beak is short but stout, sharp-edged, deeply hooked and red. There is paper a conspicuous maroon patch on each shoulder. The female is green all over, but the male has a rose-pink collar and black throat. Upper mandible is movable on the frontal bone of skull. Data? Feet are adapted for theme, grasping holding and climbing. Medical Data Analysis? There are 2 front toes and 2 hind toes.

The outer hind toe is not reversible. Food consists chiefly of fruits. Parrots are gregarious with loud voices. Parrots can copy and speak some words like human being but not as distinctly as the hill myna. Even then they are popular domestic cage birds as they are easily procured. Parrots affect wooded country, orchards and resume service portland or cultivation. Occasionally collects in large flocks which do considerable damage to ripening fruits and standing crops of maize and jowar. Voice deeper and more powerful than that of the commoner Rose-ringed species.

Nesting season is chiefly December to April, varying locally. Nest is an data unlined hollow in thesis personal statement a tree-trunk at moderate heights and medical data analysis up to 30 metres up. Eggs 2 to 4, white, blunt ovals. Both sexes share all domestic duties. Parrots are distributed practically throughout India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Myanmar. In Pakistan apparently only in the environment of Karachi. Milvus migrans (Fig. 27.2) is commonly known as pariah kite and in project Hindi it is called cheel. Medical Data? It is quite large in size and grows up to 60 cm in length. Favourite Character-mickey Mouse? It is brown in colour. The tail is medical data analysis forked, a distinguishing character from portland or all other similar birds.

No sexual dimorphism. Both sexes are alike and medical share in the domestic duties. Food chiefly comprises offal and garbage, earthworms, winged termites, lizards, mice and expectations dickens young birds, etc. It lives in the neighbourhood of human habitations. Nesting season from September to medical data analysis April. Nest untidy platform of twigs, iron wire, tow rags and rubbish up in law essay a large tree or on medical analysis, roof or cornice of a building. Eggs 2 to 4, dirty pinkish white, lightly spotted and blotched with reddish brown. Resume Writing Or? Milvus (kite) is found throughout India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and analysis Myanmar.

In India, we have two kinds of kites, the common pariah kite (Milvus migrans) and the brahminy kite (Haliaster indus Fig. 27.2). The Brahminy kite is smaller than the other and much handsomer. Its head, neck and breast are pure white, while the rest of the plumage is rich chest-nut brown, its tail is rounded and not forked or wedged. Project Law Essay? Largely a scavenger in sea ports.

Food chiefly comprises offal, fish, frogs, small snakes, etc. Winged termites emerging from rain-sodden ground are hawked in the air. Nesting season principally December to April. Nest is a loose platform of twigs, lined with green leaves, etc., built up in a large peepul, banyan or similar tree growing near water. Eggs 2, greyish white, speckled and blotched with dingy reddish brown. Both sexes share in the domestic duties. The brahminy kite is found throughout India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Myanmar.

Two species of vultures are common. The black Pondichery or king vulture Sarcogyps calvus (Fig. 27.3) is commonly known as ‘raj gidh’. A huge, black turkey-like vulture measuring about 2 metres across the wings. Its deep black colour is relieved by two white patches on upper thighs, a white band on underside of wings, and data analysis a white collar at the base of neck.

The naked head, neck and legs are blood red in colour. The stout bill (beak) is hooked at the tip and bears a soft naked cere at the base. The feet are adapted for grasping with sharp claws. Both the law essay, sexes are alike. A carrion-feeder, it is timid, cowardly and repulsive-looking. Nesting season December to April. Nest is a massive platform of twigs in the top of a large tree 10 to 13 metres up often close to a village. Medical? Egg is single, white, fine textured roundish oval. It is found throughout India, Bangladesh, Pakistan and an essay on my favourite mouse Myanmar. It is not found in Sri Lanka.

The commonest Indian vulture is the whitebacked or Bengal vulture Pseudogyps bengalensis (Fig 27.3) called ‘gidh’ in medical data Hindi. A heavy, dirty blackish brown vulture with scrawny, naked head and neck. At rest and nj while banking in the air, the white back is diagnostic. Medical Data Analysis? In overhead flight a whitish band stretching along the underside of wings. Sexes are alike. It is sample for a our commonest vulture A carrion-feeder and useful scavenger on the countryside and in the environs of towns and villages. It collects in large gatherings to demolish animal carcasses with astonishing promptness and incredible speed.

Nesting season October to March. Nest is a large untidy platform of data analysis sticks in the top of a banyan, tamarind or similar tree, often along roadsides or near villages. Paper? Egg single, white occasionally speckled and data analysis spotted with reddish brown. Critical Expectations? It is found throughout India, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Myanmar. It is medical analysis not found in Sri Lanka. There are many species of owl. Two important species are described here. Project Law Essay Nj? Bubo bubo (Fig 27.3) is commonly known as ‘great horned owl’ and in Hindi it is called ghughu. It is a large, heavy and robust bird, measuring up to 60 cm in length.

The colour is dark brown streaked and mottled with tawny buff and black. Head is large and bears two conspicuous black ear tufts or horns. Two prominent feather tufts above head look like ears, hence, the data analysis, name ‘great homed owl’. The beak is personal short, parrot-like. The eyes are large, round, yellow and directed forwards .The legs are fully feathered, which are diagnostic of horned owl. Food consists mainly of small mammals, birds, lizards and other reptiles; also large insects and occasionally even fish and crabs. The bird spends the day resting on the ground under shelter of a bush or on some shady rock projection in a ravine or river. It is mainly nocturnal but it is frequently seen on data, move during the day time.

By maintaining a constant check on the rodents and other destructive vermin they are of great economic value to agriculture and deserve the strictest protection. Nesting season principally November to April. Eggs 3 or 4, creamy white, broad roundish ovals with a smooth texture. Laid without nest on bare soil, on ledge of cliff, or under shelter of bush on writing service or, level ground. Bubo bubo is distributed throughout India, Bangladesh, Pakistan and data Myanmar. It is not found in Sri Lanka. Brown fish owl (Bubo zeylonensis) or ‘ullo’ in Hindi.

It is similar to sample paper the homed owl in all respects, but its legs are un-feathered which is medical analysis diagnostic. Paper? Sexes are alike. A similar variety is the barn owl or screech owl (Tyto alba) about the medical analysis, size of jungle crow. It has a large round head with a monkey-like face, but no ear projections. Sexes are alike. The barn owl is also found throughout India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and thesis Myanmar. Pavo cristatus (Fig. 27.3) is commonly known as common peafowl or peacock. In Hindi it is called mor or mayur. It is the data, national bird of India and to kill it is penal crime.

Sexual dimorphism present. The male bird is about the size of a vulture, very gracious and beautifully coloured. Author? Its ornamented gorgeous ocellated tail is about 1 or 1.5 metres long. The gorgeous oscillated or eyed trail of cock is data actually not his tail but abnormally elongated upper fail coverts. Cock has also fan-shaped crest, brilliant metallic blue head, neck and breast. The hen is crested like cock, but lacks the research paper, trail and is a sober mottled brown with dull metallic green on the lower neck. Medical Data? Hen lays 3 to 5 eggs. Head bears eyes, nares at the base of short bill (beak) and ear openings. The feet are adapted for scratching and critical running. Peacock inhabits crop fields, dense scrubs, forests having streams and rivers. Peacocks are shy and polygamous birds usually living in a party or drove of one cock and 4 to 5 hens.

They feed on grain, vegetable shoots, insects, lizards, snakes, etc. At night they roost up in lofty trees, and at early dawn the jungle resounds with loud ugly screaming may-awe calls of the cocks. The dance of male peacock with its gorgeous tail coverts spread like a fan is very famous. The peacock dances specially on cloudy and rainy days to attract hen. Peacock is analysis found throughout India, Bangladesh and author thesis theme Sri Lanka.

Phoenicopterus (Fig. 27.3) is commonly called ‘Flamingo’ and ‘Boghans’ or ‘Charaj baggo’ or ‘Rajhans’ in Hindi. It is a pale rosy-white bird, stands one and a half metres high. Wing coverts are brilliant scarlet with black wing-border. It has elongated bare pink legs, long sinuous neck and heavy pink bill (beak) turned down at an angle (broken) from about half of its length. Data Analysis? The toes are webbed like ducks. Head bears eyes, nostrils at the base of beak and decurved beak. The fleshy tongue works like a plunger sieving out the water through the comb- like fringes or lamellae along the edge of the mandibles, leaving the minute food particles behind. The method of procuring food is to wade into shallow water and feed with their long necks bent down and head completely immersed.

Flamingos fly with fairly rapid wing beats in essays on great V-formation like geese. The slender neck is stretched in front, while the long red legs trail behind. Medical Data? The nest is cone-shaped mound of scrapped-up and plastered semi-liquid mud which becomes hard and author theme sun-baked and has an average height of about 30 cm. A flat pancake-like depression is tamped on the top in which the eggs-2 or only 1- are laid. The incubating flamingo sits on this with its legs folded under and not standing astride the medical data analysis, mound. The only known breeding place of flamingo is the Great Rann of Kutch whose vast numbers collect between October and March when water conditions are favourable. Flamingos live in flocks at jheels, brackish lagoons, on tidal mudflats, ponds and lakes.

They wade in essays on great expectations by charles dickens shallow water and feed on worms, small molluscs, crustaceans, insect larvae and seeds, etc. They fly rapidly. Flamingos are resident more or less throughout India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Afghanistan, France, East Africa, Siberia, etc. Dinopium benghalense (Fig. 27.3) is commonly known as golden- backed woodpecker and in Hindi it is called kath-phorwa. It is a small bird and is about 22 cm in length. Upper plumage is analysis distinctive golden yellow and black, while lower is buffy white streaked with black. The entire crown and occipital crest is crimson in male only, partly so in the female. Head bears large eyes, nostrils, ear openings and thesis statement long stout pointed beak adapted for wood-chiselling and piercing.

The tongue is protrusible and barb tipped. Toes are four, two directed in front and two behind. The tail is stiff and medical data wedge-shaped. Dinopium (Woodpecker) inhabits the grooves, gardens and light scrub in villages. It ascends to tree trunks tapping on the bark and thesis peer into cracks for ants, grubs, wood-boring beetles and other insects injurious to trees for its food. It is found in village groves, gardens and in lightly wooded country. Dinopium is distributed throughout India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and data analysis Myanmar. The golden-backed woodpecker (Brachypternus or Dinopium) is about the size of a myna. The yellow fronted pied or Mahratta woodpecker (Dryobates or Dendrocopos mahrattensis Fig. 27.3) is much smaller, about the size of a bul bul.

Coracias benghalensis (Fig. 27.4) is resume writing service or commonly known as Indian roller or blue jay and in Hindi it is data analysis called nilkanth or sabzak. It is an Oxford and Cambridge blue bird about the size of a pigeon. Head is big with heavy and black bill. The breast is rufous brown and pale blue abdomen and thesis statement under tail.

The dark and pale blue portions of the medical analysis, wings show up as brilliant bands in flights. Sexes alike. Food chiefly comprises crickets, grasshop­pers, beetles, and other insects but occasionally lizards, mice and frogs are also eaten. Nesting season chiefly March to July. Eggs 4 or 5, glossy white roundish ovals. The nest is thesis a collection of straw, feathers and analysis rubbish in resume writing portland a natural tree hollow.

It is essentially an inhabitant of open cultivated countryside and avoids dense forests. It is usually seen perched on an exposed tree stump or telegraph wires. The bird does great service to agriculture by medical, destruction of some injurious pests. Coracias benghalensis (nilkanth) is distributed throughout India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Myanmar. Welcome to NotesOnZoology.com! Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about research paper Zoology.

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