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Business Analyst Resume HealthCare Domain. I have a Business Analyst Consultant avaiable inhealth care domain. Here is her resume Please contact me if you have any suitable positions Sr. Business Analyst firstname.lastname@example.org. Summary of Qualifications. u Experienced Senior Business Analyst with over mba dissertation management 7 years of proven skills in thesis requirement gathering, interacting with developers, documenting various business processes, coordinating various projects contributing 3-Years of experience in Medicare D in region of Healthcare Industries. Mba Dissertation Management! u Experienced in interfacing with stakeholders and senior management with excellent communication and interpersonal skills. Help I Can! u Extensive experience working in all stages of system development Life Cycle.
Extensive experience leading, facilitating conducting Joint Application Development (JAD) sessions among user community, stake holders and technical management, creating project plans and schedules and in project management, managing changes. u Also, Analysed and synthesized results from Joint Application Development (JAD), proposed alternative tasks and transformed those into Business Requirement Document (BRD) . Communication Master Thesis! u Worked with Six Sigma methodology. u Experience in for requirements gathering, analysis, design in Rapid Application Development (RAD) sessions to converge early toward a design acceptable to the customer and feasible for the developers. u Experience in management using methodologies such as UML (Unified Modelling Language), OOAD (Object Oriented Analysis and Design) and APM (Agile Project Management). u Experience in Rational Unified Process ( RUP ), Rational Requisite Pro , Rational Clear Quest , and Microsoft Project . u Experience using Rational Rose and MS Visio for business process modelling and designing data flow diagrams (DFD). u Experience in conducting GAP analysis , User Acceptance Testing (UAT) , SWOT analysis , Cost Benefit analysis , ROI Analysis and Requirement Traceability Matrix (RTM) u Preparing graphical depictions of use cases including State Diagrams , Activity Diagrams , Sequence Diagrams , Use Case Diagrams , Component-Based Diagrams , Collateral Diagrams , including the Business Workflow Chart. u Very good understanding of Relational Database , Object Oriented Programming , Data Modelling , Data Mapping and menagerie thesis, Data-warehousing. In Project! u Expertise in essay writing Requirements , Technical Specs , Test Plans and Test Cases. u Prepared Functional Specification Documents, AS-IS and management, TO-BE workflows. u Strong skills performing data analysis , impact analysis, risks analysis, writing test cases for User Acceptance Testing . Gathered Functional and Data Requirements , analysed workflows and created Use Cases , Requirement Specifications , Report Specifications , Data Requirements , Data Mappings and Data Flow Diagrams . u Experience in implementation of HIPAA 4010 and HIPAA 5010 changes in the existing claim processing integrated system. u Experience in Rational Rose HP Quality Center. u Experienced working in Medicare and Medicaid projects. u Knowledgeable for menagerie vs. reality thesis gap analysis in changing old MMIS and Involved in testing new MMIS . u Excellent knowledge of Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) transaction and code set rules such as EDI 837,270,271,276,277,834,835 . u Proficient in ICD-9-CM and ICD -10-CM coding and claims processing. In Project! u Experienced in all phases of the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC), Rational unified process (RUP) and SCRUM methodology. u Managed a Test Director environment for menagerie vs. reality thesis the test team. This includes additions to all forms in the TestDirector application (i.e . Defects , Test Plan, Test Lab and Requirements ) and provides server maintenance when needed. u Broad Knowledge in reviewing Test Procedures , creating Test plans and detailed test plans for UAT, Test scenario, defining Test cases , both System Integration and executed many test cases Test Data reviewing and maintaining and executing detailed Test scripts for UAT , analyzing bugs, interacting with team members in fixing errors and User Acceptance Testing (UAT ) and in project management, also assisted in post –Production support. Worked on Black box and White box Testing. u Experience in leading eBusiness development.
u Experience in Data Mining and analysis. u Extensive expertise in databases like Oracle , SQL . u Thorough knowledge in Requirement analysis, Planning , Scheduling Tracking projects. u Worked extensively on B2B applications and B2C applications in transaction processing and E-commerce applications. u Concrete understanding of Business Requirement gathering , Business Process flow , Business Process Modelling and groups essay, Analysis , design documentation. u Strong problem solving and analytical skills with in-depth understanding of mba dissertation in project management, system development methodologies, techniques and penfield, tools. u Work with the development team to provide an environment ready for testers and end-users. u Facilitated test plan/test case walk-thru#8217;s for mba dissertation management the Business and Development teams to obtain feedback and/or approval sign-off. u Excellent organizational , interpersonal, communications, teamwork and leadership skills with proven skill to interact across multiple levels of organization. Technical Skills Summary. Web, VB Client/Server, Main Frame, Windows. SQL, JAVA, HTML, C++ , C. MS SQL, Oracle, MS Access. Test Director, QualityCenter, Quick Test Pro (QTP), Win Runner, HP QualityCenter. Communication! Visio, Front Office, Rational Rose, Rational Requisite Pro, Software Modeler, Team Test, Doors, PROLOG, Clearcase, Clear quest, Win Runner, Load Runner, Web Sphere, Microsoft Office 2010 ( Project, Word , Excel PowerPoint, Access , Visio) HIPAA, SOX, ISO, Six Sigma, CMM, FACET. Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan; MI May 11- Present. Management! Sr.
Business Systems Analyst. Project: The BCBSM HIPPA EDI Project was about conversion from 4010 to non fiction essay, 5010. In Project Management! BCBSM initiated three phases of communication, testing to pass and validate the 4010 to 5010 conversion. The project was based on testing the mba dissertation management 310 partners for the BCBSM and working with 3 types of Trading Partners comprising validation of Professional, Institutional and Dental 837 Transaction. Prior to the submission of claims to the BCBSM the groups essay analyst monitors the 3 step of mba dissertation, test process that software should pass. Testing in validator, which is a self testing tool that checks Level 1-6 based on is personal statement, requirements from the ANSI ASC X12N. Testing in Subsystem, the mba dissertation claims will process against our production stream while in a test environment returning the response files same as they be returned in help focus Prod environment and in project management, Testing in End to End Production files received “P” test files and go through 5010 Process .Conduct in depth pharmacy claims and intercultural master thesis, data analyses to monitor Medicare Part D Pharmacy. Payers would be BCBSM, FEP, Blue Care Network, Medicare Advantage, Medicare A, B and D, Medicaid, and Commercial (AETNA, HAP etc.) u Locate the 837 transactions and reports in the file that are in error and validate the data in the transactions. Dealt with the 837 and in project, 835 ANSI X12 transaction understanding loops segments, elements and essay, structure. Mba Dissertation! u Experience with AGILE Tool and escape essay, worked with Six Sigma methodology. u Worked in Irise. u Experienced with HIPAA – 4010/5010 standards. u Monitor Medicare Part D PBM contract including, but not limited to, rebate amounts, claim pricing and benefits, formulary coverage/tiering application and contractual performance measures.
Performance measures include validation of claim adjudication accuracy from both a pricing and benefit perspective. Participate in User Acceptance Testing to ensure system corrections are accurate. Mba Dissertation Management! u Experience in Rational Rose HP Quality Centre. u Establish and conduct monitoring activities centered on key CMS audit findings and best practices including, but not limited to, formulary administration, point of sale edits, coverage, and claim reject reports. u Experience in leading eBusiness development. u Provide internal departments with monitoring and audit support of Medicare Part D claims to ensure CMS compliance. Provide the necessary support to internal departments during CMS audits to document ongoing monitoring activities. Creative! u Participate in and/or lead cross departmental workgroups. u Extract pharmacy claims, benefit and eligibility data for studies. Gather any necessary enrollment, formulary, pricing, benefit and mba dissertation, trend information from internal departments and the PBM. u Knowledge of pharmacy data (claims, fees, eligibility, benefits, formulary) and statistical analyses. u Experienced with EDI files 835, 270/271, 276/277 file formats. u Extensively participated in verification of EDI file formats against intercultural communication master thesis Standards. Management! u Experienced with HIPAA – 4010/5010 standards. u Experienced with EDI files 834,835,270/271, 276/277 file formats. u Extensively participated in creative verification of EDI file formats against Standards. Mba Dissertation! u Enhanced or developed new documentation of the glass menagerie vs. reality, current business process flow and definition of future EDI business information flow. u General process improvement input by attending conference calls and partner visits. u Responsible for in project managing relationships with the business units as well as interacting with software vendors and social groups essay, consultants for development and support.
u Analyzed trading partner specifications and created EDI mapping guidelines. In Project! u Gathered accurate and relevant incident information and Documented problems for escalation. u Developed and maintained documentation of all technical and creative non fiction essay, procedural changes affecting the in project Specialist’s area of responsibility. u EDI healthcare experience working with implementation guides, TR3s. u Hands on experience with the 837 and 835 ANSI X12 transaction understanding loops segments, elements and structure is intercultural master thesis, a must. u Used Validator Self Testing Tool to accepts claims from the Trading Partner, further monitored errors from 4010 to 5010. Mba Dissertation In Project! u Expertise in EDDI: Environment Data Compression settings to see what is set for the Output Data, validating 999s and what is personal for college, 835s. Mba Dissertation In Project Management! u Worked on hand with Service Center Tool: this is used to update the records of clearing houses, vendors and submitters. Essay! u Worked with WTX mainframe for comparison of 4010 Reports with 5010 reports( 277CA) and transactions (277) and reject reports. u Mapping 4010 and 5010 differences. u Ability to mba dissertation in project, read and interpret 997/999 acknowledgments. u Ability to read and what is personal for college, interpret 277CA Reports and Transactions acknowledgments. u Ability to mba dissertation in project management, read and is personal statement, interpret 835 responses. u Coordinated the setup of mba dissertation in project, new trading partners , including planning, project management, testing, documentation, and menagerie illusion vs. reality, implementation. Developed and maintained functional specifications for new / existing applications needed to maintain/enhance EDI processing and address the requirements of new trading partners. Participate in transaction analysis and mapping needs, system / interface analysis, and work with programmers to implement changes as needed. Ensure that regulatory transactions and security standards have been met. u Excellent Analytical skills verbal and written communication skills, individuals will be interacting with external trading partners and management. u Proficient with Microsoft Office. Universal Health Care, Saint Petersburg, Florida Aug 09- March 11. Business Systems Analyst. Universal Health Care is mba dissertation in project management, a Medicare/Medicaid health insurance provider based in St. Petersburg, Florida.
It provides managed care services for government sponsored health care programs, focusing on Medicare and Medicaid. It offer a variety of health insurance products to our Members, including Medicare Advantage plans in 13 States, Medicaid in the State of Florida, and a Long-Term Community Diversion program in Florida (designed to enable seniors to live a healthy and menagerie illusion thesis, comfortable life in their homes). All of its subsidiaries operate under the umbrella of Universal Health Care and maintain the same high standards of quality health care and customer service. The project implemented HIPAA 4010 and HIPAA 5010 changes in mba dissertation the existing claim processing integrated system. It also allowed the providers to automate tasks like Patient management, with Monitoring and audit support of Medicare Part D claims. Appointment scheduling and recalls, Accounts receivable management and collections, Reporting, and Filing claims through EDI X12 format transaction sets in penfield essay compliance with HIPAA standards. Mba Dissertation In Project Management! u Implemented an integrated RUP solution with complete line of traceability for all the artifacts of web development projects. u Worked with Six Sigma methodology. u Responsible for designing future state processes for HIPAA 5010 transaction processing EDI’s 837 and 835. u Analyzed HIPAA 5010 related to 837,835, 834. Transactions and performed gap analysis between HIPAA 4010 and for college, 5010. u Knowledgeof ICD-9-CM and management, ICD -10-CM coding and claims processing. u Involved in the creation and maintenance of the Workflow plans and artifacts. u Prepared Business Process Models that includes modeling of communication thesis, all the activities of the in project management business from the conceptual to procedural level. Followed top down, leveled technique for building Business Process Models. u Experience with AGILE Tool and methodology. u Worked in Irise.
u Serve as subject matter expert with respect to the annual benefit changes and rules associated with the Medicare Part D program. u Knowledge of pharmacy data (claims, fees, eligibility, benefits, formulary) and statistical analyses. u Conducted SWOT Analysis for better market understanding and fool proof project implementation. u Experience in Rational Rose HP Quality Centre. u Documented Requirement Traceability Matrix(RTM) for requirement elicitation and linkup to deliverables. u Experience with Claims Platforms NASCO. u Worked with the the glass menagerie illusion vs. reality thesis individual sub-project managers to translate these into PRDs (Product Requirement Documents) for the development teams. u Worked with XML format and being able to read XML files and use XMP parsing tools. u Examined, analyzed and model Test plans , Use Case Model cases Test procedures based on management, RUP methodology. u Experience in penfield escape essay leading eBusiness development. u Designed and developed Quality Assurance standard and processes to all levels of project team. In Project! u Performed Gap analysis for vs. reality thesis the modules in production, conducted feasibility study and performed impact analysis for proposed enhancements. u Verified the functional aspect as per the Business Process and validated the interfaces with the other systems and data conversion from the existing system. u Involved in walkthroughs and mba dissertation in project management, meetings with development team to what, discuss related issues. In Project Management! u Used Rational Rose to visually determine the proper structure, key elements and optimal design for the glass menagerie vs. reality database and to aid efficient creation of tables, stored procedures. u Critically evaluated the information gathered from in project management multiple sources during requirement gathering and analysis and responsible for tracking, tracing and managing requirements using Rational Requisite. u Experience in Data Mining and analysis. u Used MS Project for various planning and social groups essay, budgeting activities. u Performed UAT and loggedtest results according to the test plans using TestDirector. u Wrote clear, concise detailed System Requirements Specification(SRS) documents and mba dissertation in project management, user documentation in escape essay accordance to guidelines and standards of a level where developers can interpret, design and develop the application with minimum guidance. Technical Environment : Microsoft Office( MS Word, MS Excel, MS PowerPoint, MS Visio, MS Access), Rational Requisite, RUP, XML, VB.NET, Oracle, RUP, UML, SQL, Test Director. Molina Healthcare Inc ., Wilmington , California Dec 07 – July 09. Molina Healthcare has grown into one of the mba dissertation in project leaders in providing quality healthcare for financially vulnerable individuals and families. Currently, Molina Healthcare arranges for the delivery of healthcare services or offers health information management solutions for nearly 4.3 million individuals and families who receive their care through Medicaid , Medicare and other government funded programs in 16 states. The focus of the project was the replacement of 22 year old Medicaid Management information System (MMIS).
It included technical and professional services related to analysis and escape, assessment of the current MMIS and in project management, EDI claims , documentation of help i can focus on my homework, business and technical requirements, preparation of cost analysis and implementation of new MMIS automation system. u Coordinated with the mba dissertation management stakeholders and project key personnel to gather functional and non-functional requirements during JAD sessions. u Studied the existing business process and created AS-IS workflow to help i can homework, illustrate the mba dissertation in project existing system. u Recorded requirements in what statement the Requirement Traceability Matrix (RTM) defining each technical requirement in detail from areas like: main hardware, application software, networks, servers, internet and desktop configuration. u Propose strategies to implement HIPAA 4010 in the new MMIS system eventually move to HIPAA 5010. u Experience with AGILE Tool and methodology. u Worked in Irise. u Responsible for the full HIPAA compliance lifecycle from management gap analysis, mapping, implementation and testing for intercultural communication master thesis Medicaid Claims. u Responsible for gap analysis in changing old MMIS and mba dissertation in project management, Involved in testing new MMIS. Also, accountable for Medicaid Claims Resolution/Reimbursement for peach state health plan using MMIS. Social Groups! u Assisting the project manager in creating the business case and project plan. u Served as a liaison between the internal and external business community (Claims, Billing, Membership, Capitation, Customer service, membership management, provider management, advanced Healthcare management, provider agreement management) and the project team. u Actively analyzed current business processes (Claims, Recipient eligibility and enrollment etc.) and worked with management to improve and implement enterprise solutions to ensure compliance. u Work with business representatives to in project, understand data marts requirements and priorities and ensure that IT works is appropriately aligned. u Responsible for creating business work flows and processes and creating management reports based on creative, the analysis. u Experience with Claims Platforms NASCO. u Experience in Rational Rose HP Quality Centre. u Followed the in project management UML based methods using Rational rose to create Use Cases, Activity Diagram, Sequence Diagram, Collaboration Diagram that include Functional and intercultural master, Non-Functional specifications to hand off to development teams. In Project! u Actively involved in updating internal processes (submit claims, check eligibility), updating data collection and help i can focus homework, data reporting. u Defects and bug testing by using Rational Clear-Quest, Configuration management and Version control with Clear-Case. Technical Environment: Microsoft Office(MS Word, MS Excel, MS PowerPoint, MS Visio, MS Access), RUP, MS Project, ANSI X12- EDI UML, Rational Requisite Pro, MS Word, Visio, SQL, MS Excel, Mercury Quality Center. CNA Insurance, Parsippany , New Jersey June 06 – Nov 07. CNA Insurance with more than 40 years of experience in the healthcare industry, CNA is a trusted leader and one of the top five underwriters of healthcare insurance products and services for a wide spectrum of organizations. In Project! We offer extensive industry knowledge; valuable insight and core coverage’s tailored to meet the unique needs of healthcare providers.
Involved in Claims Processing System , this project consisted of providing various reports to the management to track how many claims are we processing and what are the efforts being done to illusion vs. reality thesis, contain claims cost. u Propose strategies to implement HIPAA 4010 in the new MMIS system eventually move to HIPAA 5010. u Involved in the creation of the Mockups and mba dissertation in project, Use Cases for penfield fire escape essay MACD quotes and Orders using MS Visio. u Documented business requirements, and management, communicated these requirements with the development team for design and implementation of essay, business solutions. Mba Dissertation! u Worked with Business Analysis team to prepare a detailed Business Requirement Document. u Analyzed Business Requirements to develop Functional and escape, detail Design Specifications of the application. u Conducted Requirement Gathering Sessions with the stakeholders. u Interacted with the project team to help define the Business and System Objectives, confirmation of scope, identify constraints and the measures of success for the system to be developed. u Conducted the JAD sessions, daily meetings, brainstorming sessions to solve the problems and in project management, enhance the workflow. u Assisted in building a Business analysis process model using Rational Rose and Visio. u Gathered Functional Requirements from users and the management. Coordinated all the requirements in team based environment. u Acted as liaison between the senior management and different teams with effective presentations. Creative Non Fiction! u Experience in Rational Rose HP Quality Centre. u Monitored change requests and documented requirements, integrating them with Use Clear Cases. u Incorporated stakeholder feedback throughout project lifecycle to ensure project quality and customer satisfaction. u Did Technical documentation for the project using tools like Visio, Word, etc. u Used MS Project for managing schedules, resources and in project, collaboration. Technical Environment: Microsoft Office( MS Word, MS Excel, MS PowerPoint, MS Visio, MS Access),RUP, MS Project, Toad, Visio, Oracle, HTML, Test Director, Rational Rose, UML 2.0, MS Project. Menagerie Thesis! Thomson Micromedex, Denver, CO Mar 05 – April 06. Thomson Micromedex is a leader in providing software solutions for in project hospitals. Micromedex provides a comprehensive set of focus on my homework, alerts, answers, protocols and interventions that directly address clinicians need for the latest information. Thomson is strongly positioned to help support healthcare provider, hospital, and healthcare information system (HIS) vendor efforts to address #8216;meaningful use#8217; requirements for providers and hospitals as defined by the HITECH Act. I was involved in the generation of an alert management system (Xpert Alerts), which generated alerts for users in the healthcare industry (Online and in project management, Mobile device users). u Gathered Business Requirements, analyzed data/workflows, and defined the scope. u Developed prototype of a new mobile information processing application. Met with client groups to determine User Requirements and Goals, thus converting User Requirements into Business Requirements and User and Technical Requirement Specification. u Facilitated collection of Functional Requirements from system users, and prepared Business Requirement documents and have applied the RUP model throughout the entire development and testing process. u Involved in creative non fiction development of Business and Technical Requirements in preparation of Design and Functional Specifications for mba dissertation in project management Business Needs and Processes. u Worked closely with Business users to determine the workflow of the product. u Performed walkthroughs of the prototype with end users to better understand user needs. u Followed a structured approach to organize requirements into logical groupings of essential business processes, business rules, and information needs, and ensured that critical requirements are not missed. u Followed the UML based methods using MS Visio to create Use Case Diagrams , State Chart Diagrams and Sequence Diagrams. u Prepared Logical Process and what is personal statement, Data Models that contained set of diagrams and supporting documents containing the in project essential business elements, detailed definitions, and descriptions of the relationships between the creative non fiction essay data elements to mba dissertation in project, analyze and document Business Data Requirements.
Coordinated work plan between project manager and client. Social Groups Essay! u Worked closely with the in project offshore team to convey Technical and Functional specifications. Help Homework! u Coordinated with the offshore UI designer to prepare the mba dissertation management prototype for the application. Technical Environment: Microsoft Office, Tomcat, JBoss, Windows XP, Business Objects, Toad, Visio, Oracle, HTML. Help! Magellan Health Services Inc., Lemoyne, PA Jan 04 – Jan 05. Magellan Health Services, Inc. provides managed behavioral healthcare, radiology benefits management, specialty pharmaceutical management, and Medicaid administration products and services in the United States. The company provides services to health plans, insurance companies, employers, labor unions, and various governmental agencies The company’s radiology benefits management services consist of management, managing the delivery of diagnostic imaging services, which are provided under the contracts with managed care companies, health insurers and the glass menagerie vs. reality thesis, other health plans, Medicaid, and Medicare members. I was involved in updating an existing quoting and enrolling program based on the business requirements and also integrated eligibility check application so application can check before offering plans like Medicare. u Gathered Business Requirements, analyzed data/workflows , and defined the scope. u Met with client groups to determine User Requirements and Goals, thus converting User Requirements into Business Requirements and User and Technical Requirement Specification. u Facilitated collection of Functional Requirements from system users, and prepared Business Requirement documents.
u Responsible for claim adjudication like Medicare claims, professional claim , institutional claims . u Applied the RUP model throughout the entire development and in project, testing process. u Involved in development of Business and Technical Requirements in preparation of Design and essay, Functional Specifications for Business Needs and Processes. u Worked closely with Business users to management, determine the workflow of the product. u Performed walkthroughs of the non fiction essay prototype with end users to better understand user needs. u Followed a structured approach to organize requirements into logical groupings of essential business processes, business rules, and information needs, and ensured that critical requirements are not missed. u Followed the UML based methods using MS Visio to create Use Case Diagrams , State Chart Diagrams and mba dissertation in project, Sequence Diagrams. u Prepared Logical Process and Data Models that contained set of diagrams and essay, supporting documents containing the essential business elements, detailed definitions, and descriptions of the relationships between the data elements to analyze and mba dissertation in project, document Business Data Requirements. Technical Environment: Microsoft Office, Windows XP, Toad, SQL, JBo, Business Objects,
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Dissertation For Mba Project …
Professional Cover Letter Formats. Cover letters are not just a protective jacket for mba dissertation management your CV but also is communication master, your first chance by which you can impress an employer. In Project Management! It is a single-page letter that you should put in as a part of any job application. Do you need to write a cover letter for a job? You may feel it is unnecessary, since you are already providing a resume full of information. But that’s not the what statement for college case!
A cover letter should not be included when in the ad it is mentioned to NOT include otherwise, you should always include a cover letter. The first thing a potential employer will see in your job application is the cover letter and this is an opportunity for mba dissertation in project you to stand out from the crowd and the recruiter puts you to the next round. Therefore, before sending in your profile, spend hours on perfecting your CV at the expense of your cover letter. Statement! If you need some inspiration on what to include and what format to use – guides, just remember not to in project management copy them as exact templates. Type/Situations to Write a cover letter: a. Cover letters for escape when there’s no job advertised. Sometimes it happens that you want to work for an organization even though there no jobs advertised hence, contacting these businesses directly to ask if they have any jobs available is a perfectly legitimate thing. It shows an management, elevated level of motivation and creative non fiction essay enthusiasm, sometimes may lead to mba dissertation in project management a job offer but even if there’s no vacancy, there’s a chance they could keep your details and contact you when a job is master thesis, available. This type of cover letter is written in a comparable way as a general cover letter, but with a few differences: Show you’ve researched the organization or business and know about what it does Mention why you’re interested in working for them (in terms of mba dissertation in project management, what they do and your own long-term goals) Show how your skills, experience and interest fit in with the goals of the business or organization Indicate what you’re hoping to intercultural communication thesis get out of contacting them – do you want to in project know about positions currently available or to illusion thesis speak to someone about what it’s like to work there? Finish the letter by saying that you’ll contact them in a couple of mba dissertation management, weeks, but that you’re happy to non fiction essay talk to them if they want to contact you before that. If you haven’t heard back in a couple of weeks, it’s okay for management you to penfield fire essay contact them to ask for a response – try emailing them or calling them to discuss your letter directly.
Sometimes you may be asked to send your cover letter as an email instead of a separate document. If this is the management case you should: In the groups Subject mention your name and mba dissertation the job title (e.g. “Jayani Lal – Application for Administration Assistant role”) Remember you still need to use the name of the person you’re writing to help Avoid formatting the body of the email like a traditional letter – leave out the contact details (yours and theirs) and just go straight to the “Dear XXXX” part. End the email with a professional signature that includes your phone number Always send the in project management email from penfield essay a professional looking email address. Either applying for a specific advertised job, or contacting a potential employer to mba dissertation check for essay any vacancies you need a cover letter which contains: Introduce you Mention the job (or kind of job) you’re applying for (or looking for) Match your skills and mba dissertation management experiences with the skills and experiences required by the job Encourage the reader to read your resume Finish with a call to action (e.g., requesting an the glass menagerie vs. reality thesis, interview or asking to in project management meet) O How long should a Cover letter be? A cover letter shouldn’t be more than one page in any case. It’s only illusion thesis, a summary of the information that you have put in your resume, so keep in in project, your mind that you need to creative essay be to the point while writing and keep it short. O How to Introduce Yourself in a Cover Letter.
Employers everyday get dozens of responses from job seekers on a single advertised job, in turn making the hiring process very competitive. Hence, professionally introducing yourself is the only key that will make you stand out in mba dissertation in project, the market. · Attention-Grabber Sentence : Start your cover letter telling about your qualifications because sometimes job advertisements state the minimum number of years of homework, work experience before further consideration. · Reason for in project management Contact : Clearly mention why you are contacting the help focus company and include the name of the advertised job opening in the first sentence. · Source of Job Lead: Employers often want to know how you heard about mba dissertation in project management job opportunities advertisements, referrals, word-of-mouth or networking. This technique could help your resume rise to the top of the pile, if the hiring manager knows of whom you speak. · Value to the Company : Companies would like to know what benefit and value you can bring to the organization – they have business goals they have to meet, and they need employees that can help in this endeavor.
Now the question arises here….. How to design effective and professional cover letter? The same cover letter should never be used for different job applications. Your cover letter should reflect that you are aware of work profile and what the organization requires by specifying your skills and penfield fire escape qualities and how can you a useful asset to organization’s needs. Simple ways by which you can make your cover letter as specific as possible are: Find out whom to address it to: Avoid addressing your letter “To Whom It May Concern”, it might take a little bit of effort to find whom to mba dissertation in project management address, but it’s worth it. While addressing a letter simple don’t use the person’s first name it would be more appropriate to use either “Mr.” or “Ms.”. Find out more about the job: In the process of finding out non fiction essay whom to address your application to, try to speak to that person so that you can ask questions that will help you form an impressive cover letter. Questions you might consider: Can you tell me something about the job? Whom do you consider as an ideal candidate for in project the job?
Is there a position description document I can look at? Find out more about the fire escape essay company: This is also an mba dissertation in project management, effective way to work out non fiction how to mba dissertation management tailor your cover letter and some tips for the same are as follows: Look for information online using the company name. I Can Focus On My Homework! Check out the management About Us page in the company’s website. Call the recruitment agency and social groups ask who the employer is in case the company name is skipped in the ad. Important Ingredients of a Good cover letter. What TO include in a cover letter: A list of in project management, things that you should keep in mind to include when you sit down to write a cover letter. Your name and contact details: Always put your name and what is personal statement for college contact details, you may skip the mba dissertation postal address, at the top of what for college, your cover letter. Mba Dissertation! But don’t forget to include your email and phone number which you’ll be able to answer- no sense giving your home phone if you’re not going to be home to answer it. Ensure to give a professional sounding email address since an email address like email@example.com doesn’t create the right impression.
Their name and essay contact details: Under your own name and in project contact details you should include the creative non fiction essay recipient’s details: The name of the person you’re writing to Their position or the name of their company Their contact details. If this information isn’t available you can directly call the company to ask to whom should the application be addressed to. The name of the job you’re going for: In the starting of your cover letter clearly mention for management which job you’re applying for e.g. “Re: Application for Stock Controller position”or in groups, the opening paragraph e.g. “I am writing to management apply for the recently advertised Stock Controller position.” A list of your relevant skills: Mention a brief summary of your skills and experiences that match the job description in your cover letter. While applying for a job ad, do not skip answering the”essential” list of “desirable” skills and experience.Remember to i can focus cite examples as to how you’ve used the skills or how you got it. A summary of why you’re right for the job: After listing your skills and experience you should explain how does this intend that you’re suitable for the job. Speak their language: It is always good and easy to mba dissertation in project convince people why you’re suitable for the job when you speak in the same language as people in that job. Do a great deal of research on what company does and how it talks about itself, this you can use in your cover letter. Help I Can Focus On My! Ask them to check out your resume contact you: Consider ending your cover letter by asking the reader to look at your resume and also ask them to contact you about an interview. You may try something simple like this, “I have attached a copy of my resume for your consideration. Mba Dissertation! I look forward to hearing from you about this application.” What NOT to include in a cover letter: The things that you should NOT include in your cover letter are listed down here: Typos or factual errors: Always spellcheck your cover letter you may also ask someone else to read it and point out any mistakes or confusing things and double-check everything in your cover letter before final submission. Mistakes on cover letters are worse than typos.
Your entire resume: This is the most common mistake, never cut and is personal for college paste your resume into your cover letter, try to re-word, re-phrase the information rather than just repeating it. Using “I” too much: Avoid using too much of mba dissertation in project management, ‘I’ in your cover letter like “I believe”, “I have” and intercultural thesis “I am”. Once you’re done writing your letter, look over it and see if you can take out – or rewrite – any sentences that start with “I”. Don’t mention your other job applications: It might happen that you have more than one job application at mba dissertation in project management, any time, it’s important not to mention other job applications. Remember that you’re trying to convince people you really want the job. Communication Master Thesis! Otherwise it will become hard for you to do it if they get to know that you’re looking for other jobs as well. 40+ Professional Cover letter templates.
Cover letter is in project, you’re the first method of communication with an employer. Hence it becomes vital that when it’s written it should compel to read further from the very first line. Here are some cover letter templates and non fiction essay samples that might help you increase your chances of getting an interview. Academic Cover Letter: While applying for a faculty position at a college or university, the cover letter will be reviewed by Human Resources department staff to determine if you meet the basic qualifications for the job and it is forwarded to a search committee comprised mostly of in project, faculty members and academic deans. Orient your letter towards the college and emphasis on creative essay teaching and research in accordance to mba dissertation in project the expectations in that setting. Colleges will typically want to creative essay hire new faculty who are passionate about their current research therefore do not miss to describe a current project and express an enthusiasm for in project management continuing such work. Highlight any grants and funding you have received to intercultural communication master undertake your research activities even incorporate any awards or recognition received for your teaching or research activities. You can also devote some words to in project describe your contributions to the college communities where you worked such as committee work, advising and collaborations with other departments. Business / Administration: The most important qualifications while applying for administrative and business jobs will be your communications skills and statement your evaluation starts when the hiring manager reviews your cover letter and resume. Making it important that there itself you form a good impression. Before you start writing a cover letter, look at administration and business cover letter examples to in project get an intercultural communication thesis, idea of how to sell your credentials to mba dissertation management the hiring manager.
O Technical Business: Merging the skills required in business technology is a valuable part of intercultural thesis, writing an mba dissertation management, effective cover letter and also include specific examples in help focus on my, your work experience that relate directly to the position you are applying for. In the following example, the applicant is in project, vying for a position as a Technical Business Analyst and has a significant amount of experience make a note of how their past work is intercultural thesis, related to the job posting as well as the business’ success as a whole. Notice the referral from a business contact mentioned here, if you include a personal reference in the opening paragraph, it grabs the attention of the hiring manager or recruiter and may land you the interview. Ensure to include technical details without over explaining the work while writing such cover letters and remember that the mba dissertation in project management reader wants to understand what you know – particularly the programs and languages and how that related to your job. Consultant: In this type of cover letter always include your career plans, key accomplishments, and provide a glimpse into your personality and penfield fire essay if you’re a fresher, you can highlight projects you were a part of during your schooling. Remember to adjust the management details to fit your situation and the specific position you are applying for while following any template to prepare your cover letter. Management: A cover letter written for a management level should include your accomplishments, the leadership roles and how you can help the organization succeed if you were to communication get the job. What to Include in in project management, the Cover Letter? Make your cover letter in such a way that your qualifications match up to the management skills listed in the job posting. The stronger your cover letter and creative non fiction essay resume matches to mba dissertation in project management the job requirements, the better are your chances of help i can focus on my homework, getting selected.
Including quantifiable successes (numbers, percentages, growth statistics) is a way to show what you have achieved at the companies you have worked for and it is especially important for high-level jobs because employers expect a proven track record of success in the individuals they hire for management roles. Marketing: Are you interested in making marketing your career? If yes, while applying for your first position in marketing include in your cover letter any previous experience that highlights your related skills and in project abilities, and builds upon your resume. Tips for Writing an Entry Level Marketing Cover Letter are as follows: Include related experience i n the body of your letter which are related to the job you’re applying for. If you are a fresher in the glass illusion vs. reality thesis, this then include experiences where you demonstrated skills and abilities required for the job. One way to make your cover letter stand out is to mba dissertation provide specific examples of times you demonstrated skills or qualities needed for i can focus homework the job.
Examples prove that you have what it takes to mba dissertation do the job well. Use keywords which you will find in the job description – words that emphasize the skills or qualities needed for the job. Including some of these keywords in your cover letter emphasizes how active and smartly suitable you are. A cover letter sample or template can help you decide what information to groups include, and how to format your cover letter however, while using be sure to in project management change the what is personal information to fit the job you are applying for in project or it backfire you in interview round. Use the official business letter format when writing your letter as you want this letter to be professional. What Is Personal Statement For College! Edit, edit, edit… Be sure to mba dissertation in project thoroughly proofread your cover letter to be polished and statement for college professional, so that you make a strong first impression. Public Relations: When changing industries, or jobs, it is important to include the skills you have developed that will easily transfer into management this new position in your cover letter.
Including examples of projects, teams, or training’s you’ve been a part, allows the company to gain a better understanding of your background, and determine the impact you’ll make on the business. Remember, this cover letter is a guide and what statement for college it is important to tailor the letter to fit your situation and the job for which you’re applying. Recent College Graduate: Writing a cover letter as a recent college graduate can seem difficult, because you have limited work experience however, you still need to mba dissertation in project prove to the employer that you are an ideal candidate for creative essay the job.Tips for Writing a Recent College Graduate Cover Letter are as mentioned: Use keywords. Mba Dissertation! Take a careful look at the job description, noting any skills or experiences that the description notes and on my try to mba dissertation in project management include some of those keywords in your cover letter. Fire Essay! This will help the employer build a connection between your experiences and the job. Focus on activities and responsibilities. In the body of your cover letter, emphasize on the skills and experiences that make you a suitable candidate and stand out from others. Avoid focusing on your GPA or grades, or other metrics related to college, instead focus on activities you did, and responsibilities you held like an internship, or were a leader in a school organization. These examples go beyond showing that you were a good student. They show you have what it takes to be a good employee. Sell yourself.
Avoid talking about how much you want the job; instead, focus on how you will help out the company. Emphasize ways that you can add value at the company, and why you are a good fit for them. In Project! Show your knowledge of the company and for that you need to do some home-work. Research on the company before writing the cover letter as it gives a good impression. Penfield Fire! If possible, explain what you know about the company (or the mba dissertation in project management department the job is in). Perhaps you’ve read an article about the company’s recent successes, or you’ve read and believe in the company’s mission statement. Knowledge of the i can on my homework company will put you a step above the management competition.
Edit, edit, edit. Make sure you thoroughly read through your letter, editing any types or grammar errors while keeping your letter short and to the point and an important point to fire essay note is to use language that is easy to understand. Ask a friend or career coach to read it for you as well. Email Cover Letter : When you’re sending an email cover letter, it’s important to follow the company’s directions on mba dissertation management how to submit your cover letter and resume. Tips for Writing an Email Cover Letter: Write in paragraphs of about two to four sentences and use proper grammar and spelling, just as you would in any other letter. Always make it a point to proofread yourself before sending it because once it’s gone you can’t help it. Social Groups! Avoid including emoticons or images of any sort. Perhaps more important than formatting, though, is the content of your cover letter. You can review the email cover letter samples, but be sure to personalize them to use to apply for jobs a directly copy pasted won’t work since it is easily identifiable.
Pay close attention to the detail of the job description – specifically, the responsibilities and requirements- and make sure your cover letter reflects how you are a good fit. Mba Dissertation In Project Management! This can be achieved by picking and using the social keywords as per the job profile and the work area intended. Flight Attendant Cover Letter : Jobs for flight attendants are competitive and in project management the only way to stand out from the crowd is to write a strong cover letter that emphasizes your unique skills and abilities which make you unique to the queue of people standing outside. In this case, an example of a cover letter for a flight attendant job can be help, choose one and penfield escape essay then personalize it to reflect your own qualifications for the job. Tips for Writing a Strong Flight Attendant Cover Letter.
Individualize your cover letter. Make sure to write a unique cover letter for each job you apply for. Mba Dissertation! Every airline is different, and each one has different requirements and help company culture. Your resume will stand out if you take the time to individualize each letter. Mba Dissertation Management! Emphasize your skills. In the body of your letter, emphasize the skills you possess that make you a strong flight attendant. Use the list of flight attendant skills (see below) as well as the job listing, to get a sense of what skills you should highlight in your letter. Use examples. Fire Escape Essay! When stating in mba dissertation management, your cover letter that you have certain skills, include specific examples of creative non fiction, times you have demonstrated those skills. If you have never been a flight attendant, you can draw on other work, volunteer, or school experiences to show your skills.
For example, you can demonstrate your customer service skills with an example from a job at a clothing store. Edit, edit, edit. Be sure to thoroughly edit your cover letter for spelling and grammar errors. Flight attendant jobs are very competitive, and even a small spelling error can hurt your chances of getting an interview. In Project Management! Follow up. One way to stand out from the applicant pool is to follow up with the employer a week or two after sending your cover letter.However, do not do this if the job listing specifically asks you not to contact them. Research Technician: As a research technician, strong analytical, writing, and research skills are desired therefore highlight these skills, plus any other relevant skills, in your cover letter. In addition, provide examples of any laboratory experience or research you’ve been a part of.
Try putting in your research papers that you presented or may be working with any faculty closely on is personal for college a project. Software Developer: If you are applying for a job as a software developer, you will likely need to send a cover letter along with your resume submission. In Project! Consider, thinking of your cover letter as a place to showcase your most relevant skills. For instance, if the job calls for experience in a certain programming language, you can mention your certification or projects you have built using that language. Remember that each certification you mention, you have a hard proof of it available in your folder. Companies may be interested in how you work with others and essay how you would fit in with the management company culture, in addition to your coding knowledge.The cover letter also offers you an opportunity to fire escape explain why you are interested in this position, at this particular company. Social Worker: Do you need to write a cover letter for a social worker position?
Review information on what to include in your letter, along with an example of a cover letter you can edit to fit your own employment history and skills. · Expanding on previous work experiences in mba dissertation, your cover letter is the glass vs. reality, a great way to provide a narrative on how you would be an asset to the job and organization. Mba Dissertation In Project Management! Make sure to also include certifications you’ve received or related workshops you’ve attended. · You can also express the challenges that you face and even the criticism if any from the society. ·Be sure to highlight your most relevant experience and skills. That way the employer can see at a glance why you are a good match for intercultural thesis the position. Waiter: Are you applying for mba dissertation in project management a job as a waiter or waitress?
For some positions, you will apply by completing an online application or you may be required to apply in-person. For others, you may be required to submit a resume and cover letter for consideration. In this case, you can always mention the reference from where you got to non fiction essay know of the mba dissertation vacancy and sometimes it may lead to a positive job offer. When you write a cover letter for a waiter job, it’s important to highlight the skills you have that match the job requirements listed in the job posting. Your resume should include your most relevant work experience, typically in help i can focus on my homework, chronological order. Management! Sometimes, reverse chronological order is also preferred as it gives the latest info first. Sales: The pharmaceutical industry is communication, one of the most lucrative career paths a sales person can choose, but it is also one of the most volatile and demanding.
The salaries and bonuses can be extremely high, but it is also highly competitive and very difficult to management get your foot in the door. To get your application even viewed, you need to sell yourself shamelessly. The best way to do this is through networking. Never feel ashamed of asking someone to refer to a company for a possible vacancy. By attending industry conference, networking events and connecting with people on LinkedIn, you can meet leaders in the field and even get linked to potential opportunities. When it comes time to apply, you’ll have an advantage over the other candidates since your name and face will be recognized. Particularly in sales, people expect sales persons to be aggressive and persistent, so networking can be a huge asset to your career. Use your cover letter to focus demonstrate your knowledge about the company and its product base. For instance, if the in project company focuses on biologic rather than medicines with broad appeal, you need to mention that as it’s a huge differentiating factor for the company. Showing that you understand the difference means that it will be easier to illusion vs. reality thesis train you on pharmaceutical regulations, drug specifics and safety information once hired. Event Planner: Event planning positions require impeccable organizational, communication, a great vision, leadership qualities and planning skills.
To grab an in project, employer’s attention, provide examples of social essay, previous event experience, and detail the ways in which your involvement directly led to the event’s success and also, try to showcase what were the management challenges you faced and how you dealt with them. Market Research Analyst: Are you applying for a position as a market research analyst? In your cover letter, you’ll want to demonstrate that you have the research, analytical, and other skills required for market researchers. The key point here would be including facts and figures in whatever previous works your about to cite her. Since this position calls for analyzing data to help i can on my find areas of management, improvement, ranging from increasing ad impressions to driving sales conversions, it will certainly be helpful if you provide examples of instances when you have spearheaded projects or initiatives that generated or saved money or made other powerful contributions to the company. As well, your cover letter should also express that you have the exact experience and skills outlined in the job advertisement — here is more information on how to match your qualifications to a job and tips for writing a targeted cover letter. College Senior: A cover letter for social groups essay your first professional position after graduation should highlight both your academic experiences and your past work but that depends if you have it. Mba Dissertation In Project! Include your academic concentration, especially if it’s relevant to the glass thesis the position you’re applying for, along with your personal experience. You may also include your extracurricular activities which show how active and aware you are. Of course you will face some challenges while composing a cover letter for College Seniors like how do you build a convincing cover letter when your work experience consists of perhaps working as a lifeguard, cat sitting or volunteering in a hospital? Or, how does that translate into a hiring opportunity for real work?
Here are some tips from mba dissertation Forbes.com on “How To Write A Cover Letter When You Have No Experience.” Opening paragraph : Introduce yourself, specify the job you’re applying for, state how you learned about it, and whether a personal connection referred you. For example: My name is for college, Bob and I’m a senior at in project, UCLA, majoring in communications. Essay! I saw a flyer in my department about the mba dissertation management entry level job at The Tribune. Second paragraph: Establish a connection between you and what statement for college the employer. Read the company’s blog posts, at mba dissertation management, least a dozen over help focus, time; research their social media presence.
Look up everything you can about them online. Then describe how your background meets the job description. Use results-oriented examples when possible. For example: “I see you’re looking for a self-starter. Management! I ran a crowdfunding campaign that successfully raised $3000 to buy five computers for a local shelter. Third paragraph: State how your personal traits make you a good fit for is personal for college the job. Management! Are you an entrepreneur, a wizard with languages, a natural with kids? Use short anecdotes to illustrate your examples.
Part-Time Job: When you are applying for part-time positions, you should follow the penfield fire escape essay same procedures as you would if the position was full-time. You need to put the same care and attention into your resume and cover letter as you would when applying for a full-time job. What to in project Include in the Letter? Begin your letter with a polite salutation to essay the hiring manager. If you have a contact name, be sure to mba dissertation in project management use it. In your first paragraph, introduce yourself, and express your interest in the position. At no point make it sound like your need and not your passion. Be passionate while putting in your efforts in intercultural communication thesis, framing the in project letter. Focus Homework! Your second paragraph is where you specify your qualifications, and make correlations between your skills and the requirements of the job.
Clearly bringing out as to why you are suitable and most apt for mba dissertation in project the job rather than other people. You can include a third paragraph with your follow up plan, and end with a professional closing.
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The Complete Guide to MLA Citations. This page provides an in-depth overview of MLA format. Management. It includes information related to MLA citations, plagiarism, proper formatting for i can, in-text and regular citations, and examples of citations for many different types of sources. Looking for APA? Check out Citation Machine’s guide on APA format. How to Be a Responsible Researcher or Scholar: Putting together a research project involves searching for information, disseminating and analyzing information, collecting information, and management repurposing information. Being a responsible researcher requires keeping track of the sources that were used to help develop your research project, sharing the non fiction, information you borrowed in an ethical way, and mba dissertation in project giving credit to the authors of the sources you used. Help I Can On My Homework. Doing all of these things prevents plagiarism. Plagiarism is the act of using others’ information without giving credit or acknowledging them.
There are many examples of plagiarism. Completely copying another individual’s work without providing credit to the original author is a very blatant example of plagiarism. Plagiarism also occurs when another individual’s idea or concept is passed off as your own. Changing or modifying quotes, text, or any work of another individual is also plagiarism. Believe it or not, you can even plagiarize yourself! Re-using a project or paper from another class or time and saying that it is new is plagiarism. One way to prevent plagiarism is to mba dissertation add citations in your project where appropriate. A citation shows the reader or viewer of your project where you found your information. Citations are included in the body of a project when you add a quote into your project. Citations are also included in the body when you’re paraphrasing another individual’s information. These citations that are found in the body of a research paper are called in-text, or parenthetical citations.
These citations are found directly after the information that was borrowed and are very brief in order to avoid becoming distracted while reading a project. Included in groups essay, these brief citations is usually just the last name of the author and a page number or the year published. Scroll down below for an in-depth explanation and mba dissertation in project management examples of in-text and parenthetical citations. In-text and parenthetical citations provide us with a brief idea as to what is personal statement for college where you found your information, it doesn't include the title and other components. Look on the last page or part of a research project, where complete citations can be found in their entirety. Complete citations are found on what is called an MLA Works Cited page, which is sometimes called a bibliography. All sources that were used to develop your research project are found on the Works Cited page. Complete citations are created for any quotes or paraphrased information used in the text, but also any sources that helped you develop your research project. Mba Dissertation Management. Included in complete citations is the author’s name, the title, publisher, year published, page numbers, URLs, and a few other pieces of information. Looking to create your citations in just a few clicks?
Try Citation Machine’s MLA formatter! The Citation Machine MLA generator, which is an escape, MLA citation website, will create all of your citations in just a few clicks. Click here to see more across the mba dissertation management, site. What Is Personal For College. Also, check out in project management this article to see MLA citation in the news. Citing your sources is an extremely important component of your research project. It shows that you’re a responsible researcher. It also shows that you were able to locate appropriate and reputable sources that helped back up your thesis or claim. In addition, if your work ends up being posted online or in print, there is a chance that others will use your research project in their own work! Scroll down to find directions on how to create citations. How the Modern Language Association Helps You Become a Responsible Researcher. The Modern Language Association is an organization that was created to develop guidelines on everything language and literature related.
They have guidelines on proper grammar usage and research paper layouts. In addition, they have English and foreign language committees, numerous books and social groups essay journal publications, and an annual conference. The Modern Language Association is responsible for creating standards and management guidelines on how to properly cite sources to prevent plagiarism. Non Fiction Essay. Their style is most often used when writing papers and citing sources in in project management, the liberal arts and humanities fields. Liberal arts is a broad term used to describe a range of subjects including the humanities, formal sciences such as mathematics and statistics, natural sciences such as biology and astronomy, and social science such as geography, economics, history, and others. The humanities specifically focuses on subjects related to languages, art, philosophy, religion, music, theater, literature, and ethics. Believe it or not, there are thousands of other types of help i can homework citation styles. Mba Dissertation. While this citation style is social, most often used for the liberal arts and humanities fields, many other subjects, professors, and schools prefer citations and papers to be styled in MLA format. These specific guidelines and standards for in project management, creating citations was developed for numerous reasons. When scholars and researchers in the literature, language, and numerous other fields all cite their sources in the same manner, it makes it easier for readers to look at a citation and recognize and understand the different components of a source. From looking at a citation, we can see who the author is, the title of the source, when it was published, and other identifiable pieces of information.
Imagine how difficult it would be to understand the various components of a source if we didn’t all follow the same guidelines! Not only intercultural master thesis, would it make it difficult to understand the source that was used, but it would also make it difficult for readers to locate it themselves. This streamlined process that was created aides us in understanding a researcher’s sources. How is the new version different than previous versions? This citation style has changed dramatically over the past couple of years. Currently in its 8th edition, the mba dissertation in project management, 8th version is a citation style that is much different than the previous formatting style. In the 7th version, which is the help on my homework, format, or structure, that was previously used, researchers and scholars found it grueling to put their citations together. Why? Each source used a different citation structure.
Researchers and scholars were required to look up the citation format that matched the type of mba dissertation management source they used. So, if a person used a book, a website, a journal article, a newspaper article, and an e-book, all in essay, one research project, they were required to look up how to cite each one of those sources because each was structured differently. Now, with the new version of MLA formatting, which is in project, version 8, all source types use the same citation structure. The Modern Language Association enacted this new format due to the many new and innovative ways of obtaining information. We are no longer receiving information through traditional means, such as books, websites, and articles. We can now obtain information through apps, advertisements, Tweets, other social media posts, and many other creative ways. To make the process of creating citations easier for researchers and creative non fiction scholars, the Modern Language Association decided to have one MLA citing format, which works for management, all source types. Other changes were made as well. This includes: removing http:// and intercultural thesis https:// from URLs. not including the city where a source was published or the name of the publisher from some source types (such as newspapers). the ability to use a screen name or username in place of an author’s full name. using the abbreviations vol. and no., for volume and mba dissertation management number, when including information from escape a periodical. There are two types of citations.
There are regular or complete citations, which are found at the end of research projects. These citations are usually listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last names and include all of the information necessary for readers to in project management be able to social groups locate the mba dissertation management, source themselves. Regular citations are generally placed in this MLA citation format: Last name of the author, First name of the penfield fire escape, author. “Source’s Title.” Container’s Title , roles and names of any other individuals who helped contribute to the source, the version of the mba dissertation management, source, any numbers associated with the source, the social groups, name of the publisher, the management, date the source was published, the location where individuals can find the source themselves (usually a URL or page range). There are times when additional information is added into the regular citation.
Not sure how to transfer the information from your source into your citation? Confused about the term, “containers?” See below for focus homework, information and complete explanations of each component of the citation. The other type of citation, called an “in text citation,” is included in the main part, or body, of a project when a researcher uses a quote or paraphrases information from another source. See the next section to find out how to create in text citations. What are in text and in project management parenthetical citations? As stated above, in text citations, also called parenthetical citations, are included in the main part of is personal for college a project when using a quote or paraphrasing a piece of information from another source. Management. We include these types of citations in the body of a project for readers to quickly gain an idea as to where we found the information. These in text citations are found immediately after the quote or paraphrased information.
They contain a small tidbit of the information found in the regular citation. Intercultural Communication Thesis. The regular, or complete, citation is located at the end of mba dissertation in project a project. Here’s what a typical in text or parenthetical citation looks like: Throughout the novel, the mother uses a vast amount of non fiction essay Chinese wisdom to explain the world and people’s temperaments. She states, “each person is made of five elements….Too much fire and you have a bad temper. too little wood and you bent too quickly. too much water and you flowed in mba dissertation management, too many directions” (Tan 31). This specific in text citation, (Tan 31), is intercultural communication, included so that the mba dissertation, reader sees that we are quoting something from page 31 in Tan’s book. The complete, regular citation isn’t included in the main part of the project because it would be too distracting for the reader. We want them to focus on our work and research, not necessarily our sources. If the thesis, reader would like to see the source’s full information, and possibly locate the source themselves, they can refer to the last part of the mba dissertation management, project to find the regular citation.
The regular citation, at the end of the project looks like this: Tan, Amy. The Joy Luck Club . Penguin, 1989, p. 31. If your direct quote or paraphrase comes from a source that does not have page numbers, it is acceptable to place a paragraph number (use the non fiction essay, abbreviation par. or pars.), sections (sec. or secs.), or chapters (ch. or chs.). If there are absolutely no numbers to help readers locate the exact point in the source, only include the author’s last name. More About Quotations and How to Cite a Quote: Use quotes from outside sources to help illustrate and mba dissertation expand on your own points, but the majority of your paper should be your own writing and ideas.
Include the quote exactly as you found it. It is okay to pull and use only certain words or phrases from the quote, but keep the words (spelling and capitalization) and punctuation the same. It is acceptable to fire escape essay break up a direct quote with your own writing The entire paper should be double spaced, including quotes. Example: Dorothy stated, “Toto,” then looked up and took in her surroundings, “I’ve a feeling we’re not in Kansas anymore“ ( Wizard of Oz ). If the quote is longer than four lines, it is necessary to mba dissertation management make a block quote. Communication. Block quotes show the reader that they are about to read a lengthy amount of management text from another source. Start the quote on the next line, half an inch in the glass menagerie illusion, from the left margin Do not use any indents at the beginning of the block quote Only use quotation marks if there are quotation marks present in mba dissertation in project management, the source If there is more than one paragraph in the block quote, start the the glass menagerie vs. reality thesis, next paragraph with the same half inch indent Add your in-text citation at the end of the block quote. While his parents sat there in surprise, Colton went onto say. “Cause I could see you,” Colon said matter-of-factly. “I went up and out of my body and in project I was looking down and I could see the doctor working on my body. And I saw you and Mommy. Communication Master Thesis. You were in a little room by yourself, praying; and Mommy was in a different room, and she was praying and in project management talking on the phone” (Burpo xxi).
Confused about social groups whether footnotes and endnotes should be used? Footnotes and endnotes are not used in this style. Use in-text, or parenthetical citations, in the body of your work. In addition, create full, or regular citations, and place them at the end of your project on the Works Cited list. If you need help with in text and mba dissertation parenthetical citations, Citation Machine can help. Penfield Fire Escape Essay. Citation Machine’s MLA citation generator is simple and easy to mba dissertation management use! Specific Components of a Citation. This section explains each individual component of the is personal for college, citation, with examples for each section. The author’s name is mba dissertation management, usually the first item listed in the citation.
Author names start with the last name, then a comma is escape, added, and then the author’s first name (and middle name if applicable) is at the end. In Project. A period closes this information. Here are two examples of how an statement for college, author’s name can be listed in a citation: Poe, Edgar Allan. Wondering how to format the mba dissertation, author’s name when there are two authors working jointly on a source? When there are two authors that work together on a source, the what statement, author names are placed in the order in which they appear on the source. Place their names in this format: First listed author’s Last Name, First name, and mba dissertation in project Second author’s First Name Last Name. Here are two examples of how to cite two authors: Clifton, Mark, and Frank Riley.
Paxton, Roberta J., and Michael Jacob Fox. There are many times when three or more authors work together on non fiction, a source. This happens often with journal articles, edited books, and mba dissertation in project management textbooks. To cite a source with three or more authors, place the information in this format: First listed author’s Last name, First name, et al. As you can see, only include the first author’s name. The other authors are accounted for creative non fiction essay, by using et al. In Latin, et al. is translated to in project management “and others.” If using Citation Machine’s citation generator, this abbreviation is intercultural communication master, automatically added for you. Here’s an example of a citation for three or more authors: Warner, Ralph, et al.
How to in project Buy a House in California . Edited by Alayna Schroeder, 12th ed., Nolo, 2009. Is there no author listed on your source? If so, in MLA formatting, exclude the author’s information from the citation and begin the penfield fire essay, citation with the title of the source. Was the source found on social media, such as a tweet, Reddit, or Instagram post? If this is the case, you are allowed to start the citation with the mba dissertation management, author’s handle, username, or screen name. Here is an essay, example of how to cite a tweet: @CarlaHayden. “I’m so honored to talk about in project management digital access at @UMBCHumanities.
We want to share the @libraryofcongress collection.” Twitter , 13 Apr. 2017, 6:04 p.m., twitter.com/LibnOfCongress/status/852643691802091521. While most citations begin with the name of the author, they do not necessarily have to. Quite often, sources are compiled by editors. Or, your source may be done by a performer or composer. Intercultural Thesis. If your project focuses on someone other than the mba dissertation, author, it is acceptable to place that person’s name first in the citation. If you’re using Citation Machine’s citation generator, you will be able to choose the individual’s role from a drop down box. For example, let’s say that in social, your research project, you focus on Leonardo DiCaprio’s performances as an actor. You’re quoting a line from the movie, Titanic , in your project, and you’re creating a complete citation for it in the Works Cited list. It is acceptable to show the reader that you’re focusing on Leonardo DiCaprio’s work by citing it like this in the MLA Works Cited list: DiCaprio, Leonardo, performer.
Titanic . Directed by James Cameron. Mba Dissertation In Project Management. Paramount, 1997. Notice that when citing an individual other than the author, place the individual’s role after their name. In this case, Leonardo DiCaprio is the performer. This is often done with edited books, too.
Place the editor’s name first (in reverse order), add a comma, and then add the word editor. If you’re still confused about how to place the essay, authors together in a citation, Citation Machine can help! Our website is easy to use and in project management will create your citations in just a few clicks! The titles are written as they are found on the source, and in title form, meaning the important words start with a capital. Here’s an example of the glass menagerie thesis a title written properly:
Practical Digital Libraries: Books, Bytes, and in project Bucks. Wondering whether to place your title in italics or quotation marks? It depends on whether the source sits by itself or not. If the source stands alone, meaning that it is an independent source, place the title in italics. If the title is part of a larger whole, place the escape, title of the source in quotation marks and mba dissertation management the source it sits in, in italics. When citing full books, movies, websites, or albums in their entirety, these titles are written in italics. However, when citing part of a source, such as an article on a website, a chapter in a book, a song on an album, or an article in a scholarly journal, the part is written with quotation marks and then the titles of the sources that they are found in are written in italics. Here are some examples to help you understand how to format titles and master their containers. To cite Pink Floyd’s entire album, The Wall , cite it as this: Pink Floyd.
The Wall . Columbia, 1979. To cite one of the songs on Pink Floyd’s album, cite it as this: Pink Floyd. “Another Brick in mba dissertation, the Wall (Part I).” The Wall , Columbia, 1979, track 3. To cite a fairy tale book in its entirety, cite it as this: Colfer, Chris. Creative Essay. The Land of mba dissertation Stories . For College. Little Brown, 2016. To cite a specific story, or chapter, in the book, it would be cited as this: Colfer, Chris. “Little Red Riding Hood.” The Land of Stories , Little Brown, 2016, pp.
58-65. From the section above, you can see that titles can stand alone or they can sit in a container. Many times, sources can sit in more than one container. Wondering how? When citing an management, article in a scholarly journal, the first container is the journal. What. The second container? It’s the database that the scholarly journal is found in. It is mba dissertation management, important to account for all containers, so that readers are able to locate the exact source themselves. When citing a television episode, the penfield fire essay, first container is the name of the show and in project the second container is the name of the penfield escape essay, service that it could be streaming on, such as Netflix . If your source sits in more than one container, the information about the second container is found at mba dissertation in project the end of the citation. Use the following format to cite your source with multiple containers : Last name of the creative, author, First name of the author. “Source’s Title.” Container’s Title , roles and names of mba dissertation in project management any other individuals who helped contribute to groups the source, the version of the source, any numbers associated with the source, the name of the publisher, the mba dissertation management, date the source was published, the location where individuals can find the source themselves (usually a URL or page range).
Title of Second Container , roles and names of i can focus on my any other contributors, the version of the second container, any numbers associated with the second container, the name of the second container’s publisher, the date the second container was published, location. If the source has more than two containers, add on another full other section at the end for each container. Not all of the fields in the citation format above need to be included in your citation. In fact, many of management these fields will most likely be omitted from your citations. Only include the elements that will help your readers locate the source themselves. Here is an example of a citation for a scholarly journal article found on a database. This source has two containers, the social essay, journal itself is one container, and the site it sits on is the other. Zanetti, Francois. “Curing with Machine: Medical Electricity in in project, Eighteenth-Century Paris.” Technology and master Culture , vol. 54, no. 3, July 2013, pp.
503-530. Project Muse , muse.jhu.edu/article/520280. If you’re still confused about containers, Citation Machine’s MLA formatter, or MLA cite generator, can help! MLA citing is easier when using Citation Machine’s website. Many sources have people, besides the author, who contribute to the source. Mba Dissertation Management. If your research project focuses on an additional individual besides the creative essay, author, or you feel as though including other contributors will help the reader locate the source themselves, include their names in the citation. To include another individual in the citation, after the title, place the role of the individual, the word by, and in project management then their name in standard order.
If the name of the contributor comes after a period, capitalize the first letter in the role of the individual. If it comes after a comma, the first letter in the role of the individual is lowercased. Here’s an example of a citation for a children’s book with the name of the illustrator included. Rubin, Adam. Dragons Love Tacos . Illustrated by Daniel Salmieri, Penguin, 2012. The names of editors, directors, performers, translators, illustrators, and narrators can often be found in this part of the citation. If the i can on my, source that you’re citing states that it is a specific version or edition, this information is placed in the “versions” section of the citation. When including a numbered edition, do not type out the number, use the numeral. Also, abbreviate the word edition to ed. Here is an example of a citation with a specific edition:
Koger, Gregory. “Filibustering and in project Parties in the Modern State.” Congress Reconsidered , edited by Lawrence C. Non Fiction. Dodd and Bruce I. Mba Dissertation. Oppenheimer, 10th ed., CQ Press, 2013, pp. 221-236. Google Books , books.google.com/books?id=b7gkLlSEeqwClpg=PP1dq=10th%20editionpg=PR6#v=onepageq=10th%20editionf=false. Many sources have numbers associated with them. If you see a number, different than the date, page numbers, or editions, include this information in help i can on my, the “numbers” section of the citation. This includes volume and/or issue numbers (use the abbreviations vol. and mba dissertation management no.), episode numbers, track numbers, or any other numbers that will help readers identify the specific source that you used. Do not include ISBN (International Standard Book Numbers) in the citation. In MLA format citing, it is important to include the what is personal, name of the publisher (the organization that created or published the source), so that readers can locate the exact source themselves. Include publishers for all sources except for periodicals. Also, for websites, exclude this information when the name of the publisher matches the name of the in project, website.
Furthermore, the name of the publisher is often excluded from the citation for second containers, since the help focus on my, publisher of the second container is not necessarily responsible for the creation or production of the source’s content. Publication dates are extremely important to mba dissertation in project management include in citations. They allow the intercultural communication, reader to understand when sources were published. They are also used when readers are attempting to locate the source themselves. Dates can be written in one of two ways. Researchers can write dates as: Whichever format you decide to use, use the same format for all of your citations. Mba Dissertation In Project. If using the Citation Machine’s citation generator, the date will be formatted in the same way for each citation. While it isn’t necessary to include the full date for all source citations, use the creative non fiction essay, amount of information that makes the most sense to help your readers understand and locate the source themselves. Wondering what to do when your source has more than one date? Use the mba dissertation management, date that is most applicable to your research.
The location generally refers to the place where the readers can find the source. Penfield Fire Essay. This includes page ranges, URLs, DOI numbers, track numbers, disc numbers, or even cities and towns. When MLA citing websites, make sure to remove the beginning of the URL (http:// or https://) as it is in project, not necessary to include this information. For page numbers, when citing a source that sits on essay, only one page, use p. Example: p. 6. When citing a source that has a page range, use pp. and mba dissertation management then add the page numbers. The Glass Illusion Vs. Reality Thesis. Example: pp. 24-38.
Since the location is the final piece of the citation, place a period at the end. Looking for an online tool to do the work for you? Citation Machine can help! Our site is management, simple (and fun!) to use. ALL sources use this format: Last name of the author, First name of the author. “Source’s Title.” Container’s Title , roles and names of any other individuals who helped contribute to the source, the version of the penfield fire, source, any numbers associated with the source, the name of the publisher, the date the in project management, source was published, the location where individuals can find the penfield fire escape essay, source themselves (usually a URL or page range). * Title of Second Container , roles and names of in project management any other contributors, the version of the second container, any numbers associated with the second container, the name of the second container’s publisher, the master thesis, date the second container was published, location.
*If the source does not have a second container, omit this last part of the citation. Remember, Citation Machine’s MLA formatter will help you save time and energy when creating your citations. Check out our MLA Citation Machine page to learn more. Collins, Suzanne. The Hunger Games . Scholastic, 2008. Khan, Maryam. “Co-branding in the Restaurant Industry.” Managing Tourism and management Hospitality Services: Theory and International Application . The Glass Illusion Vs. Reality Thesis. Edited by B. Prideaux et al., CABI, 2005, pp.
73-82. Zak, Elizabeth. “Do You Believe in Magic? Exploring the Conceptualization of management Augmented Reality and its Implications for the User in creative non fiction, the Field of Library and Information Science.” Information Technology Libraries , vol. 33, no. 3, 2014, pp. 23-50. Online Scholarly Journal Articles:
Kuzuhara, Kenji, et al. “Injuries in Japanese Mini-Basketball Players During Practices and Games.” Journal of Athletic Training , vol. 51. no. 2, Dec. 2016, p. In Project. 1022. Gale Health Reference Center Academic , i.ezproxy.nypl.org/login?url=http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?p=HRCAsw=wu=nyplv=2.1id=GALE%7CA484460772it=rasid=91b1a34dda62a32f4cd82c768e8a6a97. When citing a website, individuals are often actually citing a specific page on a website. They’re not actually citing the entire website.
Here is the most common way to cite a page on a website: Start the social, citation with the name of the author who wrote the information on the page. If there isn’t an author listed, do not include this information in the citation. In Project. Start the citation with the title. The title of the individual page is menagerie, placed in quotation marks, followed by a period. Next, place the name of the website in in project management, italics, followed by a comma.
If the name of the publisher matches the name of the author or the name of the title, do not include the publisher’s information in fire essay, the citation. Mba Dissertation In Project Management. The date the page or website was published comes next. End the citation with the URL. When including the URL, remove http:// and creative non fiction https:// from the URL. Since most websites begin with this prefix, it is not necessary to include it in the citation. Last name, First name of author. “ Title of Web Page .” Title of Website, Publisher, Date published, URL. Rothfeld, Lindsay. “Smarter Education: The Rise of Big Data in the Classroom.” Mashable , 3 Sept. 2014, mashable.com/2014/09/03/education-data-video/#hViqdPbFbgqH. (When citing websites, remember to remove http:// and https:// from the URL.) Bloomgarden-Smoke, Kara. “Medium Cool.” New York Observer , 2 Mar.
2015, pp. 14-17. Skiba, Katherine. “Obama To Hold First Public Event Since Leaving Office in Chicago on Monday.” Los Angeles Times , 24 Apr. In Project Management. 2017, www.latimes.com/politics/la-na-obama-speech-20170424-story.html. “Three Turkeys.” Modern Family , produced by Steven Levitan and Christopher Lloyd, ABC, 19 Nov. 2014. Home Alone . Performance by Macaulay Culkin, directed by Chris Columbus, 20th Century Fox, 1990. DJ Mag. “Skream b2B Solardo Live from Claude VonStroke Presents The Birdhouse Miami.” YouTube , 29 Mar. 2017, youtu.be/4Q448x-LHGg.
Gates, Melinda. “Today, Bill and essay I were deeply humbled to mba dissertation in project accept France’s Legion of Honour award on the glass menagerie, behalf of all our foundation’s partners and grantees.” Twitter , 21 Apr. 2017, 2:36 p.m., twitter.com/melindagates/status/855535625713459200. There are a variety of ways to cite an image. This section will show how to cite a digital image found on mba dissertation in project, a website and what an image in print. How to cite a digital image: Use this structure to cite a digital image: Last name, First name of the mba dissertation, creator (if available). What Is Personal Statement For College. “Title or Description of the Image * . Title of the Website , Publisher ** , Date published, URL. * if the digital image does not have an official title, create a brief description. Do not place the description in quotation marks or italics. In addition, only capitalize the first letter in the description and any proper nouns. ** If the name of the publisher is the same as the author or the same name as the website, do not include the publisher in the citation.
“NFL Red Zone Usage Sleepers: Identify Undervalued Players and mba dissertation Team Offenses.” RotoBaller , www.rotoballer.com/nfl-fantasy-football-cheat-sheet-draft-kit?src=bar. Wondering how to cite an image found through a search engine, such as Google? Head to the site where the image “lives,” by clicking on the link that leads you to the website. Social. Cite the image using the information from the original site. How to mba dissertation in project management cite an image in print: Last name, First name of the creator (if available). Title or Description of the help i can on my homework, Image * . Title of the Container, such as a the Book Title, Magazine Title, etc ., Publisher ** , Date published, page or page range. * if the digital image does not have an official title, create a brief description. Do not place the description in in project management, quotation marks or italics.
In addition, only fire escape, capitalize the first letter in the description and any proper nouns. ** If the mba dissertation, name of the publisher is the same as the author or the same name as the website, do not include the publisher in non fiction essay, the citation. Photograph of Kate Middleton. Metro New York , 19 July 2017, p.17. To cite a magazine in print, you’ll need the following pieces of information.
They can be found on the cover of the magazine and on the article itself: The name of the magazine The date the magazine was published The title of the magazine article The name of the in project management, author of the article The page or page range the groups, article is found on. On the in project management, cover of most magazines, you can find the title of the magazine as well as the groups essay, date the magazine was published. On the article itself, you can find the management, name of the article’s author(s), the groups, title of the article, and the page or page range that the article is found on. If the article appears on in project, nonconsecutive pages, include the page number for the first page the article is found on, and then add a plus sign after it. Example: 61+
Place the information in this format: Last name, First name of the Article’s Author. Menagerie Thesis. “Title of the Article.” Title of the Magazine , Date published, page range. Example for the print magazine article above: Gopnik, Adam. “A New Man: Ernest Hemingway, Revised and Revisited.” The New Yorker , 3 July 2017, pp. 61-66. An essay is an analytic writing piece that is generally short in length (compared to books and journal articles) and focuses on a specific topic or subject.
Citing an essay is similar to citing a chapter in a book or a story in an anthology. Include the name of the individual author or the group of mba dissertation authors, the title of the essay (placed in social groups essay, quotation marks), the title of the book, collection, or site the essay is found on mba dissertation management, (in italics), the name of the editor (if there is what is personal statement for college, one), the volume and in project management issue number (if they are available), the publication date, and the location. Penfield. The location can be either a page range or a URL. Here is an in project, MLA formatting example of how to cite an essay: Hasen, Richard L. “Race or Party? How Courts Should Think About Republican Efforts to Make it Harder to Vote in North Carolina and Elsewhere.” Harvard Law Review Forum , vol. 125, no. 58, 7 Jan. 2014, harvardlawreview.org/2014/01/race-or-party-how-courts-should-think-about-republican-efforts-to-make-it-harder-to-vote-in-north-carolina-and-elsewhere/. Place the name of the person being interviewed at the beginning of the citation, in the author’s position The title or description of the interview comes next. If there isn’t a formal title, only use the word Interview as the title and do not place it in quotation marks or italics.
If found online or in a book, include the title of the penfield escape, website or book after the mba dissertation in project management, title. After the title, it is acceptable to include the the glass, name of the interviewer. Include this information especially if it will help readers locate the interview themselves or if it’s relevant to mba dissertation the research paper. Penfield Escape. Include the publisher if it is a published interview and if it differs from any other information already found in the citation. Include the date that the in project management, interview was either published or the date that the interview occurred. If found online, include the URL. Or, if found in a book, magazine, or other print source, include the page range. Here are two examples: Gutman, Dan. “Interview with Children’s Author Dan Gutman.” The Washington Post , 9 Mar. 2011, www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2011/03/08/AR2011030805468.html.
Lin, Brenda. Social Essay. Interview. By Michele Kirschenbaum. 17 July 2017. Check to see if the the PDF is written by an individual, set of mba dissertation in project authors, or an groups essay, organization or company.
If it is not written by an individual or a set of authors, use the mba dissertation, name of the organization or company responsible for creating the PDF in communication master, place of the author’s name. Continue with the title of the PDF, version (if there are different versions available), the publisher (only include if the name of the publisher is different than the name of the author or the title), the publication date, and management the location (usually a URL if found online). Notice that in the example below, the name of the publisher (The American Podiatric Medical Association) is omitted since the name of the publisher is the same name as the author. MLA format example: American Podiatric Medical Association. The Real Cost of Diabetes: Diabetic Foot Complications Are Common and Costly . apma.files.cms-plus.com/ProductPDFs/APMA_TodaysPodiatrist_Infographic_8.5x11.pdf.
To cite a full textbook in print, you’ll need to find the following pieces of groups information: The name of the in project, author(s) or editor(s) The title of the textbook, including any subtitles The version of the textbook (such as a numbered edition or revised edition) The name of the help i can, publisher The year the mba dissertation, textbook was published. Place the pieces of thesis information in this format: Last name, First name of the author or Last name, First name, editor. Title of the Textbook . Version, Publisher, Year published. If the textbook was compiled by mba dissertation in project management, an editor, use this format at the beginning of the thesis, citation: Last name, First name, editor.
Examples of how to in project management cite a textbook in print: Lilly, Leonard S. Braunwald’s Heart Disease: Review and Assessment . 9th ed., Elsevier Saunders, 2012. Cherny, Nathan, et al., editors. Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine . 5th ed., Oxford UP, 2015. How to Cite a Chapter from a Textbook in Print: To cite an individual chapter, you’ll need to find the following pieces of information: The name of the author(s) of the individual chapter or section The title of the individual chapter or section The title of the textbook The name of the editors of the textbook The version of the escape essay, textbook (such as a numbered edition or a revised edition) The name of the management, publisher The year the textbook was published. Place the pieces of information in this format: Last name, First name of the chapter author. “Title of the chapter or section.” Title of the Textbook , edited by First name Last name of editor, version, Publisher, Year published, page or page range. Example of how to social groups essay cite a chapter from a textbook in print:
Riley, Simon C., and Michael J. Murphy. “Student Choice in the Undergraduate Curriculum: Student-Selected Components.” Oxford Textbook of Medical Education , edited by Kieran Walsh, Oxford UP, pp. 50-63. Surveys can be found online or in print. Find the format below that matches the type of survey you’re attempting to cite. To cite a survey found on a website, follow this structure:
Last name, First name of survey’s creator(s) OR organization responsible for its creation. “Title of the Survey.” Title of the Website , Publisher (if different than the author or website title), Publication date, URL. International Food Information Council Foundation. “Food Decision 2016: Food Health Survey.” Food Insight , International Center of Excelled in management, Food Risk Communication, 2016, www.foodinsight.org/sites/default/files/2016-Food-and-Health-Survey-Report_%20FINAL_0.pdf. To cite a survey found in print, follow this structure: Last name, First name of survey’s creator(s) OR organization responsible for its creation. “Title of Survey.” Title of Publication , Publisher (if different than the author or website title), Publication date, page or page range that survey is found on. Don’t see your source type on this guide?
Citation Machine’s citation generator can create your citations for you! Our website will help you develop your works cited page and in text and parenthetical citations in just a few clicks. Looking for APA? Check out Citation Machine’s guide on APA format. Check out this article to see it in the news. When it comes to formatting your paper or essay for academic purposes, there are specific guidelines to follow. The section that follows will answer the thesis, following questions: How to format an MLA paper , How to management create papers , and intercultural communication thesis How to write in MLA format . If you’re trying to learn how to format your essay, this section will help you too. Use paper that is 8?-by-11 inch in size.
This is the standard size for copier and printer paper Use high quality paper Your research paper or essay should have a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, left, and right sides of the management, paper While most word processors automatically format your paper to have one-inch margins, you can check or modify the margins of your paper by going to communication the “Page setup” section of your word processor. Click here for more on margins. Use an easily readable font, specifically one that allows readers to see the difference between regular and italicized letters. Times New Roman, Arial, and Helvetica are recommended options Use 12 point size font. Should I double space the paper, including citations? Double space the entire paper There should be a double space between each piece of mba dissertation in project information in the heading Place a double space between the communication master, heading and in project the title Place a double space between the title and the beginning of the for college, essay The Works Cited page should be double spaced as well. All citations are double spaced. Text should be left-justified, meaning that the text is aligned, or lies flush, against the left margin New paragraphs should be indented half an inch from the left margin Indents signal to the reader that a new concept or idea is about to begin Use the “tab” button on your keyboard to create an indent Add one space after all punctuation marks. Include a proper heading and title The heading should include the management, following, on separate lines, starting one inch from the top and left margins: Your full name Your teacher or professor’s name The course number Date Dates in the heading and the body of your essay should be consistent. Use the same format, either Day Month Year or Month Day, Year throughout the penfield fire escape essay, entire paper Examples: 27 July 2017 or July 27, 2017 The title should be underneath the heading, centered in the middle of the in project management, page, without bold, underlined, italicized, or all capital letters.
Number all pages, including the Works Cited page Place page numbers in the top right corner, half an social essay, inch from the management, top margin and penfield fire escape one inch from the right margin. Include your last name to the left of the page number. The Works Cited list should be at the end of the in project, paper, on its own page. If a citation flows onto the second line, indent it in half an inch from the left margin (called a hanging indent). For more information on the Works Cited list, refer to “How to Make a Works Cited Page,” which is found below. According to the Modern Language Associatin’s official guidelines for formatting a research paper, it is not necessary to social create or include an individual title page at the beginning of a research project. Instead, follow the directions above, under “Heading Title,” to create a proper heading.
This heading is mba dissertation, featured at the top of the first page of the research paper or research assignment. If your instructor or professor does in fact require or ask for a title page, follow the is personal statement, directions that you are given. They should provide you with the information needed to create a separate, individual title page. If they do not provide you with instructions, and mba dissertation in project management you are left to create it at thesis your own discretion, use the header information above to help you develop your research paper title page. You may want to include other information, such as the name of your school or university. The MLA Works Cited page is generally found at the end of a research paper or project. It contains a list of all of the citations of sources used for the research project. Follow these directions to format the Works Cited list to match the Modern Language Association’s guidelines. The Works Cited list has its own page, at the end of management a research project Include the help i can focus homework, same running head as the in project management, rest of the project (Your last name and then the page number). Groups. The Works Cited List has the final page number for the project.
Name the page “Works Cited,” unless your list only management, includes one citation. In that case, title it as “Work Cited.” The title of the page (either Works Cited or Work Cited) is placed one inch from the essay, top of the page, centered in the middle of the document. Double space the mba dissertation management, entire document, even between the help on my homework, title of the page and the first citation. Citations are listed in alphabetical order by the first word in the citation (usually the last name of the author or the first word in the title if the citation does not include the author’s name. Mba Dissertation In Project. Ignore A, An, and creative essay The if the title begins with these words.) All citations begin flush against the left margin. If the citation is long in length, and rolls onto a second or third line, the lines below the first line are indented half an inch from the mba dissertation management, left margin. This is called a “hanging indent.” The purpose of vs. reality thesis a hanging indent is to make the citations easier to read. Wai-Chung, Ho. Mba Dissertation. “Political Influences on Curriculum Content and Musical Meaning: Hong Kong Secondary Music Education, 1949-1997.” Journal of Historical Research in penfield escape, Music Education , vol. 22, no.
1, 1 Oct. 2000, pp. 5-25. Periodicals Index Online , search-proquest-com.i.ezproxy.nypl.org/pio/docview/1297849364/citation/6B70D633F50C4EA0PQ/78?accountid=35635. Works Cited pages can be longer than one page. Use as many pages as necessary.
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Project management dissertation …
Against Corruption: a collection of essays. Published 12 May 2016. © Crown copyright 2016. This publication is licensed under the terms of the mba dissertation management, Open Government Licence v3.0 except where otherwise stated. To view this licence, visit nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3 or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Essay. Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the mba dissertation in project management, copyright holders concerned. Intercultural. This publication is available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays. 1. Foreword by David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Corruption is the cancer at the heart of so many of our problems in the world today.
It destroys jobs and holds back growth, costing the world economy billions of pounds every year. Management. It traps the poorest in the most desperate poverty as corrupt governments around the world syphon off funds and prevent hard-working people from getting the revenues and benefits of growth that are rightfully theirs. It steals vital resources from our schools and hospitals as corrupt individuals and i can focus on my companies evade the taxes they owe. It can even undermine our security, as Sarah Chayes argues in her essay, if the perceived corruption of local governments makes people more susceptible to the poisonous ideology of extremists. The longer I have been Prime Minister, and the more I have seen in this job, the mba dissertation management, more I believe that we cannot hope to essay solve the big global challenges of in project management our time without making a major dent in the whole cycle of corruption. If we continue to hide from this problem, how will developing countries blessed with natural resources ever break out social of the poverty trap?
How will we stop people from risking their lives to cross the Mediterranean unless we enable them to build a better life back at mba dissertation management home? In the end, we have to deal with corruption if we are to have any hope of a truly prosperous and secure future. Furthermore, people actually want us to deal with this problem, every bit as much as they want us to tackle issues like poverty and migration. They want the law to be upheld and they want the corrupt to be punished, with justice and recompense for those who have suffered. Yet while corruption is i can on my homework such a huge problem, the national and global efforts to mba dissertation management deal with it are often weak. Communication Thesis. No country has a perfect record on these issues – and so there is a hesitation in raising them.
For too long there has been something of an international taboo over stirring up concerns. For too long it has just been too easy for in project those in authority to ignore or pretend not to know what is going on. As David Walsh puts it in escape essay his essay: this “longing to mba dissertation indulge the is personal, irresponsibility of not knowing” has been the rock upon which corruption is built. I profoundly believe that this has to change – and it has to change in mba dissertation in project every country. Make no mistake, corruption affects us all, Britain included. Creative. From tax evasion and overseas territories who have been accused of hiding the proceeds of corruption, to an MPs’ expenses scandal that tore at the fabric of the world’s oldest democracy, we have our own problems and we are very much still dealing with them.
That is in project management why I have made tackling corruption such a political priority. Essay. From the 2010 Bribery Act to becoming the first major country in the world to establish a public central registry of who really owns and controls companies, I am determined that we should do everything we can to demonstrate leadership on these issues and put our own house in order. Through our chairmanship of the G8 and the Summit at management Lough Erne, I put tax, trade and transparency on intercultural communication master, the global agenda and sought agreement on a global standard for the automatic exchange of information over who pays taxes where. Mba Dissertation Management. While many said it would never happen, today 129 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the the glass menagerie vs. reality thesis, international standard for exchange of tax information on request and more than 95 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the mba dissertation in project management, new global common reporting standard on tax transparency by 2018. Through our chairmanship of the United Nations High Level Panel, Britain secured the inclusion of tackling corruption at the heart of the new Sustainable Development Goals to eradicate absolute poverty from our world. On my watch, the UK has signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative – and we’re leading a global drive to get other countries on board and clean up a sector which has for too long been vulnerable to corruption.
We are going further still. I am determined that the penfield escape essay, UK must not become a safe haven for corrupt money from around the world. We know that some high-value properties – particularly in London – are being bought by in project management people overseas through anonymous shell companies, some of them with plundered or laundered cash. So we are consulting on ways to make property ownership by foreign companies much more transparent – and considering whether to insist that any non-UK company wishing to bid on a contract with the UK government should publically state who really owns it. Yet all of these measures address only communication master, parts of the problem. As the mba dissertation, Panama Papers show, corruption is a truly global challenge. Criminal networks operate across borders. And wealth that is plundered from the poorest countries can end up hidden away in the richest countries. So nations need to tackle this issue in partnership, developing a truly comprehensive, sustained and coherent international agenda to defeat the causes of is personal for college corruption. That is why we are holding the Anti-Corruption Summit in London and why I have compiled this book.
The essays in this book are not about trying to claim the mba dissertation, moral high ground, nor about telling others what to do. Neither do they claim to be a comprehensive guide to tackling corruption. Is Personal Statement. But they are an attempt to bring together some of the most pioneering thinkers on this issue to begin a frank and informed global debate over how to tackle what I believe is mba dissertation management one of the most pernicious enemies of the glass menagerie illusion progress in our time. While the essays cover a wide range of perspectives and experiences, there are a number of consistent themes. In Project. For a start, we can be clear about the scale and extent of the problem. Jose Ugaz tells us that every year one in four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services. Thesis. While in Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on bribes for basic services to which they are already entitled – including water, medicine and mba dissertation in project education. Christine Lagarde sets out the indirect economic costs of corruption, including the way corruption can act like a tax on investment and stifle the creation of new business. She also highlights its impact on the poorest and its damaging effect on the moral fabric of our society. Many of the essays bring home the creative, sheer extent of corruption, reaching every country and affecting so many areas of life – from the desperate stories of the vulnerable paying bribes to get treatment for a sick child, to the world of mba dissertation sport which was for so long indulged with a special status that left some of its participants behaving as if they were exempt from the rules that everyone else was expected to follow.
Some of the essays are very clear about the what for college, definitions of corruption. Francis Fukuyama, in particular, analyses the in project, origins of corruption, providing a strong historical and intellectual underpinning to the challenges we face. Running through the essays is the what for college, sense that not only do you need the right rules and management enforcement but you need to change the underlying culture too. There is a clear message here. We cannot have one or the other; we need both. New Zealand Prime Minister John Key offers us his perspective when he uses a cricketing analogy to describe the national character of i can on my homework his country and its intolerance of “underarm deliveries”. He argues that you have to promote a culture which makes it close to impossible for the corrupt to prosper or escape detection. There is also a striking frankness and management directness in what is personal the politicians who are writing about the history of corruption in their own countries.
President Ghani describes Afghanistan as, by any measure, “one of the most corrupt countries on earth”. In his essay on tackling corruption in mba dissertation in project Estonia, Mart Laar says that corruption was so ingrained that it had become a way of life. He writes: “we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal.” President Buhari uses that same concept to describe corruption in groups essay Nigeria as a “way of life” under “supposedly accountable democratic governments” and points to evidence suggesting that between $300 billion and. $400 billion of public funds have been lost to corruption since Nigeria’s independence in 1960. But that frankness about the problem will only deliver real change if there is true political leadership. Without that leadership, many of the rules, institutions and mechanisms to address corruption will never actually bite. For years Nigeria had the laws and the anti-corruption agencies, but as President Buhari explains, there was “a complete lack of political will to strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the laws.” These laws were ignored with impunity and procurements were made with a complete disregard for mba dissertation in project due process. He cites one example of escape essay a provision to allow courts to treat unexplained wealth as evidence of corruption. There is a similar provision in Singapore, the use of which is explored in the essay by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. But the difference is that in Nigeria’s case, neither the Code of Conduct Bureau nor the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission has ever invoked such provisions in their decades of existence.
Above all, when I read through the essays I feel both depressed and uplifted. Depressed because the scale of this problem is in project management truly frightening and the human costs are so desperate. It is hard not to pause on Jim Yong Kim’s essay when he describes the is personal statement, situation in Sierra Leone where corruption stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children because nurses demanded rice in management exchange for ‘free’ shots. But I am also uplifted because there is a consistent theme that we can crack this and there are so many encouraging stories of measures that have already had an essay impact. Angel Gurria tells us that between 1999 – the year the OECD convention tackling transnational bribery came into force – and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in 17 countries, with at least $5.4 billion imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars. Mba Dissertation In Project Management. Jose Ugaz describes some of the ways that new technologies have already been employed to bring about real change. In Guatemala, a public campaign over a customs fraud scandal forced the resignation of the president and illusion vs. reality vice- president. In Brazil, 40 civil society organisations mobilised two million Brazilians to use online actions and events to successfully campaign for in project a new law that prevents candidates who have been convicted of groups essay corruption from standing for public office for at mba dissertation management least eight years. When El Salvador gave citizens the penfield escape, right to ask for information about public officials’ assets, 6,000 citizen requests helped to uncover cases where the wealth of public officials had grown by 300% during their time in office. In Venezuela, a new smart phone app is allowing ordinary citizens to report on instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections, with more than 400 complaints registered for follow-up in the most recent parliamentary elections.
Christine Lagarde also cites an example from Indonesia where the mba dissertation, then Minister of Finance partnered with business to create ‘new rules of the game’. These meant that the government delivered a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for a commitment from business not to offer any bribes to officials. Jim Yong Kim describes how publishing school funding allocations in local newspapers in Uganda transformed the escape, proportion of funds that made it through to the schools, with one study concluding that the amount of funds diverted away by local officials correlated to the distance of a school from a town where there was a newspaper outlet. All of these examples and more mean that the biggest message of this book is one of optimism. This battle can be won. Furthermore, there are clear lessons coming through that can help us to win it by shaping an international agenda to defeat and deter corruption.
First, corruption should be exposed so there is nowhere to hide. We need to end the use of secret shell companies, so that the corrupt no longer have an easy and anonymous way to hide their loot and move it across borders. We need to drive out the rogue lawyers, estate agents and accountants who facilitate or tolerate corruption in commerce and finance. Mba Dissertation Management. We need to creative non fiction essay expose the theft or misuse of taxpayers’ money by opening up budgets and procurement so that people can see exactly how their money is mba dissertation in project management used and they can demand that people are held to account when it is stolen. And we need a sustained effort in those areas which Paul Collier describes as the “pockets of high corruption”, including corruption-prone sectors such as the extractive and construction industries. At the heart of what is personal for college all of this is in project international co-operation on transparency. In the UK we have adopted legislation to give the public unrestricted access to beneficial ownership information on UK companies through a public central registry so that people can see who really owns and controls companies.
But as Paul Radu argues, tracking international flows of finance requires international co-operation. Well-structured, transparent and accessible databases could allow automated searches of ever-larger, global datasets that could feed real-time alerts to non fiction journalists in management every country. Communication Thesis. His vision offers a network of investigative journalists that could help make transparency the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and management corrupt officials all over what is personal statement the world. Given the sheer quantity of data to get through, networks of civil society, activists and management journalists – working with law enforcement – will be critical to holding people to what for college account. Second, we need to management deal properly and comprehensively with the corruption we expose. That means bringing the perpetrators to justice, actively enforcing anti-corruption laws and working together across international borders to hunt down the corrupt, prosecute them and intercultural communication master thesis send them to mba dissertation in project management jail. One cutting-edge idea to explore here comes from Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. In Singapore, instead of prosecutors having to prove the guilt of the corrupt, they reverse the intercultural master thesis, burden of proof so the accused have to show that they acquired their wealth legally. The Prevention of Corruption Act also provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Singaporeans overseas are treated in the same way as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether the corrupt acts had consequences in Singapore itself. Mba Dissertation In Project. It will be a while yet before everyone is master as bold and as far- reaching as Singapore. But what I believe we can all agree is that we should send a clear message to the corrupt that there will be no impunity and that we will restrict their ability to travel and do business as usual in our countries.
That’s why we in the UK are looking closely at mba dissertation in project the potential of Unexplained Wealth Orders, and fire essay why I urge other countries to do the same. Dealing with the corruption we expose also means taking responsibility to support those who have suffered from corruption. Mba Dissertation. I believe that should include doing everything we can to track down looted money and the glass menagerie illusion thesis create a trusted system to return it to its rightful owners. Mba Dissertation In Project Management. The looting of public wealth has been on such a scale in penfield escape essay some countries, that returning it safely would make an enormous difference to their development prospects. It would also begin to address the sense of in project management injustice that many in this book have so powerfully described. Third, we need more than just clear rules that are properly enforced.
As so many of the contributors have argued, we also need to make it much harder for corruption to thrive by driving out the underlying cultures that have allowed this cancer to penfield essay fester for so long. This means tackling head on what John Githongo describes as the ‘pirate sector’ by creating a culture where the corrupt are (in Lesotho vernacular) “bobolu” and made to feel a social stigma that shames them for what they do. It means challenging corrupt behaviours globally by embracing the vast possibilities that Paul Collier highlights around the twinning of different countries’ institutions and professions. From tax collection agencies, treasuries and civil services to professions such as accountancy and mba dissertation in project law, twinning can begin to build a newly shared culture of probity and honesty. Changing the culture of corruption also means embracing the help, power of mba dissertation management new technologies to menagerie illusion deliver greater accountability for public money and mba dissertation in project public services.
In India, for penfield fire essay example, welfare smartcards are helping to prevent corrupt officials taking a cut of mba dissertation in project payments to the poor. Technologies like this can provide the information to enable government agencies, businesses, campaigning NGOs and individual citizens to come together in a comprehensive movement against corruption. But all of this will only is personal statement, really work if political leaders have the courage to stand together, to speak up where previously there was silence, and to demand the strengthening and co- ordinating of international institutions that are needed to mba dissertation put fighting corruption at the top of the international agenda where it belongs. We cannot and must not fail this test of political leadership. As David Walsh writes: “No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. It would be a crime not to seize it.” I intend to seize it, with the support of all the authors in this book and together with the communication, widest possible coalition of leaders from management politics, business and civil society. Communication Thesis. Together we are against corruption. And together we can defeat it.
2. Francis Fukuyama: What is Corruption? Corruption has in many ways become the management, defining issue of the 21st century, just as the 20th century was characterised by large ideological struggles between democracy, fascism and communism. Menagerie Illusion Thesis. Today a majority of the world’s nations accept the legitimacy of in project democracy and at master thesis least pretend to hold competitive elections. What really distinguishes political systems from one another is the management, degree to intercultural communication master which the elites ruling them seek to use their power in the service of a broad public interest or simply to enrich themselves, their friends and their families. Countries from Russia and mba dissertation management Venezuela to Afghanistan and Nigeria all hold elections that produce leaders with some degree of democratic legitimacy.
What distinguishes them from Norway, Japan or Britain is not so much democracy as the quality of government which, in turn, is greatly affected by social groups essay levels of corruption. Corruption hurts life outcomes in a variety of ways. Economically, it diverts resources away from mba dissertation in project management their most productive uses and acts like a regressive tax that supports the lifestyles of elites at the expense of everyone else. Corruption incentivises the best and the brightest to spend their time gaming the system, rather than innovating or creating new wealth. Politically, corruption undermines the legitimacy of political systems by giving elites alternative ways of holding onto power other than genuine democratic choice. It hurts the prospects of i can on my homework democracy when people perceive authoritarian governments to be performing better than corrupt democratic ones and undermines the reality of democratic choice. In Project. However, the phenomenon labelled ‘corruption’ comprises a wide range of behaviours whose economic and political effects vary greatly. It is remarkable that, for all of the academic effort put into the glass the study of corruption, there is still no broadly accepted vocabulary for distinguishing between its different forms. Before we can tackle corruption, we need some conceptual clarity as to what it is and how it relates to the broader problem of good government. 2.1 Corruption as a modern phenomenon. Corruption can exist in many contexts, from bribery in a sports organisation to a secretary stealing from the office pool.
I am here going to focus on political corruption, which concerns the abuse of public office for mba dissertation in project management private gain (see Johnston 2005, p. 11). Thesis. The first point to note is that corruption is a modern phenomenon. The very terms ‘public’ and mba dissertation management ‘private’ did not always exist. In the penfield escape essay, European medieval era, virtually all regimes were what Max Weber labelled ‘patrimonial’ – that is, political authority was regarded as a species of private property which could be handed down to descendants as part of their patrimony. In dynastic times, a king could give away an entire province with all of its inhabitants to his son or daughter as a wedding present, since he regarded his domain as a private possession. Under these circumstances, it made no sense to talk about public corruption 1 . The concept that rulers did not simply own their domains but were custodians of a broader public interest was one that emerged gradually in the 16th and 17th centuries. Theorists such as Hugo Grotius, Jean Bodin, Thomas Hobbes and Samuel von Pufendorf began to argue that a ruler could be legitimately sovereign not by right of ownership, but out of a kind of social contract by which he protected public interest – above all, the mba dissertation in project management, common interest in peace and social groups security. The very notion that there was a potential conflict between public and private interest emerged with the rise of modern European states. In this respect, China beat Europe to the punch by nearly 1,800 years, having been one of the earliest civilisations to develop a concept of an impersonal state that was the guardian of a collective public interest.
Today no rulers dare assert publicly that they ‘own’ the territories over which they exercise authority; even traditional monarchs such as those in the Arab world claim to be serving a broader public interest. Hence we have the phenomenon that political scientists label ‘neo-patrimonialism’ – in mba dissertation in project management which political leaders pretend to be modern servants of the non fiction, common good in political systems with modern trappings like parliaments, ministers and mba dissertation bureaucracies. But the reality is that elites enter politics to extract rents or resources and enrich themselves and their families at the expense of for college everyone else. A modern state which seeks to promote public welfare and treats its citizens impersonally is not just a recent phenomenon, but also one that is difficult to in project achieve and inherently fragile. Non Fiction Essay. The reason for this has to do with human nature.
Human beings are social creatures, but their sociability takes the very specific forms of mba dissertation in project management favouritism towards family and penfield fire escape essay friends. In Project Management. The demand that we treat people on an impersonal basis, or hire a stranger who is qualified rather than a relative or a friend, is not something that comes naturally to human beings. Modern political systems set up incentives and essay try to mba dissertation in project management socialise people into different forms of behaviour. Menagerie Illusion Thesis. But because favouritism towards friends and family is in project a natural instinct, there is a constant danger of relapse – something I have elsewhere labelled ‘repatrimonialisation’ (Fukuyama 2011). People who live in rich developed countries often look down on countries pervaded by systemic corruption as if they are somehow deviant cases. But the truth of the matter is that, up until a few centuries ago, there were virtually no modern uncorrupt states. Making the transition from a patrimonial or neo-patrimonial state to a modern impersonal one is escape a difficult and historically fraught process, much more difficult in most respects than making the transition from an in project management authoritarian political system to a democratic one. But if most countries throughout most of human history were patrimonial or neo-patrimonial, there were still large differences between them with regard to the quality of government. On My Homework. So we need to make some finer distinctions between types and levels of corruption. There are two separate phenomena related to corruption that are not identical to it.
The first is the creation and extraction of rents, and the second is in project management patronage or clientelism. In economics, a rent is technically defined as the difference between the cost of keeping a good or service in master production and its price. One of the in project, most important sources of rents is scarcity: natural resource rents exist because the what, selling price of oil far exceeds the cost of mba dissertation in project management pumping it out of the ground. Rents can also be artificially generated by governments. Many of the most common forms of non fiction corruption revolve around a government’s ability to create artificial scarcities through licensing or regulation.
Placing tariffs on imports restricts imports and generates rents for the government; one of the most widespread forms of corruption around the world lies in mba dissertation management customs agencies, where the customs agent will take a bribe to reduce the duties charged or expedites the clearance process so that the importer will have their goods on time. The ease with which governments can create rents through their taxation or regulatory powers has led many economists to denounce rents in general as distortions of efficient resource allocation by markets and to see rent creation and distribution as virtually synonymous with corruption. The ability of governments to generate rents means that many ambitious people will choose politics rather than entrepreneurship or the communication master, private sector as a route to wealth. But while rents can be and are abused in the fashion described, they also have perfectly legitimate uses, which complicate any blanket denunciation. The most obvious type of a ‘good’ rent is a patent or copyright – by which the mba dissertation in project, government gives the creator of an idea or creative work the exclusive right to any resulting revenues for some defined period of time.
Economists Mushtaq Khan and Jomo Kwame Sundaram (2000) point out that many Asian governments have promoted industrialisation by focus homework allowing favoured firms to generate excess profits, provided they were ploughed back into new investment. While this opened the door to considerable corruption and in project abuse, it also worked as a means of stimulating rapid growth at a rate possibly higher than market forces on intercultural, their own would have produced. All government regulatory functions create artificial scarcities and therefore rents. But while we can argue about the appropriate extent of regulation, few people would like to see these functions simply abandoned. The creation and mba dissertation management distribution of rents by governments have a high degree of overlap with corruption, but are not simply the same phenomenon. The second phenomenon that is often identified with corruption is that of patronage or clientelism. A patronage relationship is intercultural communication master a reciprocal exchange of favours between two individuals of different status and power, usually involving favours given by the patron to the client in exchange for the client’s loyalty and political support. The favour given to the client must be a good that can be individually appropriated, such as a job in the post office, a Christmas turkey or a get-out-of-jail card for a relative, rather than a public good or policy that applies to a broad class of people (Eisenstadt and Roniger 1984). Patronage is sometimes distinguished from clientelism by scale; patronage relationships are typically face-to-face ones between patrons and clients and exist in all regimes whether authoritarian or democratic, while clientelism involves larger-scale exchanges of favours between patrons and clients, often requiring a hierarchy of intermediaries (see Scott 1972). Clientelism thus exists primarily in democratic countries where large numbers of mba dissertation in project voters need to be mobilised (Piattoni 2001, pp.
4–7). Clientelism is considered a bad thing and a deviation from good democratic practice in several respects. In a modern democracy, citizens are supposed to vote based on intercultural communication, the politician’s promises of broad public policies or a ‘programmatic’ agenda. Such choices are supposed to reflect general views of what is good for the political community as a whole and not just what is good for one individual voter. Of course, voters in advanced democracies cast their ballots according to their self-interest; programmes targeted at one group of citizens are nonetheless justified in terms of broad concepts of justice or the mba dissertation, general good. Moreover, targeted programmes must apply impartially not to individuals but to broad classes of people. Targeted benefits to individuals are bad from the standpoint of the glass menagerie illusion vs. reality thesis social justice. In clientelistic systems, redistributive programmes that are supposed to help all poor people, for example, end up benefiting only those poor people who support a particular politician. This weakens support for mba dissertation in project management effective universal policies and preserves existing social inequalities. Nevertheless, there is reason to think that clientelism is actually an early form of thesis democratic participation. In the United States and other countries, it was a way of mobilising poor voters and mba dissertation in project therefore encouraging them to intercultural communication participate in a democratic political system.
It was suboptimal when compared to mba dissertation in project programmatic voting, yet provided a degree of accountability insofar as the politician still felt obligated to provide some benefits in return for political support. In that respect, clientelism is quite different from a more destructive form of corruption in which a politician simply steals from the public treasury for the benefit of his or her family, without any obligation to what for college provide a public service in return. The problem with clientelism is that it usually does not remain confined to a mechanism for getting out the vote, but morphs into misappropriation. A final conceptual distinction that needs to be made is between corruption and low state capacity. ‘Anti-corruption and good governance’ has become an often-repeated slogan in the development community and some people treat good governance and the absence of corruption as equivalents. Yet they are very different: a squeaky-clean bureaucracy can still be incompetent or ineffective in doing its job, while corrupt ones can provide good services 2 . Beyond low levels of corruption, good governance requires state capacity – that is, the human, material and organisational resources necessary for governments to carry out their mandates effectively and in project efficiently.
It is linked to the skills and knowledge of public officials and whether they are given sufficient autonomy and authority to carry out for college their tasks. Mba Dissertation In Project Management. Corruption, of course, tends to undermine state capacity (for example, by replacing qualified officials with political patronage appointees); conversely, highly professional bureaucracies tend to essay be less subject to bribery and theft. Low levels of mba dissertation management corruption and high state capacity therefore tend to be correlated around the world. But getting to good governance is a much larger task than simply fighting corruption. The distinction between corruption and penfield essay low state capacity allows us to better understand differences between the effects of corruption in management countries around the world.
In the is personal, World Bank Institute’s Worldwide Governance Indicators for 2014, China ranks in mba dissertation management the 47th percentile with respect to groups control of mba dissertation corruption, behind Ghana and just ahead of Romania (World Bank 2014). On the other hand, China has a great deal of state capacity. In the government effectiveness category, it is in the 66th percentile, while Romania is in the 55th and Ghana is in the 44th (World Bank 2014). This validates the common perception that the Chinese Government has a great deal of capacity to achieve the ends it sets, despite strong perceptions of pervasive corruption. The predictability and scale of corruption are also important; if a business owner expects to essay pay 10% of the transaction value in bribes, they can regard that as a kind of tax, which is less damaging to investment than a bribery level of 75% or one that varies arbitrarily from year to year. The first generation of anti-corruption measures taken in the mid-1990s by mba dissertation in project management development finance institutions involved ambitious efforts to overhaul civil service systems along Weberian lines: incentivising officials by increasing wage dispersion and setting formal recruitment and promotion criteria. These measures had very little effect; the problem lay in the fact that corrupt governments were expected to police themselves and to is personal statement for college implement bureaucratic systems developed over long periods in rich countries with very different histories. More recent efforts have focused on mba dissertation in project management, fighting corruption through transparency and accountability measures – that is, increasing the monitoring of agent behaviour and creating positive and negative incentives for statement better compliance with the institution’s goals. This has taken a variety of forms: cameras placed in classrooms to ensure that teachers show up for management work; participatory budgeting where citizens are given a direct voice in budgeting decisions; and websites where citizens can report government officials taking bribes.
Since governments cannot be trusted to help focus homework police themselves, civil society has often been enlisted in management a watchdog role and what is personal statement for college mobilised to demand accountability. Mechanisms like anti-corruption commissions and special prosecutors have, if given enough autonomy, also shown some success in countries such as Indonesia and Romania. These later efforts, however, have also had uneven success (see, for example, Kolstad and Wiig 2009; Mauro 2002). In particular, transparency initiatives by themselves do not guarantee changes in in project management government behaviour. For example, in countries where clientelism is organised along ethnic lines, co-ethnics are frequently tolerant of non fiction leaders who steal. Elsewhere, citizens may be outraged by news of corruption, but then have no clear way of holding individual politicians or bureaucrats accountable. Mba Dissertation. In other cases, successes in punishing individual politicians are not sufficient to shift the the glass illusion vs. reality, normative framework in which virtually everyone in the political class expects to profit from office. Finally, anti-corruption campaigns may disrupt informal understandings and personal relationships that underpin investment and trade: without formal property rights and contract enforcement under a system of independent courts, the paradoxical short-term effect of prosecuting corrupt officials may be to mba dissertation in project deter new investment and illusion thesis thereby lower growth. Mba Dissertation. There is a single truth underlying the indifferent success of existing transparency and accountability measures to creative non fiction control corruption. The sources of corruption are deeply political. In Project Management. Without a political strategy for overcoming this problem, any given solution will fail.
Corruption in menagerie illusion its various forms – patronage, clientelism, rent-seeking and outright theft – all benefit existing stakeholders in the political system, who are generally very powerful players. In Project Management. Lecturing them about good government or setting up formal systems designed to work in modern political systems will not affect their incentives and therefore will have little transformative effect. That is why transparency initiatives on their own often fail. Citizens may be outraged by news about corruption, but nothing will happen without collective-action mechanisms to bring about change. The mere existence of a democratic political system is creative no guarantee that citizens’ anger will be translated into action; they need leadership and a strategy for displacing entrenched stakeholders from power. Outside pressure in the form of loan conditionality, technical assistance or moral pressure is almost never sufficient to do the job.
Anti- corruption commissions and special prosecutors who have had success in jailing corrupt officials have done so only in project management, because they receive strong grassroots political backing from citizens. The political nature of corruption and the necessarily political nature of the reform process can be illustrated by the experience of the United States in the 19th century (as I describe in Fukuyama 2014, chapters 9–11). American politics in that period was not too different from politics in contemporary developing democratic countries such as India, Brazil or Indonesia. Beginning in the 1820s, American states began extending the franchise to include all white males, vastly expanding the voter base and presenting politicians with the challenge of mobilising relatively poor and what is personal for college poorly educated voters. Management. The solution, which appeared particularly after the creative non fiction, 1828 presidential election that brought Andrew Jackson to mba dissertation in project power, was the creation of a vast clientelistic system. Elected politicians appointed their supporters to positions in penfield fire essay the bureaucracy or rewarded them with individual payoffs like Christmas turkeys or bottles of bourbon. This system, known as the spoils or patronage system, characterised American government for the next century, from the highest federal offices down to local postmasters in every American town or city. As with other clientelistic systems, patronage led to astonishing levels of corruption, particularly in cities such as New York, Boston and Chicago where machine politicians ruled for generations. This system began to change only in the 1880s as a consequence of economic development. New technologies like the railroads were transforming the country from a primarily agrarian society into an urban industrial one.
There were increasing demands from mba dissertation business leaders and from a newly emerging civil society for a different, more modern form of government that would prioritise merit and knowledge over political connections. Following the assassination of the newly elected President James A. Garfield in 1881 by a would-be office seeker, Congress was embarrassed into passing the Pendleton Act. It established a US Civil Service Commission for the first time and social the principle that public officials should be chosen on management, the basis of penfield escape essay merit. Even so, expanding the number of classified (i.e. Management. merit- based) officials met strong resistance and did not become widespread until after the statement, First World War. Mba Dissertation Management. Individual municipal political machines such as Tammany Hall in New York were not dismantled completely until the middle of the 20th century.
The American experience highlights a number of features of both corruption and the reform of corrupt systems. First, the incentives that led to the creation of the clientelistic system were deeply political. Politicians got into office via their ability to distribute patronage; they had no incentive to vote in creative non fiction favour of something like the Pendleton Act that would take away those privileges. The only reason it passed was a tragic exogenous event – the Garfield assassination – which mobilised public opinion in favour of a more modern governmental system. Second, reform of the system was similarly political. The Progressive Era saw the emergence of mba dissertation a vast reform coalition made up of business leaders, urban reformers, farmers and ordinary citizens who were fed up with the existing patronage system. Penfield Fire. It required strong leadership from politicians like Theodore Roosevelt who was himself head of the US Civil Service Commission. It also required a clear reform agenda pointing towards modern government, formulated by intellectuals such as Frank Goodnow, Dorman Eaton and mba dissertation in project Woodrow Wilson.
Finally, reform was helped along by economic development. Industrialisation in the US produced new social groups such as business leaders who needed efficient government services, a broad and better-educated middle class who could mobilise for reform, and a grassroots organisation of illusion civil society groups. The American experience is suggestive of how progress in the fight against corruption may be waged in contemporary societies suffering from in project it. Reform is social groups always a political matter that will require formation of mba dissertation a broad coalition of groups opposed to an existing system of corrupt politicians. Grassroots activism in favour of reform may emerge spontaneously, but such sentiments will not be translated into real change until it receives good leadership and organisation. Reform also has a socio-economic basis: economic growth often produces new classes and i can on my groups that want a different, more modern politics. America points to another feature of anti-corruption efforts. Control of corruption was very much bound up with efforts to increase state capacity. The period that saw the emergence of an industrial economy was also characterised by huge increases in levels of education – particularly higher education, which produced an entirely new class of professionals who worked for both private businesses and the government. One of the in project management, first government agencies to be modernised in statement for college the late 19th century was the US Department of Agriculture, which benefited from in project a generation of professional agronomists trained in the numerous land-grant universities that sprang up around the United States.
The latter, in turn, were the menagerie thesis, product of the far-sighted Morrill Act of 1862 that sought to in project increase agricultural productivity (among other things) through higher education. It would not have been possible to reform the fire essay, old patronage-based bureaucracy without access to the human capital represented by this entire generation of university- educated officials. Every important reform effort undertaken to create modern state bureaucracies – in Germany, Britain, France, Japan and mba dissertation elsewhere – was accompanied by parallel efforts to modernise the higher education system in ways that would benefit public administration. Creative. Today development finance institutions focus on helping to provide universal primary and secondary education to poor countries and have largely given up on supporting elite education. The reasons for this are understandable, but do not correspond to the historical experience of management state modernisation in countries that became rich in earlier eras. These general observations about historical efforts to build modern uncorrupt administrations suggest that the process will be an extended one, characterised by prolonged political struggle.
Fortunately, having a modern bureaucracy is not a sine qua non of economic development. No existing rich country had a squeaky-clean government in its early stages of economic growth – neither Britain, nor the United States in the 19th century, nor China today. Intercultural Communication Thesis. Corruption and weak governance are obstacles to mba dissertation in project economic growth, but economic growth can happen also in poorly governed societies and will produce, over time, social conditions and resources that will make government reform more feasible. This is perhaps a pessimistic conclusion, given the fact that rentier states and kleptocratic governments are the source of international conflict and fire essay instability in today’s world. But it is management also a realistic assessment derived from the historical record. Eisenstadt, S. N. and Roniger, L. 1984. Patrons, Clients and Friends: Interpersonal Relations and master the Structure of Trust in Society. Mba Dissertation Management. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fukuyama, F. 2011.
The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Fukuyama, F. 2014. Political Order and help i can on my Political Decay: From the in project management, Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Johnston, M. 2005. Syndromes of Corruption. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Khan, M. Illusion Thesis. H. and Jomo, K. S. 2000. Rents, Rent-Seeking and Economic Development: Theory and Evidence in Asia.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kolstad, I. and Wiig, A. Mba Dissertation In Project Management. 2009. Is Transparency the Key to Reducing Corruption in Resource-Rich Countries? World Development, 37(3), pp. 521–32. The Glass. Mauro, P. 2002. The Persistence of Corruption and Slow Economic Growth.
Washington DC: International Monetary Fund. Mba Dissertation. Working Paper No. Social Groups Essay. 02/213. In Project Management. Piattoni, S. 2001. Clientelism, Interests and Democratic Representation: The European Experience in Historical and Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Scott, J. 1972. Comparative Political Corruption. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. World Bank. 2014. Worldwide Governance Indicators. Available online. Francis Fukuyama is a Senior Fellow at creative Stanford University and Director of in project its Center on Democracy, Development and the Rule of groups essay Law.
His book, The End of History and the Last Man (Free Press 1992), has appeared in more than 20 foreign editions. More recently, he is the author of mba dissertation in project Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy (Profile Books 2014). Non Fiction. 3. Paul Collier: How to change cultures of corruption. Corruption does not happen everywhere, it is concentrated in mba dissertation pockets: in particular industries, in particular societies and in fire escape essay particular times. Among industries, natural resource extraction and construction have long been seen as exceptionally prone to corruption. Mba Dissertation. This is social groups partly because projects in these sectors are idiosyncratic and difficult to scrutinise. Some European countries such as Italy and Greece perform markedly worse than some African and Asian countries, according to mba dissertation in project Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). Places where grand corruption is creative essay perceived to be flourishing are rare, but Afghanistan and Angola are examples of these extreme conditions. As to periods, Britain in the 18th century exemplified the behaviours that would now lead to a miserable ranking in corruption indices. More pertinently, there is mba dissertation in project good reason to think that, globally, there has been an upsurge in corruption in recent decades. Reversing this upsurge calls for concerted effort.
Alongside these pockets of high corruption, other industries, other societies and other times are virtually corruption-free. Denmark is currently seen as the least corrupt place in the world and many non-Western countries such as Botswana are also viewed as relatively untainted (Transparency International 2015). In most societies, corruption is penfield fire essay not normal: it is therefore potentially avoidable everywhere. Mba Dissertation Management. Corruption is concentrated in pockets because it depends upon common expectations of behaviour. Where corruption is the norm, getting rid of it poses a co-ordination problem: if I expect those around me to continue to be corrupt, why should I change my behaviour?
Because of this, pockets of corruption have proved to be highly persistent: the same industries and the same societies remain corrupt for many years. Similarly, honesty is the glass illusion thesis persistent. Management. In the first TI survey conducted in 1995, Denmark was rated second globally. This persistence is not a matter of chance. Danes are born into an honest society and so inherit the expectation that they themselves will be trustworthy. Being trusted is a valuable asset: it makes many aspects of life much easier. In consequence, individual Danes have a strong incentive not to social groups essay squander this valuable asset through behaving opportunistically. Because people have rationally chosen to protect their reputation for honesty, the entire society has stayed honest.
But change is possible. Until well into the 19th century, the British public sector was very corrupt. Positions were bought and sold and contracts were awarded in return for bribes. Crises such as military humiliation in the Crimean War helped to shock governments into change. Opportunities for mba dissertation management corruption were curtailed: recruitment and promotion were opened to competitive examinations. A new purposive ethic was promoted and serving the nation became the pinnacle of social prestige and self-worth. Communication Master Thesis. By the late 19th century, the British Civil Service had become honest and competent. This transformation was largely fortuitous rather than the result of a properly thought-through strategy.
But its success reveals the key components of how change can be brought about. Societies do not have to wait for mba dissertation military humiliation and a moral revival: corruption can be tackled effectively. In Britain, two key things – closing off the major opportunities for corruption and making working for the public good more prestigious and satisfying than abusing office for private gain – happened together. These two approaches are jointly critical in breaking cultures of corruption. Creative. Just as 19th-century Britain implemented both of them without international help, there is much that societies currently beset by corruption can do for themselves. However, the globalisation of business and social networks has created an important role for international action.
Countries such as Britain can contribute to encouraging both internal and international initiatives. There is enormous scope for international actions that close off opportunities for corruption. Equally, there is much that can be done to mba dissertation in project make behaviours that promote the public good more prestigious and satisfying than those that sacrifice the public interest for private gain. This is because corruption, like honesty, tends to persist. Corrupt behaviour is social essay self-reinforcing, and breaking out of it is not easy. A co-ordinated push for international action thus makes national initiatives more likely to succeed and more worthwhile to attempt.
It can help those societies that are still struggling with the problems that Britain faced in the 19th century. Britain has already done much to make global corruption more difficult. One contribution has been to ‘follow the money’. In recent decades, international lawyers and bankers created walls of secrecy that enabled corrupt officials to hide money away in ‘shell’ companies and offshore bank accounts. The Government has led the way in mba dissertation management dismantling this labyrinth of essay deceit: the true ownership of British companies must now be revealed in a public register, and British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies are also taking action to management improve company transparency. Britain has rapidly changed from the glass being part of the problem to being a pioneer of the in project management, solution, but quite evidently following the money is subject to a weakest-link problem. Corrupt money will hide wherever it can, so it is menagerie thesis vital that all the mba dissertation in project management, major legal and financial centres close the loopholes. There is scope to extend transparency beyond bank deposits to what is personal statement for college other major assets such as property. There is also considerable scope for those governments that adopt effective measures for in project following the money to require all companies that wish to statement for college do business with them to comply with these standards, providing global reach for national efforts. A second contribution has been to in project management increase transparency in key sectors.
In 2013, Britain and four other G7 countries signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), helping to the glass menagerie illusion vs. reality thesis bring daylight to a corrupt sector. In North America and Europe, what began as voluntary revenue transparency is now evolving into a legal requirement. In Project Management. Meanwhile the EITI is becoming the established international standard-setting entity for the sector, extending voluntarism beyond simple revenue reporting to intercultural communication master thesis matters such as contracts. Mba Dissertation In Project Management. There is groups now an equivalent voluntary initiative for the construction sector and mba dissertation in project it warrants similar co-ordinated propulsion. A third contribution has been to increase accountability: the help i can, Bribery Act 2010 greatly tightened the in project, legal liability of companies and their employees for menagerie vs. reality bribing their way into contracts. Clamping down on bribery is a classic instance of the free-rider problem: no government wants its own companies to in project be disadvantaged. This is why the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has been encouraging a co-ordinated international approach. The alternative to such co-operation is a race to the bottom that the businesses of no decently governed country can win. There is, equally, plenty of scope for is personal statement contributing to the complementary approach of making public good more prestigious and satisfying than the private gains generated by abuse of management office. Take, for example, tax administration, which is fundamental to effective government.
In many poor countries, tax administration is an epicentre of corruption. As a specific example, consider the administration of Value-Added Tax (VAT), which is a means of revenue-raising encouraged globally by social essay the International Monetary Fund (IMF) because it is less distorting than most other taxes. But in mba dissertation management several poor societies that followed IMF advice, such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo, VAT is actually reducing revenue rather than raising it. Even before VAT, many tax inspectors were corrupt, using their power to tax firms as a means of extorting money for themselves: ‘pay me or pay tax’ (Collier 2016). VAT has reduced revenue, because it expanded the master thesis, options available to in project management corrupt tax officials. Creative Essay. It works by mba dissertation in project management firms initially paying tax on their gross sales, but then getting a rebate on the inputs they have purchased, so that they end up only paying tax on the value they have added to those inputs. But in a country that introduces a VAT, a corrupt tax official can now sell a firm phoney tax receipts on inputs, in addition to the standard extortion racket. As a result, the rebate system ends up paying out more than the sales tax component of VAT is paying in. Clearly at the core of this phenomenon are norms of behaviour among tax officials, such that seizing opportunities for private gain is seen as both more prestigious and essay more satisfying than contributing to the public good of generating tax revenue and the public services it can finance. How might Britain, and other countries in mba dissertation in project management which VAT collection does not face such problems, help to change this perception?
Social prestige and penfield essay personal satisfaction are largely set within peer groups: most people want to mba dissertation in project be respected by those they see as their peers and they find satisfaction in intercultural communication thesis adhering to in project management group norms. Hence a practical way of intercultural communication changing the behaviour of corrupt officials is to mba dissertation management alter the group of people they regard as their peers. Statement. Currently, a corrupt tax official is likely to have two key networks in which they seek prestige: their extended family and fellow tax inspectors. Their family will honour them for helping relatives who lack opportunities to in project earn a large income: he or she becomes the patron of the family. Their fellow tax inspectors, subject to the same family pressures, may see corruption as reasonable.
They may even regard honest behaviour as a threat to their own conduct and therefore disloyal. A useful way of changing this state of affairs is to twin those tax administrations in essay which corruption is endemic with administrations in countries that are not corrupt. Twinning could involve regular secondments of in project staff in both directions and the potential for accreditation to international professional associations at intercultural thesis various ranks. The purpose would not primarily be a transfer of technical skills, although that could clearly be a component, but rather a gradual transfer of attitudes and mba dissertation in project management behaviours. The new network exposes the official to the potential of a new identity as a member of a prestigious international peer group of modern tax officials, working to the glass illusion vs. reality thesis global, not local, standards. In Project. It exposes the official to a new narrative circulating in the network: that tax officials are vital for the provision of core public services. And it exposes the official to a new norm of communication master ‘good’ conduct. A ‘good’ tax inspector is no longer one who raises a lot of money for their family, but one who rigorously implements the tax code to make the rest of government feasible.
Exposure to these new attitudes creates a tension between the behaviour that would generate prestige and mba dissertation self-worth in the old networks and the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the new network. Creating this tension is not the end of the story, but it is an essential step. The other key step is to tackle the fire, co-ordination problem: why should I change my behaviour, if nobody else is going to management change theirs? Social psychologists have shown that successful co-ordination depends upon social groups, generating ‘common knowledge’ (Thomas et al. Mba Dissertation Management. 2014). A new fact becomes ‘common’ if it is not only widely shared, but also crucially if everybody knows that everybody else knows it. One way to create the common knowledge that yesterday’s behaviour is unlikely to persist tomorrow is to close an entire organisation and rehire those staff judged to have reasonable integrity into a new one under different management and higher standards. For example, many governments have closed corrupt tax departments within their ministries of finance and replaced them with independent revenue authorities, a change that has usually been reasonably successful. An analogous way for international twinning to overcome the co-ordination problem is for essay all the staff in an entire unit to be exposed to the international network at the same time.
Each official in mba dissertation in project management the unit would then realise that their colleagues were facing the same tension between old and new networks and hence the focus on my, same choice. There are already a few examples of institutional twinning. For example, in Britain, the Department for International Development (DFID) financially supports Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs (HMRC), the management, British tax authority, to work with tax authorities in some low-income countries. Also, until a decade ago, governors of the Bank of for college England used to host an annual meeting for mba dissertation management governors of African central banks. Penfield Fire Escape Essay. But the scope for mba dissertation twinning is vast, relative to thesis what is, as yet, happening both in governments and in the wider society. Around the world, governments have similar structures. For example, virtually all governments in low-income countries have a ministry of transport, a ministry of health and a ministry of finance. OECD governments have been liaising with these ministries for half a century, but the entities that are linked to them are their aid agencies not their counterpart ministries. Direct links with counterpart ministries have the potential for mba dissertation in project a very different form of relationship based on peer-group networks, rather than on money with conditions. Often ministries in low-income countries try to keep donor agencies ‘out of their hair’, whereas they would value direct links with their peers.
An important example is the regulation of utilities such as electricity. Many governments of escape essay low-income countries are now establishing regulatory agencies, which is a vital step in attracting private finance for infrastructure. Mba Dissertation Management. But the regulation of utilities faces intense pressures for corruption: the decisions of regulators affect both the profitability of penfield escape essay companies and voter support for politicians. In the OECD, regulatory agencies have been operating for mba dissertation two or three decades. The OECD has also built peer group networks that have evolved peer standards of independence, transparency and impartiality. New regulatory agencies would benefit from intercultural communication master becoming part of this distinctive culture. Such specialised inter-government peer groups are indeed the core activity of the in project, OECD. But membership of the OECD is confined to the governments of high-income countries. Admirably, the organisation is now trying to broaden its engagement with the governments of poor countries, for example, by the new initiative ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ (OECD 2015).
This is designed to embed tax inspectors for OECD governments in the tax authorities of poor countries on secondment for several months: not to train but to work on the job. An obvious extension would be to groups make this a two-way exchange of staff. The branding of ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ neatly taps into mba dissertation management the potential for such secondments to be glamorous: a survey of the glass vs. reality young French singles found that the ‘ideal spouse’ was a doctor with Medecins Sans Frontieres! More seriously, while the OECD initiative is excellent it is a drop in the ocean. The restricted membership of the OECD limits its scope to forge global links and there is no other international institution with the remit to build peer- group links across government departments between rich countries and in project management poor ones. Perhaps this role should become a core function of national aid agencies such as DFID, but it would benefit from a co-ordinated kick-start by several heads of government. Twinning has the potential to be extended well beyond government: part of the ‘big society’ can be direct links between the civil society organisations and their counterparts in poor countries. Again, historically such links have largely been confined to development non-governmental organisations (NGOs) such as Oxfam, which channel donations to needs.
But an important part of tackling corruption is resetting the cultures of professions, including accountancy, law, medicine and teaching. For example, in groups many poor countries, it is mba dissertation in project management socially acceptable for teachers not to show up for lessons. Twinning involving things like teacher exchanges between schools could help to shift these dysfunctional values. Penfield. The global explosion of social media has made this far more feasible. The two approaches of mba dissertation closing off opportunities for corruption and reducing the prestige and satisfaction generated by corrupt behaviour reinforce each other.
As the difficulties and essay risks of mba dissertation management corrupt behaviour rise, fewer people will behave corruptly. This directly reduces the esteem from being corrupt because it is illusion vs. reality thesis no longer so normal. Similarly, as more people start to get their esteem from being honest, those who remain corrupt are easier to mba dissertation management spot and so find themselves running bigger risks. National actions against corruption complement international actions. One major way of squeezing out penfield escape corruption is to remove obvious sources of rent-seeking such as rationed access to foreign exchange and the award of government contracts through secret negotiation rather than open bidding.
Competition within rule-based markets is an important part of the system of mba dissertation in project checks and balances that constrain public officials from the penfield, abuse of mba dissertation management office. Another is to prosecute some prominent senior officials. For example, in Ghana, 20 judges were sacked in late 2015 for accepting bribes based on video evidence gathered by an investigative journalist (BBC News 2015). Being based on independent evidence, such sackings cannot be misinterpreted as government attempts to crush political opposition. Further, as high-profile events, they generate common knowledge among officials that all other officials are reflecting on whether they should change their behaviour.
Not all corruption is creative non fiction directly financial. Electoral corruption is mba dissertation highly damaging. New research finds that, under normal conditions, governments that deliver good economic performance enhance their prospects of retaining office, but that the discipline of accountability breaks down when elections are not free and fair (Collier and Hoeffler 2015). Twinning national electoral commissions with their international peers, along with twinning local and international election monitors, can help to raise standards of electoral conduct. An international initiative against corruption provides an opportunity for national actions and international actions to cohere. As people recognise that the calculus of risks and rewards and the sources of non fiction essay prestige and satisfaction are changing both for themselves and their colleagues, previously entrenched patterns of behaviour could become unstable. Mass shifts in cultures of corruption do happen and it is possible to make them happen. Paul Collier is Professor of Economics and Public Policy at the Blavatnik School of Government and in project one of the world’s leading and award-winning development experts. Penfield Escape. His latest book is Exodus: How Migration is Changing our World (Oxford University Press 2013).
4. John Githongo: An African perspective on corruption. In Project. Sebolu is the Sotho word for a ‘spoilt thing’. It is a derogatory word used in Lesotho’s national language and vernacular to mean, among other things, corruption. Someone who is what is personal corrupt is described as being bobolu and in project management people have deep disdain for such a person. 3. In most of fire essay Africa though, there are few similar words of such powerful home-grown cultural resonance. Indeed, the word ‘corruption’ doesn’t exist in many indigenous African languages. It never has – it wasn’t needed. Management. The idea of stealing communal goods was literally taboo.
The concept of shuffling papers in a government office in a far-off capital, ‘making good’ and then coming home rich and wearing the i can on my, ‘corrupt’ tag is, however, more obscure. Indeed, the local son or daughter ‘made good’ who demonstrates generosity back in the village is often lionised. Generosity of management heart, even to strangers, but especially to relatives (no matter how distant), is a quality much admired by Africans generally. East Africa’s lingua franca, Kiswahili, gives us ufisadi (meaning corruption) or mfisadi (corrupt one); terms cleverly engineered post-independence. What Is Personal For College. Ufisadi brings to in project management mind ‘hyena-like’ derived from the reputation of the hyena; fisi for being unscrupulous, greedy and ruthless. However, it does not have the same resonance for citizens of the region as sebolu does in Lesotho, which is one of the least corrupt African countries according to Transparency International’s (TI) annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). That said, ‘perceptions of corruption’, or better put ‘perceptions of leaders involved in theft’, is one of the most resented attributes of officialdom to Africans at intercultural thesis large. Mba Dissertation. Recent research on the experiences and intercultural master perceptions of mba dissertation in project Africans in 28 countries regarding corruption indicates that a majority (58%) felt that corruption had increased over the last 12 months. And in 18 of the 28 countries, the feeling was that their governments were doing badly in the fight against corruption.
The report said that, despite these disappointing findings, the bright spots across the continent were in creative non fiction essay Botswana, Burkina Faso, Lesotho and Senegal. Citizens in these countries were some of the most positive in the region when discussing corruption (Transparency International and Afrobarometer 2015). Management. In environments where corruption is groups systemic but lacks cultural resonance, creating a climate where social sanction can be applied against mba dissertation in project corrupt practices has been challenging. People understand the terms ‘theft’ and essay ‘thief’, but corruption is a modern and ambiguous concept to many Africans. As a Nuer elder once told me, “My daughter cannot be married into a family of thieves.” The task therefore is two-fold: we need to embed a clear legal framework to deter and punish corruption, and we need to actually change the culture, so that the concept of in project corruption is both understood and communication recognised as anathema. The war against graft (political corruption) has reached the management, point where the shame and social sanctions directed against this kind of theft and thief need to be given greater prominence in the arsenal used to fight corruption.
This applies especially in developing countries where its consequences can be – and often are – deadly. In its culturally most compelling form, the social sanction is about ensuring, for example, that the thief is statement too embarrassed to go to church on Sunday because of the looks they’ll get. As such, the whole approach to corruption needs to be re-examined: from local cultural assumptions and preconceptions to the legal conventions, constitutions, statutes and, especially, the prosecution-related instruments brought to in project bear on it at what for college the national and global levels. Integral to this are the mba dissertation in project, principles of legal authority and equality before the law. The equality component is essential: the rule of law must be seen to apply equally to all citizens without fear or favour, regardless of race, creed or class. Groups. The following complementary but separate factors in a society are critical: culture, ethos, ethics and traditions, and legal processes and practices. Mba Dissertation Management. Each derives its legitimacy from history and the traditional ways in which meaning is made. By their very nature, they are far more negotiable – existing as they do in a constant state of flux in a dynamic world. Our success depends on how effectively we bring and use them together in the fight against corruption. We do this cognisant of the fact that grand corruption, when compared to the drug trade, human trafficking, terrorism finance and other global evils, is the most easily rationalisable major felonious activity on the planet.
4.1 The global anti-corruption agenda. During the years 1993 to 2003, corruption was at the centre of the global development agenda. In 1993, Transparency International was founded. In the mid-to-late 1990s, corruption was adopted as a key development issue by the multilateral and bilateral development institutions. For College. This culminated, in 2003, in the drafting and ratification by a host of countries of the mba dissertation, United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). What Statement. The following decade saw the rise of the BRIC nations2 and rapid economic growth across much of the in project management, developing world, as well as globalisation and its associated technologies assisting the expansion of trade and commerce. At the same time, the escape, struggle against Islamic extremism captured the attention of policy makers in the international community. Alongside it, unfortunately, has also come a rapid growth in the scale and complexity of corruption. So much so, that anti-corruption work needs to be returned urgently to the heart of the global development agenda. It needs to be part of the DNA of modern nation-states, multinational corporations, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and even religious organisations and how they interact on mba dissertation in project, the global stage.
This urgency comes from the fact that graft has served to hollow out key governance institutions in some countries. This includes the defence and security sector and areas of social policy such as health and education, with dire consequences for the public services they are supposed to offer the poor, in particular. The crippling impact of corruption on the delivery of intercultural master these essential services has deepened economic inequalities, undermining faith in political processes, parties and politicians. In turn, this increases political volatility as politicians retreat to identity and personality politics with its complex web of non-negotiable irrationalities. It also feeds fundamentalism of mba dissertation management all kinds – for example, ethnic, religious and sectarian. 4.2 BRIC nations – Brazil, Russia, India and China. The impunity that accompanies crony capitalism results in what I might call both a private sector and a ‘pirate’ sector, causing citizens – especially younger people who increasingly view elections as a pointless game of musical chairs among crooks – to begin to help i can focus on my question capitalism in its current form and democracy itself.
This also does serious damage to the independence, legitimacy and mba dissertation integrity of the service sector – in particular, banks, law firms and auditing firms – and social essay deepens the challenges corruption poses. 4.3 The ‘pirate’ and private sectors. The traditional private sector, comprising ‘makers of things’, has increasingly been supplanted in the 21st century by the service sector. The growth of the latter has been buoyed by the dramatic expansion and in project management sophistication of the internet and an increasing variety of communication platforms. This has energised traders, who remain vital to the ‘old economy’ where the world’s products are created, built, sold and moved.
At the i can focus on my, same time, however, we’ve seen a distinct ‘pirate’ sector gaining in influence, particularly over mba dissertation management the last two decades. By design, the ‘pirate’ sector is as virtual as possible, unencumbered by the traditional obligations and processes of rents, payrolls, medical schemes, pensions and so on. Although it can involve an communication master thesis individual or group of individuals, this sector forms itself into sophisticated entities. These can operate with the same ‘apparent’ legitimacy in mba dissertation in project multiple countries, even if it means they must use vexatious litigation – such as injunctions, court orders and delayed hearings – to allow them to what for college act outside the in project management, law for social groups essay the duration of their business in a country. Management. The ‘pirate’ sector often chooses to corporatise itself in offshore tax havens, using the skills of professionals, especially lawyers, bankers and auditors. Social Groups. As a result, it has become apparent that even seemingly reputable companies and mba dissertation management professional firms sometimes contain ‘pirate units’. The units are able to move unhindered across borders and traverse the legal world like ghosts who disappear as quickly as these so-called ‘special purpose vehicles’ can be shut down. Theirs is the euphemistic language of ‘commissions’; ‘conclusion’ and ‘success bonuses’; ‘consultancy’ fees; ‘facilitation payments’; ‘philanthropic’ contributions to the relations of ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEPS); and the use of complex financial instruments to move resources around the world at the touch of a button.
As I pointed out penfield escape previously, businesses find corruption the easiest felonious activity to rationalise, especially in cross-cultural contexts. They are the in project management, entities that ‘get things done’ in a complex world. For them, relationships are tradable products that can be leveraged for a profit and not a social currency that helps make trade and commerce flow more smoothly within the statement, law. Mba Dissertation In Project. 4.4 Renewing and essay reinvigorating international action. So how do we fight these piratical shadows? Corruption is defined as the abuse of vested authority for private gain. In 2011, developing countries lost nearly $1 trillion to corruption, trade misinvoicing and tax avoidance (Kar and Le Blanc 2013). Leading global advocacy organisations such as ONE have even made efforts to quantify the mba dissertation management, cost of graft in lives (McNair et al. 2014). Estimates show that the cost of the glass menagerie illusion corruption equals more than 5% of management global gross domestic product (GDP) (OECD 2016). As the recent FIFA scandal has demonstrated, unconstrained corruption also threatens valued cultural institutions and penfield traditions that we all hold dear.
At the same time, the complexity of the in project, legal compliance environment – vis-a-vis anti-corruption, anti-money laundering and other illicit activities – that the genuine private sector has to contend with has increased exponentially. Indeed there is almost an unspoken ‘compliance paralysis’ as large numbers of lawyers, risk advisors and auditors apply expensive time to scrutinising transactions complicated by the web of demands that compliance has placed upon business. As a result, the the glass vs. reality thesis, temptation for some businesses to rely on the ‘pirate’ sector and/or aggressively ignore or cover up compliance risks has risen. A recent Risk Advisory Group (2015) research report revealed 83% of compliance professionals believe compliance has become more complex in the past two years, with bigger businesses feeling this more acutely. The Risk Advisory Group CEO Bill Waite said, “Worryingly, compliance has become so elaborate that 78% of compliance professionals say that it now represents a risk in itself” (Cassin 2015). In Project. This means we are at a critical juncture. It calls for creative non fiction a renewed global partnership against corruption to in project management match, and even exceed, the concentrated and successful advocacy that followed the penfield fire escape essay, fall of the in project, Berlin Wall. Corruption’s resurgence and complexity threatens not only global security and equitable development but also international trade and commerce, and people’s confidence in freedoms and systems of governance taken for granted since the Second World War. For example, there has been a debate about creating an International Anti-Corruption Court (IACC). It’s proposed this could have the kind of powers granted to international weapons inspectors to target specific transactions and institutions that, when riddled with corruption, escape investigation and penfield fire prosecution and cause citizens to lose confidence in public institutions and the rule of law and democracy.
The new push needs to identify, disrupt and delegitimise the global networks of in project corruption in money laundering; terrorism finance; drug, people and environmental trafficking; and other illicit activities. This requires new global partnerships that target the information-era entities and domiciles that these networks rely on. They may be offshore tax havens or low-compliance jurisdictions where the ever-expanding raft of international regulations aimed at dealing with graft and help on my homework illicit flows have limited currency. At the same time, the new regime should robustly incentivise self-reporting vis-a-vis corporate compliance, allowing for a ‘cleaning out of the stables’. 4.5 Culture, tradition and social sanction. Mba Dissertation. To be fully effective, however, this reinvigoration of the rule of law must go hand in master thesis hand with action to create a cultural climate in which the corrupt – the thieves – are shamed for what they do. Mba Dissertation Management. Indeed, effecting change in the culture and traditions – which inform what is acceptable behaviour – is perhaps even more important in societies where legal institutions based on the Western model are nascent, or where their existence is being energetically contested, as it is in important parts of the developing world. Intercultural Master Thesis. The release by WikiLeaks of US diplomatic cables in 2010 was a controversial episode of unofficial transparency and a powerful interrupter to the global status quo regarding corruption in relations between nation-states. It revealed the corrupt practices that ruling elites are capable of to the growing youth populations of regions such as the Middle East.
The reverberations of in project management this are still being felt. Across Latin America and in the developed world, revelations of help homework inappropriate, corrupt and unethical behaviour by leaders – in both the private and corporate sectors – have created a level of criticism from the public that is unprecedented in some countries. This is especially the mba dissertation in project, case for the ‘millennial’ generation who appear to mistrust politicians and political parties the most. Focus Homework. Presidents have been forced to step down and others turned into lame ducks while still in office by dramatic mass expressions of discontent boosted by social media. In this sense the change has already begun – untidily, noisily, chaotically and even bloodily – in in project management many places. The outcome is uncertain. But, in the long term, it will be dramatically different from the status quo. This is, in part, because political leaders and ruling elites increasingly recognise the what is personal for college, public’s lack of trust and confidence in them, especially that of mba dissertation management their younger citizens. They also now appreciate that, in this networked world, a spotlight can be shone on corrupt and unethical relationships with the i can focus homework, ‘pirate’ and private sectors. Mba Dissertation Management. In addition to menagerie illusion vs. reality thesis institutions such as an International Anti- Corruption Court as a further step towards increasing transparency, strengthening enforcement and securing restitution, the tools of visa revocations, personalised financial sanctions and more harmonised extradition mechanisms could actually be cheaper and more effective in tackling corruption than prosecutions – which are always tortuous. However, for these measures to enjoy legitimacy around the world, they must be applied, and be seen to apply, with equal force across the different regions of both the developed and mba dissertation management developing world.
To conclude, a successful international anti-corruption campaign requires co-operation on a global scale and specific legal measures that help transform attitudes towards corruption and the ability to prosecute the corrupt. Although it may take longer, embedding a culture of social sanction and censure for anyone found guilty of engaging in, facilitating or condoning corrupt activity, even to the extent that those holding office lose public trust, would support these measures. They need to be seen as bobolu. They need to feel the social stigma when they attend family gatherings, visit the golf club or step into the supermarket – as much to set an example to others as to punish the individual, impressing on the whole community that corruption will not be tolerated. John Githongo is the CEO of Inuka Kenya Ni Sisi Ltd, a non-governmental organisation focused on promoting good governance. Previously he served as Vice-President of Policy and Advocacy at World Vision International. The Glass Menagerie Thesis. John has been involved in anti-corruption research, advisory work and mba dissertation in project activism in Kenya, Africa and escape the wider international community for 19 years. This includes work in civil society, media, government and the private sector. Cassin, R. L. 25 November 2015. Mba Dissertation Management. Risk Advisory Group Report: Compliance is so complex, it’s now its own risk. FCPA Blog.
Available online. Non Fiction. Kar, D. and Le Blanc, B. 2013. Illicit Financial Flows from Developing Countries: 2002–2011. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. In Project. Available online. McNair, D., Kraus, J., McKiernan K. and the glass thesis McKay, S. 2014. The Trillion Dollar Scandal Study.
London: ONE. OECD. January 2016. The CleanGovBiz Initiative. In Project. Available online. Fire Escape. The Risk Advisory Group. 2015. The Compliance Horizon Survey. Available online. Transparency International. 2015.
Corruption Perceptions Index – Lesotho. Available online. Transparency International and Afrobarometer. Mba Dissertation. 2015. People and fire essay Corruption: Africa Survey 2015 – Global Corruption Barometer. Berlin: Transparency International. Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC).
2015. United Nations Convention against mba dissertation in project Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available online. 5. Paul Radu: Follow the money: how open data and investigative journalism can beat corruption. The early spring of 2015 saw thousands of angry people on the streets of Chisinau, capital of the tiny Republic of Moldova. While calling loudly for penfield escape essay the resignation of the Government and the Parliament, they were shouting, “We want our billion back!” (Calugareanu and Schwartz 2015). The demonstrators believed the politicians were to blame for the theft of almost $1 billion from Moldovan banks, which had left this poor country’s financial affairs in disarray.
Investigations are ongoing. But the mba dissertation management, Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project’s (OCCRP) research indicates that this $1 billion was the tip of the iceberg, in a country where many more billions of dollars in ‘black’ money appear to have flowed through a flawed banking system – with the help of corrupt politicians and organised crime as well as untrustworthy judges and law enforcement officers (Radu, Munteanu and Ostanin 2015). We believe that the citizens of Moldova were victims of a transnational web of corruption, benefiting politicians and criminals who used complex multi-layered company structures to communication thesis conceal both their identities and their activities. Regrettably, this story is not unique. At the OCCRP, we have identified a number of cross- border money laundering schemes in Eastern Europe, serving criminal groups as diverse as Mexican drug cartels and Vietnamese and Russian organised crime gangs (OCCRP 2011). The power of these crime groups stems primarily from their ability to operate with ease across national frontiers. They complete a detailed risk assessment at the country level and then choose the least vulnerable approach to conduct their illicit activities, whether in narcotics, refugee trafficking or the massive money laundering exercises that follow such crimes. The problem for national law enforcement is mba dissertation in project management that, by definition, it cannot follow this type of crime easily or quickly across borders. Data exchanges between states and law enforcement agencies take time. Modern crime schemes are designed to have very short lives to avoid detection, lasting sometimes just months before the what, associated companies and bank accounts are wound up and replaced by new ones. Yet alongside the advantages available for in project management criminals of operating on this global scale, making it inherently harder to track them down, there are also disadvantages that the focus on my homework, clever journalist or law enforcement official can exploit to expose them.
So how do we do this? How do we stop criminal gangs and the corrupt politicians they rely on – conducting business as usual? Firstly, I will argue, through data: more data means more transparency, provided the quality of information is there and supported by mba dissertation tools that allow proper analysis. Secondly, by journalists using advanced investigative techniques, including the emerging discipline of homework data journalism, to mba dissertation in project identify the creative essay, patterns and practices inherent in corrupt activity. Criminals can’t predict the future of open data Transparency is the mba dissertation in project, natural enemy of creative essay international organised crime gangs and mba dissertation corrupt officials. Opaque systems allow them to the glass menagerie thesis thrive. And some of them go to great lengths to disguise their wrongdoing, using financial and mba dissertation in project company structures that span the world.
At OCCRP, we’ve found and exposed networks of companies based in New Zealand, with bank accounts in Riga, Latvia, that were transferring money to companies set up in the US state of Delaware, Cyprus or the United Kingdom. In turn, these companies owned bank accounts in yet other jurisdictions (OCCRP 2011). Such criminal schemes are designed by creative and intelligent, if misguided, people. Some of them could have been the next Steve Jobs, but found crime more appealing. They often work for what we call the ‘criminal services industry’ – the lawyers, registration agents, business intelligence firms and other legitimate businesses that earn lucrative income from servicing the on my, needs of criminal clients. But no matter how clever they are, they can’t predict the future; transparency rules change. For years, from the early 1990s, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and many other Eastern European mobsters and mba dissertation politicians were using Cyprus as a place to menagerie thesis hide their activities behind labyrinthine corporate structures. It reached the in project, point where Cyprus, with a population of the glass menagerie illusion thesis little more than one million, became one of the management, main investors in i can on my homework Eastern and Central Europe. Not all of these investors were criminal enterprises as many used Cyprus for tax optimisation purposes.
But there is hardly a country in the region – from the former Yugoslavia to Russia and in project beyond – where Cyprus-based companies were not involved in huge, rigged privatisation scandals. 4. In 2004, when Cyprus joined the European Union (EU) and started opening databases, including a registry of locally based companies, things began to change. Investigative reporters began combing through millions of records and, in many instances, came across the names of beneficial owners the real owners of the company – who thought they were sheltered from public scrutiny. Politicians and criminals were caught off guard and exposed in press articles that led to arrests and resignations. Their past misdemeanours made future involvement in business problematic. However, they started fighting back almost immediately, substituting their names in i can homework company documents with those of mba dissertation in project professional proxies – usually Cypriot lawyers who would lend their name to just about thesis, anyone who wanted to conceal their identity. Mba Dissertation. In addition to this, the Cyprus registry is relatively expensive to use and searchable only by company name. This poses a serious problem for penfield investigators, who often embark on an enquiry with only an individual’s name, be it a member of the local parliament or a controversial business owner. As a result, Cyprus still offers only partial transparency. Yet even in countries with a stronger record, you can hit barriers. For example, New Zealand – ranked fourth in Transparency International’s (TI) anti-corruption index – has a well-organised register of companies that is free of charge and allows for mba dissertation in project management name-based searches (Transparency International 2015).
But, as with the UK’s Companies House database, it’s more difficult for investigative researchers to penfield fire escape identify nominee shareholders and directors, especially in cases where they are proxies – not beneficial owners – acting for in project criminal groups and help i can focus corrupt politicians. And in the past few years, OCCRP investigations have revealed the involvement of an Auckland-based company (that was run by a nominee) in obscuring the mba dissertation, ownership of companies across Eastern Europe. One such example was a Moldovan TV station (Preasca, Munteanu and Sarnecki 2013). Secretive media ownership is a huge problem across the menagerie vs. reality, region where, in in project management many instances, the general public has no idea who is delivering the news. Once OCCRP exposed this non-transparent structure, its ownership was just moved to British companies that were again meant to i can on my homework obscure the identity of the in project management, real owners of the the glass menagerie illusion, television station (Media Ownership Project 2015). In a global economy, this isn’t just an issue for New Zealand. In 2016, the UK Government is implementing a new central registry of mba dissertation management company beneficial ownership to enable researchers and other interested parties to access information on individuals with an interest in more than 25% of a company’s shares or voting rights, or who otherwise control the way it is run. It matters because well-structured and accessible databases can be goldmines for investigators and members of the public. In 2008, British computer programmer Dan O’Huiginn reshaped the Panama registry of companies and built a simple interface that, for the first time, allowed name-based searches (Government of Panama 2015). This was the catalyst for investigative articles that exposed corrupt dictators, criminals and their close associates all over the world.
This simple technical adjustment opened their activities up to public scrutiny, costing them untold millions of for college dollars. 5 : The same principle applies to other official databases. For example, court records, government spending and tenders databases vary greatly in their organisation, accessibility and quality of data. In many jurisdictions, it takes investigators a lot of navigating, mining and mba dissertation management shopping for data to find the evidence they are looking for. The opening up of company information and databases has to be accompanied by effective policies that ensure their accessibility, integrity, security and usefulness. Civic hacker collectives, journalists and statement civil society groups should be consulted to help determine the most useful access to data that also mitigates any privacy concerns. Governments requiring offshore companies operating in a country to identify their true beneficial ownership would also greatly reduce the space in which criminals can work and increase the costs they incur. Law enforcement must also jump on board the open data train and take advantage of in project management advances in technology in order to keep pace with the criminals.
Just like journalists, police officers and intelligence analysts need to master cross-border, multi-language, open-source intelligence to fight sophisticated serious crime. While it is true that data obtained in informal ways cannot always be used to build strong court cases, it can greatly shorten the time required for the investigative process. Obtaining documents sequentially through official channels from other countries can take months or even years. Say, for example, that the police in the UK need information on a company based in Russia. They have to what statement file requests and wait, sometimes for a year, only to find out that the mba dissertation in project management, Russian company is intercultural thesis owned by a Cyprus limited firm. Mba Dissertation Management. It might take another year to identify the next owner in a nested structure. Finally, the trail might end with bearer shares: where the owner of the stocks is not registered or is a proxy who doesn’t know the real owner (Funk 2014, p. 14). Help I Can Focus. Compare this with the adaptability of organised crime, which – albeit operating under no formal constraint – broke free from the nation-state mindset long ago. In the international space governed by in project management weak international protocols and bilateral agreements, organised crime at present has no natural enemy. While criminals recognise no borders and is personal statement are not bound by strict local rules, national and legal boundaries, a lack of mba dissertation resources continues to hamper law enforcement.
Geopolitics can also deter cross-border collaborative initiatives between nation-states, which may find themselves at odds with their neighbours or dealing with governments that are themselves riddled with corruption. There are, to help focus homework be sure, examples of criminal networks being disbanded in a number of countries as a result of co- operation between law enforcement agencies. This did not necessarily prevent the mobsters from re-forming elsewhere outside those jurisdictions. In Project Management. Nevertheless, increased access to open data could help to boost cross-border co-operation and journalists can play an increasingly important role in it. 5.2 It takes a network to fight a network. The Glass Menagerie Illusion Thesis. Investigative reporting is – and can be even more – the natural enemy of mba dissertation in project management criminal networks and, when practised collaboratively, it acts as an effective watchdog. It can change the status quo in innovative ways that are not immediately obvious. Journalists and the public alike expect prosecutors to act after each journalistic expose, with the desired result being arrests, convictions, repatriation of lost assets and other positive outcomes.
Owing to limited human resources and a lack of skills, interest or even competence, this expectation is master thesis not always realised. However, regardless of mba dissertation law enforcement action or inaction, public exposure can adversely affect, and even stop, criminal businesses operating in other jurisdictions. Such exposure can also influence long-term changes in the glass vs. reality public attitudes, which can lead, in mba dissertation in project turn, to protests against, and even election defeats for, discredited parties or politicians. Penfield Fire Escape. With the stakes so high, it is essential that the journalism itself is rigorous, credible and transparent. Investigative articles must be linked to evidence, well- designed databases and ‘how we did it’ guidance, so that readers can recreate the mba dissertation, investigative process if they want to. Governments, banks and financial institutions in general rely on is personal for college, open source information when deciding whether to give loans, enter business deals or accept money transactions. Effective data journalism can also help expose financial irregularity or illegality and prevent crime figures or oligarchs securing loans, opening accounts or making other transactions.
Using advanced investigative techniques, journalism can degrade international organised crime and corrupt networks even before they are firmly established within a jurisdiction. Corrupt politicians, officials and criminals view the in project management, proceeds of creative non fiction essay their illicit schemes as commodities to be repeatedly imported and exported and are always looking for mba dissertation new territories in which to escape essay generate profit. When journalists work collaboratively across frontiers, sharing data, this practice can be identified and compromised. It takes a network to management monitor a network. International reporting groups such as the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, Arab Reporters for Investigative Journalism (ARIJ), OCCRP and others already co-operate on individual stories or sporadically share datasets. However, such is the scale of the problem and what statement for college the ubiquity of management organised crime that these efforts can seem to be only scratching the surface. What journalists can do is share with colleagues in other countries details of the what statement for college, patterns of crime they have already detected in their own. This would enable wider cross-border investigations to management determine whether the same criminal groups are setting up shop in other jurisdictions. For example, a criminal group sets up Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) that are all owned by is personal for college a set of companies with their headquarters on a particular street in Belize City, Belize.
Replications of this simple pattern can be searched for mba dissertation in project in the company registries of other countries or in related datasets, potentially revealing the group’s activities in communication master thesis those territories too. Mba Dissertation. In future, with the proper resources, this kind of pattern recognition could be facilitated and i can focus automated through the development of specific algorithms. Crime groups will inevitably react by altering their activities to avoid detection. But, crucially, this will hamper their operations and cost them more in money and time. Automated searches of ever-larger, global, transparent datasets can feed real-time alerts to journalists all over mba dissertation the world.
The result could be that the public has earlier and reliable information about who the non fiction essay, real corrupt beneficiaries of mba dissertation crimes are, such as the $1 billion bank theft that left the Republic of Moldova with an uncertain future. To conclude, a key component to fighting future crime is increased cross-border co-operation between journalists and programmers, who need to employ and create new advanced investigative techniques on top of massive amounts of data. At the same time, activists and governments need to push for more transparency, quality and common standards in open data. Paul Radu is the Executive Director of the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (www.reportingproject.net), which investigates transnational crime and corruption in Eastern Europe. He is i can homework also a board member of the Global Investigative Journalism Network (http://gijn.org) and has received many international awards for his journalism. Calugareanu, V. and management Schwartz, R. 4 May 2015. Spring again in the Republic of Moldova – mass protest against corruption.
Deutsche Welle. Available online. Funk, T. M. 2014. Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties and Letters Rogatory: A Guide for Judges. US: Federal Judicial Center. Available online. Government of the glass menagerie illusion Panama. January 2015. Panama Registry of Companies.
Available online. OCCRP. 22 November 2011. The Proxy Platform. The Reporting Project. Available online. Media Ownership Project. January 2015. Media Ownership Project: Moldova. Available online.
Preasca, I., Munteanu, M. and Sarnecki, M. Mba Dissertation In Project. 26 March 2013. Taylor Network Back in Business. Rise Project. Social Essay. Available online. Radu, P., Munteanu M. and Ostanin, I. 24 July 2015. In Project Management. Grand Theft Moldova. Organized Crime and penfield fire escape Corruption Reporting Project (OCCRP). Available online. Transparency International. 2015.
Corruption Perceptions Index. Available online. 6. Sarah Chayes: Corruption and terrorism: the causal link. It’s February 2015 and I am in Kano, northern Nigeria. Not three months back, in the midst of Friday prayers, Boko Haram struck the Grand Mosque in the old fortress-like centre of town.
The dead and the bloodied lay strewn in their hundreds across the public square. I’m sitting with some lawyers – a prosecutor, the mba dissertation, chairman of the vs. reality thesis, state bar association and a court administrator – trying to mba dissertation in project work out the mechanics of corruption in penfield fire escape the justice sector, in this most corrupt of countries. We’re talking details: how judges rarely demand bribes directly, their clerks collect the money; and how lawyers collude, blaming judicial corruption for mba dissertation management the extra fees they pocket. “Sarah,” the prosecutor interjects, “we’ve been talking about money all this time. But this isn’t just about money …” “The saying goes,” he resumes awkwardly, “if you want to win your case, go to the judge with a beautiful girl.” 6. I’m stopped cold. I imagine the girl.
She may be 14 or 15. She returns home from school each day with her friends, the white veils of creative non fiction their school uniforms fluttering like matched plumage. I picture the glistening eyes of some overfed judge as he reaches for her. Mba Dissertation Management. My stomach turns. Abruptly another image comes to mind: the girl’s brother, a lanky young Nigerian man. Already disillusioned, he is pushed right over the edge. He would kill that judge if he could.
And Boko Haram, all around this town, would like nothing more than to help him do it. I could suddenly understand how it happens. I could see how the help i can on my, corruption perpetrated by officials of the then Nigerian administration – like that of many governments around the world – was itself helping to generate the terrorist threat. The problem, I realised, is far more severe than white elephants or poor service delivery. Corruption entails a violation of a person’s basic humanity that can spur an enraged response. Mba Dissertation Management. It is these connections – between government corruption and terrorism or other violence – that this essay explores. Corruption is one of those consensual topics.
No one would argue it’s a good thing. International charities and escape essay multilateral organisations have worked hard to management combat it, racking up impressive achievements in recent years. Anti- bribery laws, once unheard of, have spread well beyond their initial US–UK beachhead. Major arrests and asset seizures are increasingly common, as are citizen-led anti-corruption protests. Such protests have resulted in the resignation of senior officials or their ousting through the ballot box. Essay. That’s what happened in Nigeria, where a hard-nosed reformer – who has penned an essay in this volume – gained an upset victory in March 2015 elections over the administration those Kano legal practitioners were criticising. And yet, when push comes to shove in bilateral relations, Western governments, businesses and charities are still most likely to prioritise other imperatives ahead of corruption. If an international aid agency or philanthropic organisation has set its sights on delivering health programming to rural villages, its government may be reticent to act against corruption in the host country for fear the precious permissions to operate will be cancelled. If the objective is a major extension of electrical power across a whole region or a trade foray into an emerging market, corruption may be seen as a ‘cost of doing business’. Corruption helps facilitate economic activity and growth, some maintain.
Others cite culture: “It’s just the way people do things over there. Who are we to impose our norms?” These and other excuses are proffered to rationalise looking the other way or outright collusion. Upon closer inspection, it thus appears that corruption is not so consensual after all. A remarkable number of mba dissertation Westerners actually argue in favour of it. Of all the competing priorities, the one that most swiftly trumps anti-corruption is security.
Co-operating with this or that corrupt leader is seen as critical, because he is our partner in the war against terrorism. On My Homework. His is the only military worth its salt in the region, troops that actually go on the attack against militants. He provides us with intelligence or bases or overflight rights. And so the kleptocratic practices of his network of cronies are overlooked. The way they have bent state functions, wired the whole economy to their own benefit, given free rein to low-level officials to rake in extorted bribes and blocked off every avenue of recourse – none of that matters, so long as they are ‘with us’ in the fight against terrorists. This common framing is particularly ironic given the growing evidence that corruption is helping to mba dissertation management drive many people into the folds of extremist movements and the glass illusion thesis indeed lies at the root of many of today’s security crises (Chayes 2015; Sky 2015). The purported trade-off between security and corruption is a false dichotomy. Take southern Afghanistan, the former Taliban heartland, where I lived for nearly a decade. In the spring of 2009, a delegation of elders came to visit from Shah Wali Kot district, just north of mba dissertation Kandahar. This happened often. I was one of the only foreigners in help i can focus on my homework Kandahar with no guards at mba dissertation in project my gate.
When I asked why, with the penfield fire, Taliban killing people, the villagers don’t fight back, a man retorted, “How can they work with this Government? The Government doesn’t hear them. The Government doesn’t do anything for them. It’s just there to fill its pockets, nothing else. If the Government isn’t fixed, no matter how many soldiers the in project management, foreigners bring, the situation won’t improve.” 7. A few days later in the border town of help on my homework Spin Boldak, community leader Hajji Manan Khan concurred, “This Government … no one likes it. Ministers have huge palaces in Kabul, while the people have nothing. The foreigners should announce that the current Government is thieves. They should put the screws in them, call them on the carpet and mba dissertation management demand accounts.” 8. I heard this refrain again and again.
Out of a hundred Taliban, elders would tell me, fewer than a quarter were ‘real’. The rest had taken up arms in disgust with the Government. This assessment was corroborated by interviews with Taliban detainees in international military custody. Creative Non Fiction. Explaining their motivations for joining the insurgency, they cited government corruption more often than any strictly religious rationale. A similar picture emerges from Nigeria. When Boko Haram launched its first large-scale violent attacks in July 2009, police stations were the first targets. By all accounts, the Nigerian police is in project one of the most venal and abusive in the world (Human Rights Watch 2010).
9 And, during a November 2015 conversation in Maiduguri, where Boko Haram first emerged, local residents voiced a sentiment I had heard often: “People were very happy [with those first attacks]. Boko Haram was saying the truth about the essay, violations by government agencies against the people. Finally they could stand up and challenge. They were claiming their rights.” 10. Management. Extremism isn’t the only form that backlash against corruption takes. Across the Arab world in 2011, populations took to the streets demanding an end to autocratic governments, the prosecution and imprisonment of corrupt officials, and master the return of stolen assets. As the catastrophic situation in today’s Middle East demonstrates, revolutions rarely end peacefully. Some analysts see the expansion of extremism, from Daesh in Syria to a tenacious insurgency in Egypt, as a reaction to the failure of those initially non- violent efforts to break the grip of kleptocratic governing elites (Muasher 2015).
Ukraine seems as culturally and historically different from the Middle East as a country can be, yet its 2014 revolution was fuelled by similar motivations. While anti-Russian sentiment and a cultural affinity with Western Europe were important drivers of the Maidan protests, so was disgust at the corrupt Yanukovich Government. Photos of the deposed president’s pleasure palace went viral after his fall. Management. The sequel to creative essay that revolution has been the first major East–West stand-off since the end of the Cold War, complete with the forcible annexation of territory and mba dissertation management the displacement of more than a million people. In these cases and others, corruption has helped generate some of today’s most dire security crises. The difficult question, especially regarding religious violence, is why? What is it about help i can focus on my, corruption that should drive people to such extremes? Four elements of corruption in its current form help to provide an explanation: the humiliation inflicted on victims; their lack of management recourse; the structure and sophistication of corrupt networks; and statement for college the truly colossal sums being stolen. Firstly, what we in the West often underestimate in thinking about corruption is the assault on victims’ human dignity that accompanies it. Recall the example of the judge’s ‘sextortion’, when the only way of gaining a hearing may be to allow a daughter or a sister to be violated. Management. Abuses of this nature can spark a burning need for help i can retribution.
In studies of violence ranging from Palestinian uprisings to gang shootings in the United States, insult or humiliation is mba dissertation found to be a key factor (Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin 2014; Black 2011). 11. Social Groups Essay. Given the in project, obvious connections between religion and morality, the moral depravity underlying the abuse is what is personal statement for college frequently understood in management religious terms. “Our leaders are bound by religious duty to do the right thing,” Kano’s then Bar Association Chairman Ibrahim Nassarawa told me, “so when they don’t, people hate them.” 12 At that point, a religious argument may be persuasive: “If our government were based on the Islamic system,” said Maiduguri residents, summarising Boko Haram’s preaching, “all these things wouldn’t be happening. We would have a fair and escape essay just society.” 13. Secondly, with government perpetrating the crimes, there is no earthly hope of recourse. As Sardar Muhammad – who cultivates grapes and pomegranates west of Kandahar – put it in defining the word ‘corruption’, “If the district governor takes all the development budget and only gives the people a tiny bit, and I want to complain, and his gunmen keep me from complaining because they are his kept dogs, that’s corruption.” 14. Deprived of management any peaceful means of redress against an abusive government, even the founders of our own Western democracies rebelled. The 16th-century Dutch Revolt, the English Civil War and the American and French revolutions were all bloody affairs. Period documents from these milestones in escape essay democratic development indicate that in none of in project management them did protagonists and ordinary citizens turn to violence gladly, but felt compelled to it after exhausting every other avenue and obtaining not the slightest concession (Robertson 2006). 15. The unassailable impunity that Sardar Muhammad was lamenting derives from the non fiction essay, third important feature of corruption as it currently exists in in project management dozens of countries – how deeply it is embedded in state machinery.
It’s not the work of a few venal officials, who might be rooted out or challenged in court. Communication Master Thesis. The kind of severe corruption that is common today is systemic. It is the practice of sophisticated networks armed with all the instruments of state function. They use those instruments to management serve their aims – which largely boil down to personal enrichment. In many cases, these entities should not be thought of as governments at all, much less fragile or failing ones, but rather as savvy and successful criminal organisations.
Weaknesses in state function examined in this light may prove to be deliberate, especially in agencies with autonomous power. Judges or specialised prosecutors are underpaid. Armies are hollowed out to reduce the likelihood of a coup and because defence budgets and military assistance are juicy revenue streams. The results of this latter trend were on vivid display in 2014 as the cannibalised militaries of Iraq and Nigeria collapsed at the first sign of a challenge. In other cases, apparently innocuous state agencies such as tax authorities or water departments are fashioned into bludgeons to force compliance. A Tunisian tax collector explained to me how, under the regime of Zine El-Abidine Ben Ali, certain people were accorded a tax holiday as long as they cut members of the ruling clique into their action. But “assessors would rarely make someone’s file go away completely. The permissiveness could always be revoked.” Taxes, he said, could be used “to punish someone who was too independent.” 16. A trade union representative in Uzbekistan described a similar system to me in 2014: “There are so many taxes it is impossible to pay them all. So people make a connection in the tax office to what for college pay less.
But then you’ve broken the law and they know it, and you are afraid of the in project, Government. The whole Government is set up that way, to make you do wrong, so then they have you on the hook.” 17. These kleptocratic networks are horizontally integrated. They comprise government officials, businesses such as banks or construction companies, and so-called non- governmental organisations (NGOs) and implementers of escape essay aid – which may in fact be owned by relatives of government officials. But they also include outright criminals such as smugglers, drug-traffickers and even terrorists. Some within the government service in Algeria in in project management the 1990s, and also officials in Pakistan today, are believed to what is personal statement have maintained operational links with extremists (Waldman 2010; Garcon 2003). 18.
For foreign governments, charities or businesses seeking to operate in such environments, this horizontal integration makes for particularly difficult navigating. The familiar distinctions between public and private sectors, licit and illicit actors, simply do not apply. Finally, the in project management, amounts of thesis money in play are truly obscene. Former FBI special agent Debra Laprevotte, who worked kleptocracy cases for years, says that the increase has been palpable: “For the longest time, we had a single billion-dollar case. In Project. Now there are at least five billion-dollar investigations underway.” 19.
According to two separate biannual surveys, ‘petty bribery’ in Afghanistan rakes in between ?1.3 billion and ?2.6 billion per year (UNODC 2012; Integrity Watch Afghanistan 2014). This is in a country whose licit government revenue is essay barely estimated to mba dissertation top ?1 billion (SIGAR 2015). The development implications of such sums are obvious. Imagine if even a fraction were devoted to a country’s healthcare or water and sewage system, or to communication master thesis building a reliable and affordable public transport network in a burgeoning megacity, or to mba dissertation management paying teachers a living wage. Imagine the impact on sustainable economic growth.
But when obtained through practices this corrupt, vast wealth in a sea of poverty also has a moral component – hence the easy link to religion. In the master, midst of the 16th- century Protestant revolt against the Habsburg ‘Divine Right’ monarchy, an mba dissertation management anonymous Dutch pamphleteer complained, “They put robes of silk on their idols made of old wood, leaving us brethren of non fiction essay Christ naked and starving” (Arnade 2008, p. 99). Then, as now, militant puritanical religion, imposed if necessary by force, was seen by mba dissertation some as the only remedy. The picture painted here is a sobering one, particularly for governments, investors and humanitarian organisations that cannot avoid working in such countries. Intercultural Thesis. And especially when security concerns are so severe as to trump other considerations. Still, even in a world in which trade-offs are real and cannot simply be wished away, there are some important lessons to be considered. Governments that ostensibly fight against terror may actually be generating more terrorism than they curb. Mba Dissertation In Project. The international community must do a better job of weighing up the pluses and minuses of partnering with acutely corrupt governments, and thus reinforcing them and facilitating their practices. If alliances are too close, or pay too little attention to intercultural master thesis the corruption of host governments, the abused populations may come to associate the international community with the misdeeds of their own rulers. As 14th-century churchman William of Pagula admonished King Edward III, “He takes on the guilt of the perpetrator who neglects to fix what he can correct” (Nederman 2002, p. 82).
A more precise understanding of network structures and real dynamics of power must inform planning processes ahead of engagement. It is costly in human and other resources, not to mention politically uncomfortable, to mba dissertation in project draw up network diagrams – like the ones intelligence or police agencies regularly develop in their study of terrorists or criminals – that map members of ostensibly friendly governments and their cut-outs in business or the criminal world. The Glass. But these costs should be weighed against the proven and often disastrous price of blind engagement in such complex environments. A new, broader understanding of in project ‘corporate social responsibility’ is required. Across sectors, companies whose business models actually depend on servicing kleptocratic officials – such as some banks, lawyers, estate agents, registered agents, various extractive and other resource- based businesses, and international construction contractors – are contributing to significant security threats in their own countries. It is in thesis this light that they should consider their ‘corporate social responsibility’ – rather than as a synonym for donations to localised humanitarian work. Should their public-spiritedness remain wanting, then sanctions applied to them for mba dissertation management colluding with illegal corrupt practices should be stiffened, commensurate with the harm they are doing.
Western citizens should begin pressurising such businesses. And above all, Western governments should cease viewing corrupt money flows, or good trade deals extracted from kleptocrats at the expense of their populations, as a necessary component of their nations’ economies. Help Homework. Arnade, P. Mba Dissertation In Project. 2008. Beggars, Iconoclasts and Civic Patriots: The Political Culture of the Dutch Revolt. Ithica: Cornell University Press. Black, D. 2011. Moral Time. New York: Oxford University Press, p.73. What Is Personal Statement For College. Chayes, S. 2015.
Thieves of State: Why Corruption Threatens Global Security. New York: W.W. Norton. Garcon, J. 15 November 2003. Les GIA sont une creation des services de securite algeriens. Liberation. Available online. Human Rights Watch.
17 August 2010. Everyone’s in on the Game: corruption and human rights abuses by the Nigeria Police Force. Available online. Integrity Watch. 28 May 2014. Afghanistan, National Corruption Survey. Available online. Longo, M., Canetti, D. and Hite-Rubin N. Mba Dissertation In Project. 2014. A Checkpoint Effect? Evidence from a natural experiment on travel restrictions in the West Bank.
American Journal of Political Science, 58(4), pp. 1006–1023. Muasher, M. 2015. Thalatha Safarat Indhar Lam Yasma’ha Ahad. Alghad (Afkar wa Mawaqaf). Menagerie Illusion Vs. Reality. Available online. Nederman, C. ed. and trans. 2002. Political Thought in Early Fourteenth Century England: Treatises by Walter of Milemete, William of Pagula and William of Ockham. Of Pagula, W., The Mirror of Edward III. In Project. Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, p. The Glass Menagerie Illusion. 82.
Robertson, G. 2006. In Project. The Tyrannicide Brief: The Story of the Man Who Sent Charles I to the Scaffold. New York: Pantheon. Communication Thesis. Sky, E. 2015. The Unravelling: High Hopes and Missed Opportunities in Iraq. London: Atlantic Books.
Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR). 5 March 2015. Letter to Generals Lloyd Austin, John Campbell and in project Todd Semonite. Available online. What Is Personal Statement. United Nations – Office on mba dissertation, Drugs and Crime (UNODC). December 2012. Corruption in Afghanistan: Recent Patterns and Trends. Vienna: UNODC. Available online.
Waldman, M. The Glass Menagerie Vs. Reality Thesis. 2010. The Sun in the Sky: The Relationship Between Pakistan’s ISI and Afghan Insurgents. London School of Economics, Crisis States Working Group Paper, 2(18). 7. David Walsh: The irresponsibility of not knowing – corruption in sport. Being a sports writer was all I wanted. Management. Thirty-eight years, the only job I’ve ever had. Good times mostly.
Not what I thought they would be. When I glance in the rear-view mirror, there is more cynicism, more corruption, more of sport’s dark side. It seems hard to non fiction essay believe now that the journey began with the expectation of standards higher than would ever be found in civilian life. There is, of course, much to recall that was glorious, exciting and uplifting, sporting stuff that makes you think anything is possible. Hard to imagine that a boy who grew up on the potholed roads of mba dissertation in project Kenya could become a Tour de France champion, but that’s what Chris Froome did.
Or that a boy from Rosario in Argentina who was diagnosed with a growth hormone deficiency at age ten should become the greatest footballer we’ve ever seen. Well that’s Lionel Andres Messi’s story. How many winter evenings has he brightened? But even in the beautiful game, bad things were happening. Essay. Our obsession with football created a global popularity that would lead to extraordinary riches pouring into the game. That money needed to mba dissertation in project management be managed and those in control needed to be accountable. We are speaking of systems of good governance, but greed got a head start and governance never caught up. With great wealth comes power and that attracts the corruptible. Over the groups essay, last 15 years, there has been the International Olympic Committee (IOC) scandal behind the awarding of the Winter Olympics to Salt Lake City in 2001, the FIFA scandal that simmered for more than ten years before boiling over in mba dissertation management 2015 and, most recently, the International Association of what is personal for college Athletics Federations (IAAF) scandal involving high-up officials in the international federation.
Sometimes you find yourself taking a step back and wondering, “Could it have really happened?” Could custodians of the sport really have blackmailed an athlete in a ˆ450,000-deal, covering up a doping violation so that the athlete could compete in the Olympics? That’s the allegation and the French police are on the case (World Anti-Doping Agency 2016). I’d been a sports reporter for mba dissertation in project management ten years when attending my first Olympics. That was Seoul 1988. A run along a busy promenade in South Korea’s capital city on what statement for college, the final Sunday of those Games remains a cherished memory. I never saw such an outpouring of national pride. Every expression seemed to mba dissertation say, “You thought we couldn’t do it, even we weren’t sure we could, but we did.” Before those Games started, there had been student protests in Seoul and the world’s media highlighted the potential for the Olympics to is personal statement be overshadowed by unrest. That never happened.
The trouble came from inside the stadium, down there on the track or, more accurately, in the room where the Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson peed into what anti-doping personnel call ‘the collection vessel’. The thing about watching something live is that it leaves a deeper, more lasting impression. Inside your living room, you see the story unfold. Inside the stadium, you feel it. It’s the difference between having your face painted and having your forehead tattooed.
That September in Seoul, Florence Griffith-Joyner, an American athlete, set new world records in the 100 metres and 200 metres. They will stand for a long time yet, those records. They called her ‘Flo-Jo’. With her long and exotically painted nails and Rolls-Royce stride, she was one of Seoul’s greatest stars. I saw her get the 200-metre record, decelerating in the home straight. It was a heart-sinking moment. Mba Dissertation. There were allegations of doping, unproven. Florence Griffith-Joyner died at 38, far too soon (Walsh 2013). Ben Johnson was a different story.
He got caught. Can you imagine being awoken by a loud knock on your apartment door at 3.30 in the morning and being pleased about it? Doug Gillon, from The Glasgow Herald, stood there. “Johnson’s tested positive,” he said. The words landed like ice-cold water on a sleepy face. Other than tell our offices back home that we were up and on the case, I don’t know what we could have done to advance the non fiction essay, story at that hour, but it was a watershed moment. Mba Dissertation. Ben Johnson changed the landscape. Focus. Some of the mba dissertation in project management, things that had drawn us as kids to essay sport were being crushed by a will to win that recognised no boundaries. How bad was it? How bad is it?
It was bad. It’s gotten worse. Part of that summer of ’88 was spent following the world’s greatest bike race, the Tour de France. A few days from the end, there was another drug controversy when Pedro Delgado, the Spanish-born race leader, provided a urine sample that contained the drug probenecid, used by mba dissertation athletes to mask their use of proscribed substances. A strange case for sure. Probenecid was banned by the International Olympic Committee, but wasn’t yet banned by the body that governed world cycling. Delgado, it was initially speculated, would be docked ten minutes but not thrown off the penfield fire escape essay, race. In Project. The Dutch rider, Steven Rooks, would then be the new leader and, with the race almost complete, the certain winner. 20. I met Rooks before the start, on the morning after Delgado’s bad news. “How do you feel about taking the help focus on my homework, yellow jersey?” “I don’t want it in these circumstances,” he said. “But if he’s been cheating, and why would anyone use probenecid, you will be the deserving leader.” “He has been the strongest rider in the race and deserves the victory.” Rooks saw my righteousness for what it was.
Innocence. What I believe he was telling me, in code, of management course, was that athletes in the Tour de France do what they have to do, and no one is escape essay guiltier or more innocent than another. Strange how crushing that moment seemed. Over the years that followed, I became a different kind of sports writer – less gullible, even aggressively sceptical. Something Albert Camus wrote strikes a chord: “Every act of rebellion expresses a nostalgia for innocence” (Camus 1956, p. 54). We want sport to be believable. In the world of our imagination, sport doesn’t just mirror life but offers something more principled, more idealistic, more inspiring than the world of mba dissertation in project business. Alas, the reality is far from that and there is a rebellion. Folk are tired of the corruption. We want our innocence back. You can bet that when the news emerged that FIFA executive committee members were arrested on corruption charges, football fans around the world were silently cheering.
At last. Creative Non Fiction. Same reaction from athletics fans when news that high-ranking members of the IAAF suffered the same fate. Mba Dissertation. Whether police investigations in both sports lead to charges doesn’t matter as much as knowing that men who once saw themselves as untouchable were mistaken. With so much cheating on the field and help focus on my so much corruption off it, you may think this is a bleak time for sport. On the contrary, this is what sport has needed: scrutiny, exposure of wrongdoing, punishment for mba dissertation in project management those who have done wrong. No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. It would be a crime not to seize it. From where did the malaise come? Do we blame the athlete because it is their body and what they put into it is ultimately their responsibility?
Or the trusted coach who says that, without doping, victory is unattainable? Or the groups essay, governing body that publicly says doping is a scourge, but privately accepts its existence as an mba dissertation in project management irrepressible evil? From where does the corruption come? What of the institutional corruption? Why did we get the IOC scandal, the FIFA scandal and the IAAF scandal?
Perhaps there isn’t one failing that explains everything, but it is now clear that sports officials were granted too much autonomy and subjected to too little scrutiny. Members of the IOC and FIFA were treated like royalty and many of them embraced the essay, world of privilege before abusing it. Now US federal officers and the Swiss and French police are pursuing cases of suspected fraud in sport, and they do so with fans worldwide urging them on. Let’s turn the clock back to the genesis of one of sport’s most notorious cases of wrongdoing. It was July 1999. We were all at Le Puy du Fou, a theme park set among the trees and beauty of the Vendee in western France. It was the start of the Tour de France. Mba Dissertation. The race began with a short individual race against fire the clock, each rider hurtling round a 4-mile circuit in pursuit of the first yellow jersey. That race launched Lance Armstrong as an embryonic global icon.
He won that short test by a staggering eight seconds and mba dissertation in project management had done this after recovering from life-threatening testicular cancer. His domination of that year’s Tour was absolute and master his performance seemed to many the most life-affirming story that sport had ever delivered. Surviving cancer is one thing, but to follow recovery with victory in perhaps the toughest athletic challenge of mba dissertation all is quite another. Essay. Armstrong cheated because he believed others were cheating and mba dissertation that it was the only way he could win. On both counts, he was almost certainly correct. But that merely explains his rationale – it cannot excuse it. A great number of his competitors in that race were not using drugs and so were put at an insurmountable disadvantage by communication master thesis those who did cheat. The fact that Armstrong had been so seriously ill made it hard for people to believe that he would then use drugs that could be dangerous to management his health. He never saw it like that.
Many of the drugs used in restoring him to health, after he’d undergone four rounds of chemotherapy, were the master, same drugs that would give him greater endurance in the Tour de France. And they weren’t that dangerous. But he couldn’t have gotten away with it unless so many had been willing to embrace the irresponsibility of not knowing. The truth is that the mba dissertation, truth was there, an inch or so beneath the surface. “If a misdeed arises in creative essay the search for truth, it is better to exhume it rather than conceal the truth,” Saint Jerome wrote in the fifth century (cited in Ballester and Walsh 2004, p.1). In Project Management. That’s not bad advice. In the surge of the feel-good factor that came with Armstrong’s first victory in the Tour de France, everyone had their reasons for clinging to the irresponsibility of not knowing and leaving the truth resting beneath the surface. His sponsors would sell bikes and clothing – and dreams – off the miracle of his comeback. Those entrusted with the help i can on my, duty to protect the sport, the in project, world-governing cycling body (the Union Cycliste Internationale [UCI]) saw in what is personal statement for college him a saviour bearing the gifts of mba dissertation in project increased popularity and, of course, revenue. As fans, we want our heroes to fire essay be angels on wheels, simon- pure, somehow immune to the uppers and downers of our own pill-popping society.
In the management, maelstrom of Armstrong’s wondrous victory, we engaged in what the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge called ‘the willing suspension of disbelief’. All the reasons why this story had to be questioned were suppressed. Those who tried to protest were shouted down. Let us try to what statement for college explain how easy it would have been for management the fraud of Armstrong to social essay have been stopped before it had begun. The drug of choice in 1999 was erythropoietin (EPO), which promotes the production of red cells and allowed those using it an almost endless supply of oxygen. With it, a rider could fly up mountains.
Angels on wheels indeed. In Project. At that time, there was no anti-doping test to identify it in urine. So EPO was a godsend for those who wished to cheat, and there were plenty. From blood tests taken before that 1999 Tour, the authorities more or less knew who was using the drug but just could not prove it. They also knew that an help focus on my EPO test was imminent. All they had to do was freeze the urine samples from ’99 and mba dissertation in project management re-examine them when the is personal for college, EPO test was approved, which happened in 2000. It would have been simple and it would have exposed those who were cheating. But those who should have been protecting the mba dissertation management, sport were the same people who were promoting it, and Lance Armstrong was good for business. It was not co-incidental that when Armstrong the non fiction, Legend became Armstrong the Cheat, US federal investigators had gotten involved. Mba Dissertation In Project Management. The Feds have powers that allow them to dig deeper than journalists, and the glass menagerie thesis Armstrong’s former teammates quickly learned that while they could tell little white lies to journalists, they couldn’t lie under oath.
Only when the police got interested in the minutiae of football’s governing body, FIFA, and the athletics federation, IAAF, did we discover the extent of the mba dissertation in project, corruption in the glass illusion vs. reality thesis both organisations. Without subpoena powers, without the right to bank accounts, but with the threat of costly legal cases, there is only so far journalists can go. We came to know how rotten things were in the state of the mba dissertation, Tour de France when French customs pulled over a team car on the Franco–Belge border at 6 am on a July morning in 1998. With FIFA, it was the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) arrest of US delegate Chuck Blazer that proved to be the turning point. Blazer spilt the beans and plenty of barons were in penfield trouble. French police are now doing the same for the IAAF, showing the mba dissertation in project, most powerful that they’re not as untouchable as they might have thought. How did it get to this?
Good people stayed quiet when they should have spoken up. Anyone who pushed for creative non fiction good governance in these organisations was putting themselves in an uncomfortable position. Few were prepared to management do that. It was easier to look the other way, to travel on i can on my, the gravy train and not pull the emergency cord. This longing to indulge the irresponsibility of not knowing has been the rock upon which the corruption was built. Those who said nothing – they and their sports have paid a high price. Mba Dissertation In Project. Paul Simon wrote about this a long time ago in ‘The Sound of Silence’: “Fool, said I, you do not know. Silence, like a cancer grows” (Simon 1964). How we have needed courageous people. Take the IOC and the privileges of its members. Forget the courtesy cars and five-star hotels, the access to the best tickets and groups the lavish banquets.
Instead, consider the daily allowance. Board members on IOC duty receive a daily $900 allowance, $450 for common or garden members (IOC Ethics Commission 2015). It adds up when you spend maybe two and a half weeks at management the Olympics, which even an IOC member wouldn’t dare to call hard work. As much as there is an urge to say that these allowances are far too much, it is worth pointing out that, among the major sports bodies, the IOC is the only one that publicly discloses information such as per diem allowances to its members. This level of compensation does beg the question, ‘Who is serving whom?’ Is it the IOC members who serve the Olympics or the creative essay, Olympics that serves its committee members? There is in project a culture of entitlement that needs to end, because excessive privilege can often be the precursor to corruption: “If I am entitled to vs. reality this, perhaps I can also get that.” Somewhere along the way, a lot of FIFA administrators came to mba dissertation see not much difference between privilege and menagerie vs. reality wrongdoing – like one was the mba dissertation in project, logical extension of the other. Let me tell you about Vitaly Stepanov, the communication, courageous whistle-blower who did so much to bring to in project light the doping secrets in Russian sport. The Glass Menagerie Illusion Vs. Reality Thesis. He was recently asked to meet IAAF officials in mba dissertation in project a major city. Non Fiction. To get there, he had to take a six-hour flight. IAAF booked the ticket and when it landed in Stepanov’s email, he realised it was a first-class flight (Walsh 2014).
Surprised and unimpressed to have found himself immediately drawn into this world of privilege, Stepanov rang his IAAF contact and said he had no wish to travel first- class. He considered the excessive cost could be far better spent on mba dissertation, fighting the doping culture that he had exposed. Will sports officials ever get the the glass illusion, message? (Walsh 2014). For inspiration, they might care to turn their eyes to the example being set by Pope Francis, leader of the Catholic Church. When he turned up in Washington to meet President Obama, it was easy to pick out his car in the motorcade of more than 20 SUVs and police cars. He was inside the charcoal grey Fiat 500L, which was maybe a tiny step up, or down, from the Ford Focus he drives around the Vatican. “I’m visible to people and I lead a normal life,” Pope Francis has said. “Public Mass in the morning, I eat in the refectory with everyone else, etc. All this is good for me and prevents me from being isolated. I’m trying to stay and act the management, same as I did in groups Buenos Aires because, if you change at my age, you just look ridiculous” (Pope Francis 2013, paraphrased).
How many high-ranking sports officials have thought that if that little Fiat is good for the Pope, it is good enough for me? How many believe they should have lives somewhat akin to the lives of fans upon whose loyalty their games are built? The IOC needs to lower those allowances and FIFA’s new president, whoever they are, needs to embrace a more modest lifestyle. Transparency must become the norm and proper governance needs to be at the top of every agenda. For too long, good governance has been nothing but a PR sound bite. Trust will be regained when they show us they have changed, not when they tell us. We need governments to lead as well, to say to sport’s wrongdoers that you are not part of in project some separate untouchable state. Do wrong and help i can focus you will be held accountable.
The Wild West is no more. To the athletes, we need to say that winning is not the most important thing. How you try to mba dissertation in project management win is what matters. Would you rather be top of the medal table with cheats or bottom with a group of the glass thesis totally honest athletes? Governments need to stop seeing the prowess of their athletes as a sign of national strength. For that too is another road leading to corruption. Better in my view for mba dissertation in project a government to understand that what truly matters is how many of its citizens are active.
We need to stop wearing our country’s success in sport like a badge of honour, for it matters not a whit whether we’re first or second in the medals table. It is Vitaly Stepanov, the help on my homework, Russian whistle-blower, to whom we should listen. He reminds us of what matters, and what doesn’t. Mba Dissertation In Project Management. “Personally, I don’t like this whole idea of countries and nationalism and all of that. Things must be done that serve the planet not for the country. Same in sport, I don’t care that a Russian wins or an American wins. If the competition is menagerie illusion vs. reality thesis fair, if the best one wins, that’s good. If a person is honest, talented, has a good coach and he is raised properly and he becomes an Olympic champion then he will be a hero. And it really will not matter what country he is from. Jesse Owens became a hero for the whole world. “I went to the Olympic museum in Lausanne. There is a saying on a wall there from Pierre de Coubertin, the father of the Olympic movement. Let me just say it. ‘The important thing in life is not the triumph but the fight.
The essential thing is not to have won but to have fought well.’ This is my view of what sport should be” (Walsh 2015). Ballester, P. and Walsh, D. 2004. L.A. Confidentiel: Les Secrets de Lance Armstrong. Mba Dissertation In Project Management. France: La Martiniere. Camus, A. 1956. Menagerie Illusion. The Rebel: An Essay on a Man in Revolt. New York: First Vintage International, p. In Project. 54. International Olympic Committee (IOC) Ethics Commission.
2015. Agenda 2020: Indemnity Policy. Switzerland: IOC. Available from: http://www.olympic.org/Documents/Agenda2020/Ethics_ Commission_to_IOC_Members_IOC_Indemnity_Policy. pdf. Pope Francis. 2013. Letter to Father Enrique Rodriguez. Is Personal Statement. Available online. Simon, P. 1964.
The Sound of Silence. New York: Columbia Records. Mba Dissertation In Project Management. Walsh, D. 2013. Seven Deadly Sins: My Pursuit of Lance Armstrong. Statement. UK: Simon Schuster. Walsh, D. Mba Dissertation In Project. 14 December 2014. The Glass Vs. Reality Thesis. Russian doping whistleblower fears for his safety. In Project Management. The Sunday Times.
Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1495850.ece. Walsh, D. 29 November 2015. Husband and wife who brought down Russia. The Sunday Times. Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1638611.ece. World Anti-Doping Agency. 2016. Independent Commission Report – Part 2. Available online. 8. President Muhammadu Buhari: My plan to fight corruption in fire escape Nigeria.
In the run-up to the general elections in March 2015, I campaigned on the platform of addressing the challenges of in project management security, the economy, power, infrastructure and fighting corruption. Of these, removing the non fiction essay, cancer of corruption from the system is the key not only to restoring the moral health of the nation, but also to freeing our enormous resources for in project management urgent socio-economic development. Nigerians never cease to ask, for example, why it is that, at independence in 1960, Nigeria’s gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was higher at $559 than that of Singapore’s at $476, but today Singapore’s GDP has grown to $55,182 and Nigeria’s has increased to just $3,005 (World Bank 2016). For sure, there are many variables to explain this paradox of a city-state with a small population outperforming Nigeria so dramatically. But the the glass illusion thesis, most important single factor, to my mind, is our two countries’ contrasting leadership visions and attitudes to corruption. As Alan Greenspan (2007) has observed, “Corruption, embezzlement, fraud, these are all characteristics which exist everywhere. It is regrettably the way human nature functions, whether we like it or not. What successful economies do is to keep it to a minimum.” Unfortunately, successive Nigerian governments have simply been unable to contain the monster. Oil and gas are the second largest contributors to our GDP and account for more than 80% of our foreign exchange earnings. Yet this is the most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. By some industry estimates, 232,000 barrels of crude oil worth on average $6.7 billion per annum are lost by the Nigerian state to oil thieves (Kar and Cartwright-Smith 2010).
This illicit trade thrives as a result of collaboration among politicians, security agencies, criminal gangs and even multinational oil company employees. As the Financial Times reported, the enormity of the problem is management captured in satellite imageries showing the illicit oil trade “expanding exponentially between 2008 and 2013, at the same time as artisanal [illegal] refining was mushrooming across the Niger Delta on an industrial scale” (Wallis 2015). The abuse and misuse of public office for private gain has been a constant feature of governance in Nigeria for the past 30 years. In the last two decades especially, corruption – with its corresponding devastating socio-economic consequences on national development and help i can on my homework the well-being of our people – escalated rapidly and with even greater intensity. Our recent history has been one of predatory and rapacious political, military, public and private sector elites competing and alternating as the drivers of mba dissertation corruption. Paradoxically, corruption flourished and eventually became a way of menagerie vs. reality life under the supposedly accountable democratic governments of the past 16 years during which, by one calculation, the nation earned more revenue than in all the previous 80 years combined. Mba Dissertation In Project. Even as far back as the 1980s, procurement and contract costs in Nigeria were three times higher than those in East and North Africa, and four times higher than those in Asia. Is Personal Statement For College. Studies suggest that public funds of between $300 billion and mba dissertation in project management $400 billion have been lost to help i can focus on my corruption since Nigeria became independent in mba dissertation in project management 1960 (Ezekwesili 2012).
According to the glass thesis the African Union’s high-level panel on illicit flows, Nigeria alone accounted for $217 billion of the African continent’s total $850 billion loss to illicit flows between 1970 and 2008 (UNECA 2015). Despite anti-corruption agencies and laws introduced in recent years, there was a complete lack of mba dissertation in project political will to strengthen these agencies and to focus faithfully enforce the laws. In Project Management. As one commentator observed, across the entire spectrum of government, rules and regulations were ignored with impunity. Procurements were made with a total disregard for focus due process, inflated by billions of dollars and poorly executed, and mba dissertation payments were made for jobs not even done. No wonder then that Nigeria consistently scored below the African average in virtually all the categories considered by various transparency and good governance agencies: safety and the rule of law, ease of the glass menagerie illusion thesis doing business, participation and human rights, sustainable economic opportunities and human development (Transparency International 2016). The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) (2016) has correctly identified that pervasive corruption undermines democratic institutions, slows economic development and contributes to governmental instability. Corruption erodes the moral fabric of society and violates the social and economic rights of citizens, particularly the poor and the vulnerable.
Actually it creates poverty and hurts the poor disproportionately, because resources are diverted away from those who need government protection and services the most. Indeed corrupt politicians, in collusion with electoral officials, have consistently distorted our electoral processes and perverted the rule of law, thereby undermining our democracy. Corrupt practices such as illegal duty and tax waivers lead to loss of revenue. Corruption drives away foreign direct investment with its consequential loss of opportunities for mba dissertation in project management increased government revenue, job creation and skills acquisition. It erodes efficiency, effectiveness and productivity, while promoting waste and mismanagement. The resultant inequality in society – with extreme mass poverty living side by side with islands of stupendous unearned riches – has led to frustration, hopelessness and despair, and laid the foundation for militancy and insurgency. Corruption in Nigeria has resulted in the decay of infrastructure, a lack of social services and intercultural thesis the collapse of the institutions to fix them. The question then arises as to why and how Nigeria descended to become such a sorry example of a rich yet poor country.
There are many predisposing factors to corruption in Nigeria. First, there is the in project, distortion of values and the cultural context. In many communities, as indeed everywhere else in the world, material success is celebrated and emulated. Penfield Fire Escape Essay. In Nigeria, however, a further weakening of values occurred somewhere down the line, eroding the traditional mechanism of checks on mba dissertation in project, the illegal, primitive and ostentatious accumulation and display of wealth. Dislocation of communities and urbanisation partly account for this. Second, a strong culture of ethnicity and nepotism encourages corruption because it influences the irrational allocation of resources and the protection of culprits. Third, there is a culture of elite exceptionalism whereby high public-office holders and the wealthy feel that, by virtue of their status, stature or position, they are exempted from the laws and rules regulating society.
Fourth, and most insidious, is the pervasive culture of impunity across the social strata, which is, in turn, fuelled by a legal system bedevilled by delays. The egregious culture of impunity has itself sabotaged and stultified the growth of the rule of law. Finally, the single biggest contributor to corruption in Nigeria is the lack of political will among the leadership of the country in the past to groups essay tackle it. There are sufficient laws in in project management the statute books, and robust rules, regulations and clearly set out procedures throughout the help homework, public service. But the institutions established to fight corruption either lacked the desire, the capacity and drive to tackle it or were deliberately subverted or circumvented. Mba Dissertation Management. 8.3 Proposals to curb corruption in Nigeria. The Glass Menagerie Vs. Reality. To confront this challenge, we must start by showing that we have the exemplary leadership, personal integrity and demonstrable political will to in project management do so. Democratic governance based on individual liberties, human rights, a free press and the rule of essay law requires us to be fair and just in dealing with all cases of corruption. There must be transparency and a strict adherence to due process – however painstaking the effort and however slowly the mba dissertation in project, wheel of non fiction essay justice turns under this setting.
At the in project, same time, we must be accountable and remain faithful to our oath of office whereby we swore to homework do justice to all manner of mba dissertation management people without fear or favour. We must, like Caesar’s wife, be seen at the glass illusion vs. reality all times to be beyond reproach in in project management order to on my homework cast the first of any stones. Thus, though not required by mba dissertation in project law, my vice-president and I began my tenure by publicly declaring our assets, to be compared with our net worth on leaving office. As I noted earlier, there exists a plethora of laws, rules and regulations to ensure good governance in Nigeria. There also exist several commissions and agencies to investigate and prosecute corrupt practices. We need not create any new ones unless absolutely necessary. We only need to penfield fire escape strengthen, adequately fund and motivate the existing ones to do their jobs. We shall also encourage independence of mba dissertation in project action and avoidance of self-censorship by anti-corruption agencies. Essay. No one will be presented as a ‘sacred cow’ beyond the reach of the law. Mba Dissertation. In the fight against corruption, citizen involvement and demand side activism are key components. Most of our people, especially those in the rural areas who are poor, ignorant and illiterate, do not make the link between corruption and their lack of access to healthcare, education and other facilities, even where they exist.
They are too poor, too dependent and too powerless to demand accountability from their State or local governments. Creative Essay. We shall therefore encourage the civil society, faith-based groups and community associations to challenge corruption within their communities. In this regard, we shall review our communication strategy towards a more open and transparent government by sharing information, encouraging citizen empowerment and mba dissertation supporting social actions to challenge corrupt practices by public officials at intercultural communication master the federal state and local government levels. In our model of democracy, there is a clear separation of powers between the Executive, the Legislature and the Judiciary. To tackle corruption, there is a need for all three to work together for a common purpose. Towards this end, we are ready to in project engage with the Legislature and the Judiciary, state governments and all organs of intercultural communication master thesis government to ensure the necessary synergy towards effectively combating corruption. Early in the life of in project this administration, I constituted a Presidential Advisory Committee on Anti-Corruption – made up of experts and persons of integrity – to oversee our anti-corruption effort, promote the reform agenda of the Government and co-ordinate the implementation plan for anti-corruption legislation and other interventions. Among other things, the Committee will also articulate and report on strategies towards repositioning and vs. reality strengthening our agencies. These include the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC), the Code of Conduct Bureau (CCB) and the Code of Conduct Tribunal (CCT), and the ways in which our criminal justice administration may be improved. Given the transnational operations of criminals and the multi-jurisdictional effect of corruption, we will also intensify our collaboration with the international community.
This includes international anti-corruption agencies and institutions such as the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and other development partners. We also commit ourselves to compliance with the country’s international obligations under international treaties and conventions such as the United Nations Convention on Anti- Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). 8.4 The Economic and Financial Crimes Commission and the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission. Two anti-corruption institutions are key to Nigeria’s anti-corruption efforts. Management. These are the EFCC and fire escape essay the ICPC. We are aware that both are presently not working at maximum potential owing to a myriad of challenges, which include overlaps in mandate, gaps in operational legislation and funding, a human capital deficiency, leadership inadequacy and internal corruption. I believe a review of legislation is essential to reposition these institutions.
For example, currently the ICPC can only mba dissertation in project management, begin anti-corruption investigations in response to petitions from the public. We want to social groups change that, revising the ICPC Act to increase the Commission’s powers to mba dissertation initiate investigations into cases of corruption (ICPC 2016). Help. This would include: Granting the in project, ICPC the creative, power to commence assets forfeiture proceedings, as is the case in the US, UK and South Africa. Illegally acquired properties may then be seized where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts. Mba Dissertation. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the ICPC by reducing areas of is personal for college overlap with the EFCC, thus giving each agency areas of primary jurisdictional responsibility. Giving the ICPC power to accept material assistance from mba dissertation in project international institutions and development partners, as well as to access funds from global anti-corruption agencies, which the present ICPC Act prohibits. Similarly, as part of the EFCC legislative review, we will focus on: Empowering the Commission to presume that a person has illegally enriched themselves where such a person owns, possesses or controls an what is personal for college interest in any property that cannot be justified by present or past emoluments or circumstances. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the EFCC to reduce overlap with the mba dissertation management, ICPC mandate.
Securing the forfeiture of illegally acquired properties where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts. Separating the agency for financial intelligence gathering from the EFCC. The Nigerian Financial Intelligence Unit, which operates as an arm of the EFCC, needs to be independent in order to help i can homework enhance its operational autonomy. Mba Dissertation. We intend to work with the the glass, Legislature to implement all these necessary reforms. Mba Dissertation In Project Management. It’s also critical that these two agencies charged with fighting corruption and financial crimes collaborate closely with development partners for technical assistance, staff training and data sharing. As international co-operation continues to reduce the number of help havens for hiding the proceeds of crime, new havens are emerging. We need therefore to enhance the in project, scope of our mutual legal assistance agreements to widen the net we cast to recover illicit funds and secure the forfeiture of unexplainable assets.
In this regard, the agencies will also need to be more proactive in leveraging the penfield fire escape, legislations of foreign jurisdictions such as the mba dissertation, US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (US Department of master Justice 2015). Indeed, there have been two recent cases involving high-profile Nigerians that show how foreign jurisdictions (to whom we are grateful) can effectively complement our national efforts to tackle corruption cases. Pursuant to action taken by the US under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, Kellogg, Brown Root pleaded guilty to paying named Nigerian officials a $180 million bribe to secure a $6 billion contract (US Department of Justice 2009). In another notorious case, all numerous counts of corruption filed against a former governor of a state were dismissed by a court in Nigeria only for the same politician to be convicted in the UK – based on the same evidence! These kinds of prosecution lapses in major corruption cases arise because of the slow nature of trials, especially of management corruption cases, in our system. Typically, corruption trials involving high-profile public officers last an what average of mba dissertation in project 8 to 10 years or, if they go to appeal, 15 years.
In such a situation, prosecution and judicial fatigue set in. It’s standard practice for senior defence lawyers to use legal technicalities such as preliminary objections to challenge the jurisdiction of the court, requesting stay of proceedings and appealing interlocutory or preliminary matters, or for courts to oblige the accused with injunctions (sometimes perpetual), restraining anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting the suspected persons! However, with the passage of the Administration of Criminal Justice Act (ACJA) 2015, which seeks to limit such abuses, we hope to see significant progress (Federal Ministry of Justice 2015). The ACJA contains several innovations with the potential to significantly improve criminal justice administration in Nigeria. Fire Escape Essay. For example, it states that an application for mba dissertation in project management a stay of proceedings shall not be entertained, that all preliminary objections shall be considered along with the substantive issues and that a ruling shall be made thereon at the time of delivery of judgment. The CCB was created 36 years ago to ensure probity and accountability. This includes setting out a comprehensive code of conduct for public officers such as declaring their assets and liabilities, and those of members of their families, when they assume and subsequently leave public office. It has powers to the glass illusion vs. reality thesis apprehend offending public officers and arraign them before the CCT. Yet in spite of the mba dissertation, glaring and widespread corruption by political appointees and other public servants, the what is personal statement for college, Bureau has hardly used its powers and, where it has, only low-level public officers have been apprehended and brought before the CCT. Lee Kuan Yew (2000), writing on corruption in his book, From Third World To First, The Singapore Story: 1965– 2000, stated that: “The most effective change we made in 1960 was to allow the courts to treat proof that an accused was living beyond his or her means or had property or income they could not explain as corroborating evidence of corruption.” Nigeria has had a similar provision at paragraph 11(3) of the Fifth Schedule to the Constitution, which provides that any property acquired by a public officer that is not fairly attributable to his income shall be deemed to have been acquired in in project breach of the Code (International Centre of Nigerian Law [ICNL] 1999).
In its 36 years of existence, the essay, CCB has never invoked this provision. The ICPC has a similar provision within section 44(2) of its enabling Act, which it has also never invoked since its creation 15 years ago. The CCB is fundamentally hampered by the fact that there is no requirement for public officers’ asset declarations to be published. So to mba dissertation in project lead by example, my vice-president and I voluntarily submitted our assets declaration, hoping that other members of my Government would do the master thesis, same. But beyond this, the CCB simply lacks the capacity to verify the claims made in the thousands of assets forms submitted.
There simply has not been the political will to fully fund or adequately staff and equip the CCB for the task. In co-operation with the National Assembly, we shall look for ways and mba dissertation in project means to make the required appropriation. We shall also seek co-operation and assistance from our development partners in the areas of creative computerisation of the operations of the CCB and Land Registries, with links to the operations of the Nigerian Stock Exchange, the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Corporate Affairs Commission (our Companies Registry) to enhance and mba dissertation facilitate assets tracing. Groups. Already our Central Bank has implemented a biometric verification system in all banks, facilitating the verification of the identity of every account holder. Like the CCB, the CCT was established more than three decades ago. Its purpose was to adjudicate on breaches of the mba dissertation management, Code of Conduct by public officers, which were referred to it by the CCB. In the absence of a functioning CCB, the CCT too has been doomed to failure, applying its powers to impose sanctions – such as removal from office, bans from non fiction essay holding public office and the forfeiture of mba dissertation in project corruptly acquired property – only to minor cases. The Nigeria Police, like the what, police everywhere, are primarily tasked with maintaining law and order. Its involvement with corruption cases and mba dissertation management financial crimes is peripheral except in cases like theft. But the potential for penfield essay compromised anti- corruption operatives remains a problem across our public sector. And the police are no exception.
Indeed, Transparency International, citing the 2013 Global Corruption Barometer, stated that 92% of respondents in Nigeria felt that the police were corrupt. We are aware of this general perception of the Nigeria Police and we shall take steps for its reform. Mba Dissertation Management. The other institution that is critical to our ability to successfully combat corruption is the adjudicating agency or the Judiciary. Yet our Judiciary itself is perceived to be corrupt. As in the glass menagerie illusion vs. reality other areas, it’s a difficult allegation to prove.
From their pronouncements, it’s clear that the leadership of the Judiciary is aware of this general perception. It cannot be swept under the carpet, especially given the odious nature of many decisions from the Bench. These include granting perpetual injunctions, restraining the police and anti-corruption agencies from mba dissertation in project investigating, arresting or prosecuting high-profile politicians and the other examples I have already cited. Indeed, the leadership is undertaking internal measures to creative non fiction identify judges of unimpeachable integrity, and to have corruption cases assigned to them administratively. They are similarly making efforts to cleanse the system by identifying compromised judges for mba dissertation management disciplinary measures, including retirement. The discipline of judges, however, is the responsibility of the creative essay, National Judicial Council established by the Constitution. There have been observations about the Council’s composition, the mode of appointment to it and how to make it broader-based in representation. These are matters for the Judiciary to consider. Finally, we are undertaking administrative measures in the following areas to strengthen our anti-corruption crusade more generally: Addressing poor remuneration in the public service.
Alongside our wider reforms of the public sector, we need to look into appropriate remuneration for some categories of civil servants. A fresh university graduate in the public service earns about $300 a month. Unfortunately, inflationary pressures and increases in the cost of living make corrupt ways of in project management supplementing legitimate income more attractive. Again, Lee Kuan Yew (2000) said that one of the ways he dealt with corruption in creative non fiction the public service was to drastically increase the salaries of the mba dissertation management, accounting officers, putting them almost on a par with similar heads of private sector organisations. While this isn’t an immediate possibility for us, given our current economic circumstances, we do propose to finance some increases in critical functions related to public service wages, using part of the freed-up funds gained from recovered looted assets, reductions in waste and the plugging of leaks. However, there may also be need for social groups a downward review of the emoluments, allowances and entitlements of certain public officers. In Project. We shall also reform our oil sector – which is the lifeblood but also the most corruption-ridden sector of our economy.
To that end, we will: Publish quarterly audits of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation. End the opacity in the swapping of crude oil for refined products, which has created avenues for corruption. Improve internal refining capacity with a view to penfield essay ending, in 2016, the mba dissertation in project management, clearly unsustainable 1 trillion Naira (N) subsidy on imported petroleum products. Engender transparency in the purchase of all refined products by publishing purchases and reconciling the amounts against consumption figures. Develop partnerships to deploy advanced technology to share data and track oil theft. Increase the participation of Nigeria in intercultural communication master the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). After corruption, waste and mismanagement of public funds are the biggest drains on the economy.
Even before the present economic downturn, reducing them had become imperative. For years, recurrent expenditure had been at 70 - 80% of the national budget with emoluments of senior public officers being the major expenditure heads. So there will be a significant reduction in international travel by management public officers. We will ensure that public officers travel only when absolutely necessary and, when they do, there will be a restriction placed on classes of social groups travel. In addition, the mba dissertation management, Federal Ministry of Finance has now established an Efficiency Unit to monitor all ministries, departments and agencies. The Unit’s aim is to review all government overhead expenditures, reduce waste and promote efficiency. We shall also vigorously enforce the Public Procurement Act to what is personal statement ensure that due process is followed in government procurements (Bureau of Public Procurement 2012). Following decades of a lack of oversight over government revenues, receipts and income flow, we have recently reverted to constitutionalism and consolidated all government accounts into a Treasury Single Account maintained by the Central Bank of Nigeria. As a result, we are now in a position to monitor all receipts, expenditures and block leakages, thereby enhancing transparency and accountability in the management of government revenues, receipts and payments.
We will run a leaner Government, reducing the number of ministries and reviewing the proliferation of parastatals and agencies. Some of these are moribund, such as the Public Complaints Commission, the 2014 budgetary allocation for which was N2.927 billion – all of it was spent on salaries. Many others are either no longer required or they perform the same or similar functions. In Project Management. These include the National Office for master Technology Acquisition and Promotion, with its 2014 budget allocation of in project management N466 million to boost locally generated technology. In the same vein, the Nigeria Information Technology Development Agency had a 2014 budget allocation of N339.01 million to develop information technology. Such agencies, with ambiguous or overlapping functions, will be progressively streamlined and merged with their main ministries or scrapped.
I will conclude by reiterating that the immediate and long- term benefits of non fiction essay curbing corruption in mba dissertation in project Nigeria are pretty obvious to us. In this essay, I have put forward what some may consider over-ambitious goals. I believe in the adage that the journey of a thousand miles begins with the first step. I have the will to take this first step. And with sustained effort, we shall reach our target of freeing-up sufficient funds to accelerate the vs. reality thesis, development of in project management critical infrastructure such as railways, roads and power; invest in health and education consistent with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals; pursue our social programmes such as skills acquisition and poverty alleviation; and create an i can on my enabling environment for the diversification of our economy, with investments in mba dissertation in project agriculture, solid minerals, petrochemicals and allied industries. Statement For College. These outcomes will encourage local and foreign direct investments, job creation, and reductions in poverty, crime and insecurity. As Sarah Chayes has observed, “Corruption has helped fuel most of the serious crises the world has witnessed in the past decade. It swells the ranks of terrorist movements, weakens local opposition to them, facilitates their activities and hollows out militaries tasked with combating them. It sparks angry protests that can turn into revolutions with unknown second and mba dissertation third order effects such as those in the Arab world in 2011” (Kirkpatrick 2015).
It is therefore in our national interest, and that of the international community, to communication fight corruption not only within national boundaries but also globally, through concerted international action. Bureau of Public Procurement. 2012. Bureau of Public Procurement. Available online. Ezekwesili, O. Mba Dissertation Management. 28 August 2012. Groups. Corruption, National Development, the Bar and the Judiciary.
Abula: 52nd Annual General Meeting (AGM) of the Nigerian Bar Association. Federal Ministry of Justice. 2015. Mba Dissertation In Project Management. Administration of Criminal Justice Act 2015. Available online. Creative Non Fiction Essay. Greenspan, A. 24 September 2007. Alan Greenspan vs. Naomi Klein. Democracy Now! Available [online] (http://www.democracynow.org/2007/9/24/alan_greenspan_ vs_naomi_klein_on). Mba Dissertation In Project Management. Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC).
2016. The Establishment Act. Available [online] (http://icpc.gov.ng/the-establishment-act/). International Centre of Nigerian Law (ICNL). 1999. Constitution of the Federal Republic of creative non fiction Nigeria 1999. Available online. Mba Dissertation Management. Kar, D. and Cartwright-Smith, D. 2010.
Illicit Financial Flows From Africa: Hidden Resource for Development. Is Personal Statement For College. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available [online] (http://www.gfintegrity.org/storage/gfip/documents/reports/ gfi_africareport_web.pdf). Kirkpatrick, J. 30 September 2015. Interview – Sarah Chayes. E-International Relations. Management. Available [online] (http://www.e-ir.info/2015/09/30/interview-sarah-chayes/). Transparency International.
2013. Global Corruption Barometer. Available [online] (http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013). Transparency International. 2016. Corruption by Country – Nigeria. Available [online] (https://www.transparency.org/country/#NGA). United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA). February 2015. Track it.
Stop it. Get it: Report of the High Level Pane on Illicit Finance Flows from i can homework Africa. Africa: UNECA. Available [online] (http://www.uneca.org/sites/default/files/PublicationFiles/ iff_main_report_26feb_en.pdf). United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Mba Dissertation. 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Communication Thesis. Available [online] (https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. html). United Nations – Office on Drugs and management Crime (UNODC).
2016. I Can Focus. UNODC’s Action against Corruption and Economic Crime. Available online. US Department of Justice. 11 February 2009. Kellogg Brown Root LLC Pleads Guilty to Foreign Bribery Charges and in project Agrees to Pay $402 Million Criminal Fine. Available online. I Can. US Department of Justice. 23 September 2015. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Available [online] (http://www.justice.gov/criminal-fraud/foreign-corrupt- practices-act).
Wallis, W. 26 May 2015. Nigeria: The big oil fix. Financial Times. Available [online] (http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/be2a72de-f30f-11e4-a979- 00144feab7de.html#axzz3yeg9x1Nz) World Bank. 12 January 2016. GDP per Capita: Nigeria and Singapore (1960–2014). Available [online] (https://goo.gl/LNl6ez). Yew, L. K. 2000. In Project. From Third World to First, The Singapore Story: 1965–2000. UK: Harper Collins. 9. President Ashraf Ghani: Driving corruption out of procurement.
The moral outrage that many feel about corruption and the devastation it wreaks blinds us to its pervasive nature. But it is imperative we recognise that, in a number of non fiction essay countries, corruption is not an aberration within an otherwise well- functioning system of public governance. It is part and parcel of the system itself – reinforced by the fragmented nature of mba dissertation in project management these countries’ governments, producing predictable, self- perpetuating costs for national development. Creative Non Fiction Essay. If we’re to mba dissertation management tackle corruption effectively, we must identify and understand the systemic drivers that enable corrupt practices to thrive and reproduce. This essay argues that corruption is, at its core, a failure of individual and what for college institutional accountability that allows officials to divert public resources from their intended uses. But if the problem to solve in a country like Afghanistan is management a lack of accountability, the actions needed to change it must overcome the fact that the government institutions, which are expected to carry out the reforms, are themselves highly fragmented. Reforms from outside the system can make some progress, but fragmentation means that these reforms will always be partial and what for college temporary.
In fragmented systems, only strong, national political leadership can tackle corruption at its roots. This is because only the top political leadership can look across the different arenas and ministries where corruption happens, in mba dissertation in project order to provide an effective agenda for penfield fire escape reform. By demonstrating top commitment through positive action, even fragmented systems can build coalitions with internal and external reformers. But somebody must open the door. Mba Dissertation. The countries that occupy the bottom reaches of world anti- corruption standards are frequently characterised by deeply fragmented systems of state accountability.
In such countries, the government systems that should prevent corruption are the what statement, very systems used to enable it (Fund for Peace 2013). This includes core operations such as procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and mba dissertation justice. If the systemic character of corruption in penfield escape essay these fragmented administrations is mba dissertation management not understood, reforms become a game. Social. Donors provide technical assistance to write anti-corruption action plans that ministries don’t implement. Anti-corruption commissions are launched and quietly dissolved; study tours to reformist countries bring a flurry of excitement before being forgotten. None of mba dissertation in project management these exercises make a serious dent in the fundamental problem of institutionalised corruption, because they assume that corruption can be tackled by suppressing its symptoms and they thus fail to creative non fiction essay address its structural drivers. Although some sections of the government may indeed be committed to reform, frequently they are kept there for appearances only, not to achieve any actual progress in the fight against corruption. To consider how we might change that, we now turn to the anti-corruption strategy being implemented in Afghanistan. 9.3 Reforming corruption in fragmented accountability systems: the case of mba dissertation in project Afghanistan.
By any measure, Afghanistan is one of the most corrupt countries on earth. Fifty years of near constant conflict have destroyed both social and menagerie thesis institutional controls. The flood of in project money that poured into thesis the country for reconstruction after the overthrow of the Taliban in late 2001 further fragmented and reduced its systems of accountability. When the mba dissertation, Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan took office in October 2014, we were united in our commitment to bring an end to corruption and intercultural communication thesis the impunity that surrounded it. The costs of the mba dissertation management, corruption that we inherited were more than just moral revulsion. They had significant effects on national development. The challenge we faced was introducing reforms that would work in our post-conflict environment. The departure of the international forces between 2012 and is personal for college 2014 meant that the large volumes of financial support that accompanied the troops came to a sudden end. Government and donors agreed that the apparatus of mba dissertation management corruption that had formed around the menagerie illusion thesis, allocation of aid funding meant that, without reform, it would be impossible to switch into mba dissertation management a private sector led growth strategy. Endless bribery would keep Afghanistan uncompetitive and creative non fiction essay poor.
As a country threatened by both internal violence and external attacks, establishing the government’s legitimacy is vital to maintain social order. But a history of state corruption has undermined the mba dissertation in project management, citizenry’s belief that government courts could credibly dispense justice; that government police would provide order; and that government agencies would represent the public’s interests fairly, rather than just hand out licences to rich bidders (Asia Foundation 2014). 9.4 Diagnosing where corruption happens. Just as long-distance travellers benefit from having a well-defined roadmap to reach their destination, our anti-corruption strategy began by i can mapping out the landscape of corruption in Afghanistan. This meant a systematic review of government operations to identify where corruption occurred. We found that state-sponsored corruption was everywhere. Particular areas of concern were: Land grabbing Whereas in traditional Afghan society and under Islamic law, clear property rights provide strong social protections, land grabbing in Afghanistan had turned property into a source of discord, distrust and exclusion. As a result of land grabs, the private sector was denied access to property for investment, while the poor were driven into substandard and insecure housing. Government appointments People widely believe that appointments to the government are secured through patronage and mba dissertation in project management payment. The Ministry of Finance informed the Cabinet that national revenue could be doubled if civil servants were not paying back the costs of their appointments.
Banking The Kabul Bank became the emblem for the looting of public resources. Starting in 2012, forensic audits revealed that virtually all its large accounts were systematically falsified. Money was put in during audit periods and then immediately withdrawn afterwards. The cost of the Kabul Bank scandal was $850 million (the Government has recovered more than a third of this). Customs Afghanistan has always relied on penfield escape, customs fees.
But deliberately weakened customs management has been a major driver of corruption. In Project. Afghanistan’s Central Statistics Office records approximately $1.1 billion in penfield fire imports from Pakistan – but statistics from Pakistan report $2.32 billion in exports to Afghanistan (Observatory of Economic Complexity 2015). Nor does the mba dissertation management, bribery stop at the border. Studies of transport routes reveal that over a 100-mile stretch there can be as many as 12 posts, each demanding bribes. Natural resource exploitation Afghanistan is developing the early symptoms of the resource curse, the for college, syndrome whereby rich natural resources, which could in principle make a poor country well off, instead end up becoming a locus for mba dissertation in project management corruption and the capture of that natural wealth by small elites. Help I Can Focus On My. The worst manifestation is in management mining, where corrupt licensing and procurement produce rapacious and master thesis destructive mining practices. Smuggling and narcotics As with the drug trade everywhere, regional and global networks make the illicit economy a significant driver of corruption. More recently, violent and dangerous narcotics smugglers have expanded their field of activity to cover human trafficking and control over mba dissertation in project irregular migration from Afghanistan to Eurasia. 9.5 Corruption, procurement and reform.
There is no quick fix to end this type of systemic corruption. However, we can see some ways forward if we look beneath the surface of where corruption happens to on my homework the processes by which government can abet or control corruption. In Afghanistan, instead of being the systems for government accountability, procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and the administration of justice have become the drivers that explain how corruption persists. Within a fragmented system like this, a reformist government can only turn its commitment to reform into practical action if it rebuilds those systems from the inside out. To demonstrate how that can work in mba dissertation in project practice, the remainder of this paper will explore the Afghan Government’s efforts to reform the social, procurement process.
At its most basic, public procurement is in project management how the government uses competition to get the public the best value at the lowest cost. Reforming how governments go about buying goods and services may not seem an non fiction especially exciting place to start systems reform, especially when compared with high-profile prosecutions or investigative reporting and publication. But procurement lies at the heart of what governments ‘do’. Global estimates suggest that government procurement can account for between 10% and 30% of gross domestic product (GDP) (SELA 2015). And when public procurement is infected by corruption, the effect on mba dissertation management, government performance and the glass illusion vs. reality thesis value to the taxpayer is catastrophic. Procurement in Afghanistan has traditionally exhibited all the symptoms of mba dissertation a fragmented and corrupt system of government accountability. Forensic reviews repeatedly show a systematic rigging of competitive bidding, usually through the inclusion of non-existent companies to give the appearance of competition when there is in fact none. For a fee, cost estimates are shared between corrupt officials and corrupt bidders. Rules to block conflicts of focus homework interest are routinely subverted by companies owned by the relatives of high-ranking officials whose only in project, ‘business’ is to provide access.
Not all corruption in procurement takes place behind the scenes. Threats of violence, kidnapping and bribery are used to force legitimate competitors to withdraw or alter their bids. Officials collude with favoured companies to set technical standards that only they can fulfil. Corrupt practices do not end at help i can on my homework contract negotiations. Manipulating procurement so that low-quality goods are delivered rather than the higher-quality supplies that were procured and invoiced is a pervasive practice that leads to collapsed infrastructure, massive overcharging and poor-quality services. Procurement therefore provides an acid test of whether the new Government’s commitments to mba dissertation management bring about systemic change will really be backed by political will and what statement structural change. The two key reforms in the first stage of the Afghan Government’s strategy are the formation of in project management a National Procurement Council (NPC) to is personal review all high-value contracts and the consolidation of construction contracts through two specialised agencies. Centralising procurement was not the only route to reform open to us, but it enabled us to tackle the structural issues that allowed corruption to thrive. Reforming corruption ministry by ministry was not only far beyond the limited capacities of the Government, but it would also have left untouched the underlying incentives that drove this corruption in the first place. Only through sustained top- level oversight to mba dissertation in project create the accountability needed, combined with technical expertise, could we ever hope to change the bureaucratic culture.
9.6 Building the machinery of reform. To underscore the top-level commitment of the national leadership to bring corruption to an end, the creative non fiction, NPC is mba dissertation in project management chaired by me, the President of the help i can homework, Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. Afghanistan’s chief executive officer, the second vice- president and the ministers for mba dissertation in project management finance, economy and justice also attend the weekly council meeting. Such high-levelparticipation is needed not just to send a symbolic message to the country at large, but also to present a unified front to the entrenched interests within the government itself that will resist reforms. We are supported by an Office of i can on my homework Procurement staffed by Afghans who have been trained in professional procurement and who have the in project management, specialised expertise needed to understand the details of bids. Because such a large share of the Afghan budget is spent on intercultural communication thesis, security, the Government also gets technical support from the NATO military command to help review military contracts. Public transparency is built into the process. Our weekly procurement review meetings include a representative of Integrity Watch (an international non-governmental organisation [NGO]), the mba dissertation management, US’s special oversight expenditure review body (SIGAR) and a rotating member of the Afghan Parliament’s Caucus on Integrity. Is Personal For College. Minutes of our meetings and all decisions are placed on an updated, publicly accessible website (Government of Afghanistan 2016), and our team provides regular briefings for in project journalists, donors and the Afghan media. Transparency has enabled us to begin to build trust in government. The first major test of our work came in the security sector.
Civil society and whistle-blowers had made serious allegations over a $400 million fuel contract awarded by what statement the outgoing Government’s Ministry of Defence. In response to these allegations, the mba dissertation management, bid was reopened. A preliminary review found credible evidence of malfeasance. We suspended the contract and appointed a high-level commission of inquiry to review this and an additional nine major fuel contracts. The commission’s report revealed widespread subversion of the law. Unfortunately, a response was not going to communication master be as simple as suspending the contract and starting over. Continuing the contract would have meant accepting the corruption. But stopping it cold would have meant leaving soldiers and mba dissertation in project management police without ammunition and supplies in the middle of an intense war. This is a strong example of how corruption in procurement can have detrimental consequences for i can homework national security and mba dissertation in project the safety of our people. Given this dilemma, what were we to do? To cut through the knot, we developed a framework whereby each contract was cancelled, then renegotiated on a sole-source basis.
The results were reviewed and certified by specialists, including experts from NATO. Social. The NPC then re-examined each case to in project management confirm that the for college, results met procedural and value-for-money standards, and mba dissertation in project management the results were placed on its public website. The same framework is now being applied to the Ministry of Interior. Our case-by-case examination of what statement some 900 contracts has revealed that compliance with national law and good procurement practices is the rare exception rather than the rule. Mba Dissertation. NPC oversight is restructuring these bids to squeeze out the corruption and ensure that the Government receives what it pays for. Our best estimates are that this system has saved the Government at least $350 million in its first year of operation. Presidential hands-on management of the national procurement authority is meant to send the message to our people of the Government’s commitment to reform. But it is the glass illusion also a temporary measure, triggered by the need to restore credibility. Mba Dissertation. We have climbed the foothills of reform, but the full mountain range lies ahead. A great many technical changes are needed to ensure that, in the future, honest procurement is the rule not the exception. Now that the political door has been opened to reform, internal and external reformers can embed a great many more changes across other government operations such as publishing contracts, benchmarking bids against known unit costs and reviewing procurement rules.
Better oversight and detailed reviews of processes can address corruption when and what for college where it occurs, but it will not change the underlying structures that enable it. For that to happen, we must make the entire government system invulnerable to exploitation and mba dissertation in project management manipulation. This is a significant challenge for us. Help On My. Tackling the reform of large-scale procurement is mba dissertation technically complex. It requires strong leadership but also professional expertise and experience. Furthermore, the structure of aid partnerships in Afghanistan has meant that each ministry has built up its own project- financed wing for for college procurement and construction – another example of how fragmentation allows corruption to emerge. Large development agencies such as the World Bank address this issue by deploying dozens of highly trained, highly paid specialists to review the procurement decisions of their counterpart ministries.
Afghanistan will never be able to afford an equivalent level of expertise. Mba Dissertation Management. We need an entirely different model of how procurement happens. To build this model, the Government has started to concentrate physical construction in just two ministries, one for national public works and one a state-owned enterprise that manages government contracting. This will not only vs. reality thesis, allow these two ministries to develop procurement expertise and mba dissertation in project management provide proper oversight, but it will also free up other ministries to concentrate on intercultural, their core functions and add real value, rather than skew them towards the activities that make money. This is how we plan to tackle a public culture that has been built around making money instead of providing service. For example, the education ministry can improve the quality of teachers and student learning instead of lobbying for more school construction. The health ministry can focus on reducing Afghanistan’s appalling maternal mortality rates rather than dreaming about building ever more clinics that lack trained staff and proper supplies. The Government is not so naive as to think that reviewing contracts and concentrating construction in two central agencies alone can end corruption. Each system that increases government accountability must be rebuilt. Management. But the groups essay, progress we have made on procurement reform shows that it can be done. What comes next?
Even with improved planning, clearer rules and mba dissertation heightened oversight, corruption will keep occurring until the fire essay, likelihood of punishment reaches a level that makes officials decide that it is no longer worth the risk. Until recently, the punishment for corruption rarely extended beyond a verbal admonition. Fiduciary oversight was in any case largely left to the donor agencies. Our next task then is to mba dissertation make sure that punishments fit the crimes: reform must move to the courts, the judges, the police and the prosecutors. Here we can frankly admit that progress is slower than we expected. The Government has not been able to move as quickly on what is personal for college, justice sector reform as it would have liked. Justice reform is in project particularly difficult, because a balance must be struck between maintaining the independence of the judiciary and finding ways to reform what itself has become a core driver of institutionalised corruption. But while much remains for us to do, we are seeing improvements to the administration of justice. Government’s actions are beginning to end the creative non fiction essay, regime of impunity that protected high-level culprits. In the procurement cases discussed earlier, officials who colluded with bidders were suspended and the cases for their prosecution are being prepared. Personnel actions are similarly being used to transfer officials away from positions susceptible to bribery.
Those culprits who find judges to release them can count on having their cases reviewed by management the Attorney General’s office. But accelerating the pace of for college justice sector reform is clearly the Government’s next frontier. The other urgent next step is to deepen and in project strengthen our partnership with civil society’s anti-corruption activists. Our experience shows that, to have any real chance of success fighting corruption in a post-conflict society, top- level engagement and strong accountability are needed to penfield fire essay signal that the necessary local and national will to fight corruption exists. The more that Afghanistan’s people believe that the Government is taking reform seriously, the more the in project management, Government can count on penfield essay, whistle-blowers and an investigative media to end the atmosphere of impunity on which a culture of corruption thrives. In Project. Over time, more and more ministry decisions and actions on budgets, contracts and expenditures will be made public and actively disseminated through traditional and modern media. Focus. Accepting citizen feedback and monitoring must become a core part of how the government conducts its business. As with procurement, top-level leadership is needed to crack open bureaucratic resistance, after which internal and external reformers can push forward a corruption reform programme of actions. But that first step remains critical.
This paper has argued an approach for how states can achieve transformational change in the fight against corruption, using procurement in Afghanistan as an example. Firstly, it shows how top-level political commitment, an mba dissertation electoral mandate to intercultural communication master thesis end corruption and government actions can together enable a series of practical actions to bring about national level reform. That model combines political signalling, managerial reforms, technical oversight and increasing engagement with an aware citizenry to fundamentally change a culture and systems that are facilitating corruption. Secondly, it details how successful high-level reform strategies need to begin with the understanding that corruption is mba dissertation in project not a phenomenon in and of help i can itself, but the result of fragmented regimes that lack accountability. Mba Dissertation In Project. During the war in Afghanistan, responsibility for unprecedentedly large amounts of money fell to diverse control systems, none of statement which had the capacity or reach to compensate for mba dissertation in project the lack of state-managed oversight.
Overcoming fragmentation could only begin from the top. Help I Can On My Homework. This is not the only route that countries can follow. But the in project, Afghan Government’s procurement reforms offer many valuable lessons for how to bring an end to corruption in development. Procurement everywhere accounts for a very large share of government expenditure, but in post- conflict or post-disaster countries there will always be a sudden surge of new procurement into i can on my homework systems without the experience to manage it. Fragmentation is built into the reconstruction process. In Project Management. Properly managed reform, with high- level oversight, closes down opportunities for the glass corruption and aligns procurement designs with the institutional capacities needed to control corruption.
Procurement is especially interesting, because it is an area where governments must have the political acumen and will to navigate the trade-offs that reform will entail. In Project. Governments cannot just stop procurement while they fix the system. As the Afghan case study shows, simply stopping the procurement of obviously flawed fuel contracts in the middle of a war would have meant losing the war. But, because the fire escape essay, governance structures were in place to allow for a sufficiently senior level of decision making, an alternative arrangement could be developed. Mba Dissertation In Project Management. Afghanistan has only just started implementing the fully fledged reform needed to non fiction essay root out corruption. In Project Management. It took decades to what is personal build up a system that systematised corruption at every level.
It will be many years before the Government can claim success. But the strategy and roadmap for reform are clear, and the first round of hurdles has already been passed. Mba Dissertation In Project. Government corruption has driven a three-decades-old conflict. Creative. Corruption has blocked Afghanistan from being self-reliant and free. Management. And corruption has wasted a vast amount of precious resources that could otherwise have been spent reducing Afghanistan’s crushing levels of poverty. Afghanistan’s citizens voted for a Government that would have the courage and commitment to break the cycle of corruption. We will continue to earn their trust and build a virtuous partnership for national development. Social Groups. Asia Foundation. Mba Dissertation In Project. 2014. Groups Essay. A Survey of the Afghan People.
San Francisco: Asia Foundation. Available online. Fund for Peace. 2013. Fragile States Index. Washington DC: FFP Publications. Available online. Government of Afghanistan. 2016.
Administrative Office of the President – National Procurement Authority. Available online. Observatory of Economic Complexity. December 2015. Country profile: Afghanistan. Available online. SELA. 2015.
Public Procurement as a Tool for Development in Latin America and the Caribbean. Caracas: SELA. In Project. 10. Prime Minister John Key: New Zealand: a culture of fair play. Creative Non Fiction Essay. It says a lot about the New Zealand psyche that one of the most notorious acts in our sporting history involved an underarm cricket delivery. Management. New Zealand needed six from the last ball to tie a 1981 one-day match against Australia when Trevor Chappell strode to the crease and rolled the ball down the pitch. An orthodox delivery would have given batsman Brian McKechnie a fair chance. Help Focus On My Homework. The underarm version did not. There was an uproar, which, as you can probably tell, still smarts to management this day. The reaction might have been outsized, and I have no doubt Chappell is what is personal statement for college sick of hearing about it, but it was telling.
The ploy went against one of the most intrinsic aspects of in project our national character – a sense that we all deserve a fair crack and the glass menagerie illusion thesis that we must do what is right. It is ingrained in our psyche – we are a fundamentally honest people. It is an attitude that flows through our home lives, our working lives and our public institutions, and it has helped us be recognised consistently as one of the world’s least corrupt countries. As we know, corruption undermines trust in management democratic institutions, businesses and markets. It is a corrosive force, which – at the glass vs. reality thesis its worst – diminishes faith in the rule of law.
All of this impacts on economic and social development, distorting the playing field, making it harder for mba dissertation in project management fair-minded people to prosper and for a country to support its most vulnerable. New Zealand is uniquely placed to protect itself from corruption and to statement work with its neighbours to combat it in mba dissertation in project their countries. We are a multicultural, outward-looking trading nation of social essay just 4.5 million people, a long way from the markets where we sell our goods and in project management services, and reliant on communication master thesis, the rule of law in the places we sell them to. In order to prosper, we have always needed not just to be good at what we do but also to management be honest in how we do it. 10.1 Our constitutional arrangements. Penfield Essay. We have built our legal and in project management constitutional settings around our sense of fair play, enshrining it through more than 170 years of case law and political practice. So, while it is based on the Westminster system, our unwritten constitution has evolved in a pragmatic way. We tend to illusion thesis fix things when they need fixing, ‘without necessarily relating them to any grand philosophical scheme’ (Constitution Arrangements Committee 2005). And there is a strong sense that it operates effectively because of our sense of fairness. A good example of in project management that is our ongoing recognition of the historical injustices perpetrated on Maori by social the Crown through land seizures, Treaty of Waitangi breaches and other injustices (Ministry of Justice 2016a).
The Treaty of mba dissertation management Waitangi is a founding document of New Zealand. It was intended to ensure peaceful progress in New Zealand where all parties’ rights and interests are respected (Ministry of Justice 2016b). Non Fiction. But the Treaty was not always honoured by the Crown. Successive governments have endeavoured to acknowledge those injustices through the return of management land and resources, and through the delivery of the glass illusion vs. reality apologies on behalf of the Crown. Today this process takes place largely with near-universal public and mba dissertation political support, because it is the help focus on my homework, right thing to do. It is mba dissertation in project management this same embedded sense of fair play that makes it difficult for help i can focus homework corruption to take hold in New Zealand. New Zealand’s public institutions have grown and in project evolved in an environment that does not tolerate underarm deliveries from its politicians, public servants or private sector. As Prime Minister, I am particularly well aware of that.
I am regularly held to account not just in Parliament and in the media, but by everyday New Zealanders who are never shy to tell me of any issue that they have with my Government’s performance. That is creative essay how it should be. As elected officials and as public servants, we are beholden to the public and are expected to regularly account for our actions. New Zealand’s highly professional public service is expected to mba dissertation management act in accordance with the law, to be imbued with the spirit of service to the community and to what statement give free and mba dissertation management frank advice to ministers. The public service is creative non fiction essay politically neutral.
That neutrality means that the Government, Parliament and the public can trust advice given by officials. Merit-based appointments, made on mba dissertation, the recommendation of the State Services Commissioner, help ensure that senior public servants do not owe their jobs and their loyalty to any politician or political party. This culture, which has been enshrined in law, ensures that even as governments and ministers change, a professional body of experts is always on hand to deliver on the agenda of the elected government. 10.2 Scrutiny of government action. As is often said, the best disinfectant is sunlight. As part of the gradual improvement of our institutions, successive governments have taken steps to increase and entrench the transparency of the public sector.
In 1982, the then National Government passed the Official Information Act, dramatically changing assumptions about government information. The law means that ministers and help i can focus officials have to provide any official information requested unless there is a compelling reason not to (Ministry of Justice 2015a). While there is always a degree of tension about where the line should be drawn, the in project, oversight of the Office of the Ombudsman ensures that openness is the glass menagerie vs. reality maintained. (New Zealand was the mba dissertation, first country outside Scandinavia to establish this role.) Recognising that there were significant weaknesses in the way information on the state of the government’s finances were reported, the then Labour Government passed the Public Finance Act in 1989. This requires government to operate transparently and provide regular public reporting of its accounts (Ministry of Justice 2015b). For the past 25 years, this legislation has ensured that governments present an is personal for college accurate picture of the public finances and the fiscal consequences of their policies. As Prime Minister, I have taken steps to mba dissertation in project management ensure greater transparency by, for example, proactively publishing details of spending on ministerial credit cards. Ministers and departments are also giving greater thought to proactively releasing more information for public scrutiny. New Zealand has a range of independent bodies set up to audit and deal with allegations of corruption and what for college misconduct. In Project. The Independent Police Complaints Authority (IPCA), the Judicial Conduct Commissioner (JCC) and the Office of the intercultural master, Ombudsman all have broad powers to investigate and report on in project, the conduct of public officials. These bodies are well known and well used with 2,515 complaints to the IPCA alone last year (IPCA 2015).
This independent oversight helps maintain public trust in our institutions, with 78% of New Zealanders surveyed reporting that they have trust and confidence in the police (Gravitas 2015). Serious and complex allegations of corruption in the public or private sector are investigated by a specialist group called the creative non fiction essay, Serious Fraud Office (SFO). The Director of the SFO has complete independence when it comes to operational decisions, while the SFO and New Zealand Police work closely together in the fight against fraud and corruption, and ensure that specialist knowledge and expertise can be used and information shared. In Project Management. The police and social essay SFO are further enabled by legislation, which ensures that all of New Zealand’s bribery and corruption offences apply both domestically and extra- territorially (Ministry of Justice 2013). This means that the SFO can bring a case against New Zealand citizens, residents and companies for acts of bribery and corruption that occur wholly outside of New Zealand. Another important aspect is a free and independent press. As Prime Minister, I front the media almost every day, sometimes several times, on issues of the day. Questions will range from the mba dissertation in project management, performance of my Executive and MPs, to New Zealand’s position on international affairs and is personal for college domestic policy, to what I had for breakfast.
My Government is well aware of the in project management, importance of fronting up, and of the fact that our media and the public would expect nothing less. They demand accountability and answers. Illusion. The upshot is that I, along with other ministers, am forced to defend every decision and mba dissertation in project mistake we make and every dollar we choose to spend or save. Colleagues and staff are aware of penfield fire essay what is expected of me and in project I have no doubt that they have no interest in seeing the Prime Minister having to defend an issue that they have caused. There is an assumption across all levels of government that a mistake or any level of dishonesty will always be found out. While mistakes happen and will usually be forgiven by reasonable people, corruption and cover-ups are never tolerated. Illusion Vs. Reality. 10.3 New Zealand’s support for anti-corruption in mba dissertation in project management the Pacific region. Given the clear benefits that a low-corruption environment can have on economic growth and vs. reality thesis quality of governance, fighting corruption has been a key plank of New Zealand’s international development policies. Mba Dissertation Management. As the only country outside northern Europe to regularly feature at the top of Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), we are well placed to assist other countries in fighting corruption (Transparency InternationaI 2015). We are particularly focused on social groups, making progress in our own neighbourhood. New Zealand has especially close historical and cultural links with Pacific Island countries and we have a strong commitment to working with them to build stronger governance frameworks and to promote sustainable economic and social development.
While auditing doesn’t sound like a glamorous nation- building activity, it is a critical part of ensuring that governments are spending public money responsibly and effectively. New Zealand is working with Pacific Island countries to management ensure that they complete regular and timely financial audits of creative non fiction public accounts to help improve transparency and accountability. The number of audits completed in management Pacific Island countries over intercultural the past five years has more than doubled (PASAI 2015). Promoting the importance of accountability in the eyes of the public has led to growing awareness of the in project management, role of auditing in holding government institutions to account. More public office holders are being held to account for their misconduct and is personal statement for college misuse of public funds (PASAI 2015). A high standard of public accountability is a critical element in preventing a culture of corruption from in project developing or taking hold. As we know from our own experience, when the public won’t tolerate corruption and have an expectation that their officials will be held to account, those in positions of power are less likely to fire escape essay abuse it. So the higher the standard of probity and accountability that figures in authority are held to, the more likely we are to prevent corruption and to detect and prosecute it when it occurs. Corruption is far more easily prevented and detected when a country has modern and transparent financial management systems. The New Zealand Aid Programme supports a series of initiatives in co-operation with our Pacific partners, designed to enhance economic governance (Ministry of in project management Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). That work is helping to strengthen border management systems and levels of accountability in a key area of revenue collection (Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat 2016).
New Zealand also provides support to Samoa, Kiribati and the Cook Islands, linked to reforms including improvements to public finance systems, better public procurement, stronger and communication master thesis more independent audit, and greater accountability and in project management oversight of state-owned enterprises. Further support has assisted Samoa and the Solomon Islands to reform and help i can focus on my homework modernise their revenue systems (Ministry of mba dissertation management Foreign Affairs and the glass menagerie illusion thesis Trade 2015b). Together with Australia, we have also provided joint funding for the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance to boost the effectiveness of Pacific Island Ombudsman offices. In Project. This has increased their ability to investigate complaints of maladministration by the glass those in the public sector (Walter and Gordon 2013). Management. Pacific leaders also recognise the penfield essay, crucial role that civil society has to play in fighting corruption with advocacy, education and community-focused outreach. For close to a decade, the in project management, New Zealand Aid Programme has provided support to TI chapters in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and creative Vanuatu.
Our support has focused on efforts to improve the culture of transparency through initiatives such as ethics training for law enforcement agencies (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). Sustainable economic and social development is almost impossible without capable and independent courts and law- enforcement agencies. Mba Dissertation In Project. These give people confidence that the communication master thesis, law is enforced fairly and free from political influence. Accordingly, we are assisting our Pacific Island neighbours to mba dissertation in project management strengthen their courts and intercultural master thesis police services. Five years ago, we began supporting the Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP) with Australia. This is in project management focused on strengthening the creative non fiction, professional competence of Pacific Island judicial officers and the court systems they use (PJDP 2015). Mba Dissertation. This work has contributed to more transparent decision making and enhanced judicial leadership. As a result of New Zealand’s support, 12 Pacific Island countries are now producing publicly available annual court reports. It has also helped to improve judicial knowledge and skills to address family violence and youth justice issues. New Zealand provides ongoing mentoring for Pacific judges, and funding to groups essay attend judicial conferences and other training opportunities through the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund (JPPF) activity (JPPF 2016). New Zealand also sends a number of its own judges on request to preside in courts across the mba dissertation in project management, Pacific – for instance, in Vanuatu (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2016).
The integrity and capability of police services are critical to maintaining the rule of law. The overwhelming majority of what is personal statement New Zealanders have tremendous respect for our police because we know they can be trusted to treat us fairly and in accordance with the law. New Zealand Police have been invited by a number of Pacific police services to provide technical services to their Pacific counterparts (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealand Police provide training and mentoring across the Pacific in prosecutions, community policing, human rights, ethics, leadership and road policing. These kinds of interventions build public trust in the police and add to management a culture of service, which is the front line against corruption (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealand’s reputation for fairness colours the interactions with our police deployed overseas. They carry their professionalism into foreign operations and we find they are welcomed and respected. This ensures that the work they are deployed to do is undertaken to a very high standard. As a country with solid anti-corruption foundations and a long history of is personal for college assisting our neighbours in building their own anti-corruption capacity, the in project management, most significant risk we face is complacency. While we currently suffer low levels of corruption, we need to proactively seek out and address potential vulnerabilities before corrupt practices can take hold. Master Thesis. With that in mind, in 2014, the Government moved to in project address a weakness in our companies’ registration laws.
These changes will prevent overseas criminals from using New Zealand’s registration systems to create shell companies (Parliamentary Counsel Office 2015). We also draw on the expertise of civil society and the private sector in the fight against corruption. The Serious Fraud Office (2014) worked with TI New Zealand and Business New Zealand to deliver free anti-corruption training, which teaches participants how to prevent bribery in their businesses and comply with anti-bribery laws. Recognising the menagerie vs. reality thesis, importance of mba dissertation management sport in our culture and master thesis the huge scope for management corrupt sporting practices, we passed a law in what 2014 to specifically criminalise match-fixing (New Zealand Parliament 2014). The new law provides that manipulation of sporting activities with intent to influence a betting outcome is a criminal activity. In Project Management. Vigilance and enforcement by the authorities have also increased in recognition of the growing nature of this threat. Preventing the damaging effects of corruption should be a critical priority and responsibility for any government. Politicians and public servants have to focus on groups, building and management maintaining strong, independent institutions to guard against corruption, as well as promoting a culture that makes it close to impossible for corrupt individuals to prosper or escape detection. As a country, we take great pride in our track record. Fire Escape. But we know we must remain committed to ensuring that corruption does not gain a foothold, and open to views on how to prevent it. As a small part of an increasingly connected international community, we must be open to sharing our successes and our failures in order to stamp out in project management corruption for good.
Constitutional Arrangements Committee. 2005. Inquiry to Review New Zealand’s Existing Constitutional Arrangements: Report of the Constitutional Arrangements Committee. Wellington: New Zealand House of Representatives, p.12. Gravitas Research and illusion vs. reality Strategy Ltd. 2015 (updated 2016). New Zealand Police Citizens’ Satisfaction Survey.
New Zealand: Gravitas, p.4. Available online. Independent Police Conduct Authority (IPCA). Mba Dissertation. 2015. Annual Report 2014–2015. Wellington: IPCA, p.4. Available online. Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. 2016. Welcome to the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund.
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Available online. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2016. Fire Escape Essay. Aid Partnership with Vanuatu. Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our- work-in-the-pacific/vanuatu/). Ministry of mba dissertation management Justice. 2013. Relevant Anti-corruption Legislation. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/publications/global- publications/s/saying-no-to-bribery-and-corruption- 2013-a-guide-for-new-zealand-businesses/relevant-anti- corruption-legislation).
Ministry of Justice. 2015a. Official Information Act 1982. Available online. Ministry of Justice. Essay. 2015b. Public Finance Act 1989. Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2016a. Waitangi Tribunal.
Available online. Ministry of Justice. Management. 2016b. The Treaty of Waitangi. Waitangi Tribunal. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/tribunals/waitangi-tribunal/ treaty-of-waitangi). New Zealand Parliament. 2014. Crimes (Match-fixing) Amendment Bill. Available online.
New Zealand Police. 2015. International Service Group. Available online. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. 2016. Help On My Homework. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. Available [online] (http://www.ocosec.org/). Pacific Association of Supreme Audit Institutions (PASAI). 2015. Annual Report for Year Ended 30 June 2015.
Available online. Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP). 2015. The Programme. Available online. Parliamentary Counsel Office. 2015. Companies Amendment Act 2014. Available [online] (http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2014/0046/latest/ DLM4094913.html). Serious Fraud Office.
10 June 2014. Helping New Zealand’s Fight Against Corruption. Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Mba Dissertation Management. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online.
Walter, G. and Gordon, J. 2013. Independent Review of the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance. Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our-approach-to-aid/evaluation-and-research/evaluation- reports-2013). Help On My Homework. 11. Management. Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong: Success in combating corruption – views on the Singaporean experience. Corruption is a scourge that can never be tolerated.
Countries have tried all ways to for college combat it. They create anti-corruption agencies. They pass strong laws. They promulgate codes of conduct for public officials. Companies pledge to conduct business cleanly. Yet often corruption remains endemic, a cancer in in project management the society. Help I Can On My. How then has Singapore achieved some measure of success in eradicating corruption? I put it down to mba dissertation in project four factors. First, we inherited a clean and working system from the British colonial government. We had many compelling reasons to want to social essay end colonial rule and to in project be masters of intercultural master our own destiny.
But to mba dissertation their credit, the British left Singapore with a working system and sound institutions – English laws, a working Civil Service, and an efficient and honest judiciary. Importantly, the Colonial Service officers upheld high standards. People like Sir William Goode, our last Governor and first Head of State, had a sense of social essay duty and mba dissertation in project management stewardship. After Singapore, Goode served as Governor of North Borneo, now the state of Sabah in Malaysia. He left an impression in North Borneo, as in focus Singapore.
Even a generation later, the people of Sabah still remembered him fondly. Second, when the British left, our pioneer leaders were determined to keep the system clean. The People’s Action Party (PAP) first came to power in 1959, when Singapore attained self-government. However, it was by no means a no- brainer for the PAP to fight to win the 1959 General Election. Mba Dissertation Management. The country faced a myriad of creative non fiction essay problems: poverty, poor public health, an acute housing shortage, a stagnant economy and management an exploding population. Social Groups. Did the PAP want to inherit these overwhelming problems? Why not become a strong opposition party, and let another party govern and fail? In the end, what decided the issue for Mr Lee Kuan Yew, our founding Prime Minister, and his team, was the overriding need to prevent the public service from mba dissertation in project going corrupt. One term of an creative essay incompetent, corrupt government and management Humpty Dumpty could never be put together again. So the PAP fought to win and formed the Government. When they took their oath of office, Mr Lee and his PAP colleagues wore white shirts and intercultural communication master thesis white trousers.
It symbolised their determination to keep the Government clean and incorruptible. That set the tone for Singapore ever since. Third, with strong political will, we institutionalised a robust, comprehensive anti-corruption framework that spans laws, enforcement, the public service and public outreach. We enacted the Prevention of Corruption Act (PCA), which puts the burden of proof on the accused to show that he or she acquired their wealth legally. Any unexplained wealth disproportionate to known sources of income is presumed to be from graft and can be confiscated. In Project. The PCA provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of groups essay Singaporean citizens overseas are treated the in project management, same as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether such corrupt acts have consequences for essay Singapore (Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau 2016a). Our anti-corruption agency, the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB), is well resourced and independent. It is empowered to investigate any person, even police officers and ministers, and conducts public outreach to raise public awareness and shape social norms (CPIB 2016b).
We pay public servants fair and realistic wages benchmarked to private sector earnings and, in return, demand the highest standards of integrity and performance. Fourth, we have over time developed a society and culture that eschews corruption. Singaporeans expect and demand a clean system. They do not condone giving or accepting ‘social lubricants’ to get things done. They readily report corrupt practices when they encounter them. Singaporeans trust that the law applies to all and management that the Government will enforce the laws without fear or favour, even when it may be awkward or embarrassing. Businesses have confidence that, in Singapore, rules are transparent and fairly applied.
The story is told of a businessman who visited Singapore from an Asian country used to different operating norms. He left puzzled and disturbed that he could not discover the homework, going rate for bribes to mba dissertation management officers at different levels of government. He concluded wrongly that the prices must be very high! Singapore has achieved some success eradicating corruption, but we are under no illusions that we have permanently and completely solved the problem. Corruption is driven by human nature and greed. However strict the rules and tight the system, some individuals will sometimes still be tempted to transgress. When they do, we make sure they are caught and severely dealt with.
Two years ago, we charged an Assistant Director from the CPIB itself with misappropriating (S)$1.7 million. We keep our system clean not just for ourselves, but also to uphold our international reputation. Thus we deal strictly also with those who use financial institutions in Singapore to launder money or transact ill-gotten gains from corruption. We are zealous in protecting the integrity of our financial centre and business hub. There is a Chinese proverb: ‘If the top beam is askew, the penfield fire escape essay, bottom beams will be crooked.’ Keeping a system clean must start at the very top.
A Singapore armed forces officer, on a course overseas, was once asked by his classmate how Singapore kept its system clean. He explained our arrangements and the central role of the management, CPIB. His classmate asked a follow-up question: but to whom does the CPIB report? The Singaporean ingenuously replied that the social groups essay, CPIB reported directly to the prime minister. This elicited further puzzlement. Much later the Singaporean understood why. The real question he was being asked was, who guards the mba dissertation in project, guardian? There is no formula to essay solve this ancient riddle, but we are determined to uphold the highest standards of integrity from the top level of the Government down. In 1996, rumours spread that Mr Lee Kuan Yew and I had received improper discounts on property purchases. The Prime Minister, then Mr Goh Chok Tong, ordered a full investigation, which found that there had been nothing improper.
He brought the mba dissertation in project, issue to Parliament, which held a full debate lasting three days (Parliament of Singapore 1996). Both Mr Lee and I spoke. In his statement Mr Lee Kuan Yew said, “I take pride and satisfaction that the question of my two purchases and those of the Deputy Prime Minister, my son, has been subjected to, and intercultural master thesis not exempted from, scrutiny … It is management most important that Singapore remain a place where no one is intercultural communication above scrutiny, that any question of integrity of a minister, however senior, that he has gained benefits either through influence or corrupt practices, be investigated” (National Archives of Singapore 1996). Trust is mba dissertation in project slow to build, but fast to lose. Statement. We have spent more than 50 years building up confidence in Singapore. The integrity of the Government, the system and the men and mba dissertation in project women in groups essay charge has been key to Singapore’s success.
We are determined that that integrity and reputation must never be undermined and will long remain a competitive edge and a source of in project pride for Singapore. Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). The Glass Menagerie Thesis. 2016a. Prevention of Corruption Act, Singapore. Available online.
Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016b. About CPIB. Available online. National Archives of Singapore. Mba Dissertation In Project. 21 May 1996. Penfield Escape Essay. Statement by Senior Minister Lee Kuan Yew Nassim Jade and Scotts 28.
Available online. Parliament of Singapore. Mba Dissertation In Project Management. 21–23 May 1996. Purchase of Properties by Senior Minister and Deputy Prime Minister BG Lee Hsien Loong (Statement by the Prime Minister). Social Groups. Available online. 12. Jim Yong Kim: How to tackle corruption to create a more just and mba dissertation prosperous world. Corruption poses an enormous obstacle to essay international development and the global goal of ending extreme poverty. 21 Using public power for private gain is also unjust. It denies resources to the poor, undermines the delivery of services to the vulnerable and management weakens the communication, social contract, leading to exclusion, instability and conflict. I am committed to fighting corruption, because it is the right thing to do and because it is critical to achieving the World Bank Group’s twin goals of ending extreme poverty by 2030 and boosting shared prosperity for the poorest 40%.
More than 50 years of development experience has taught us that we can achieve these targets through inclusive growth, investing in people’s health and education and insuring them against mba dissertation in project management risks, such as unemployment or illness, which threaten to plunge them into poverty. Intercultural. But wherever corruption occurs, pursuing this strategy becomes more difficult. In the Philippines, for example, corruption prevented the construction of mba dissertation in project management high-quality roads in some areas, making it harder for goods to social groups essay get to market and harming growth, incomes and job creation (World Bank 2011; Procurement Watch 2009). In Sierra Leone, it stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children, because nurses demanded rice in exchange for ‘free’ shots (World Bank 2012). In India, many poor people received less financial support from workfare initiatives because officials pocketed the proceeds (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014).
Some countries have experienced growing inequality and lost billions of dollars for public services because of corruption, undermining their very foundations. In Tunisia, former President Ben Ali and his extended family amassed an estimated fortune of mba dissertation management $13 billion after a quarter century in power. Non Fiction Essay. This amounted to more than a quarter of Tunisian gross domestic product (GDP) in 2011, the year he stepped down in mba dissertation in project management response to mass protests. There were also 220 domestic companies – responsible for at least 21% of the country’s net private sector profits – connected to the family of the President, who had enacted regulations that gave them unfair economic advantages (Rijkers, Freund and Nucifora 2011). During my tenure at the World Bank Group, I have seen that corruption affects countries regardless of development status and is often an international operation.
According to some estimates, businesses and individuals pay between $1.5 trillion and $2 trillion in bribes alone each year (Kaufmann 2015). This is about ten times the value of overseas development assistance or approximately 2% of global GDP. Both domestic firms and multinational corporations make payoffs to public officials in exchange for access to groups essay commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group and others have dedicated substantial effort to understanding and monitoring corruption, and developing experience and knowledge of how to tackle the mba dissertation in project management, problem. In 1996, at our annual meetings, one of my predecessors, James D. Essay. Wolfensohn, delivered a ground-breaking speech on the ‘cancer of corruption’. He seized the mba dissertation management, opportunity to take on an obstacle to reducing poverty that we, and others, had largely failed to address (Wolfensohn 1996). Since that time, the World Bank has taken a new approach. We have invested in anti-corruption programmes in more than 100 countries. Intercultural Communication Master. In 2007, we adopted an organisation-wide governance and anti-corruption strategy, which we updated in mba dissertation 2012. Today our global practices for Governance, and Finance and Markets, as well as our independent integrity group, spearhead work to share with clients our knowledge and experience in fighting corruption, though all parts of the essay, organisation take responsibility for fighting misconduct. The bedrock of our work must be a commitment to zero tolerance for corruption in our operations.
Last year, the World Bank Group committed grants and loans amounting to approximately $56 billion to mba dissertation in project management support projects, programmes and non fiction essay policies critical to reducing poverty and inequality in developing countries. In Project Management. Close scrutiny of how these funds are spent and sanctions for their misuse are critical to social essay ensuring that corruption does not undermine the intended outcome, whether it is raising farmers’ crop yields or improving students’ reading, writing and arithmetic skills. Working with developing countries, we assess project and loan plans for corruption risk, closely supervise activities and build in monitoring mechanisms, including hotlines to report misconduct. When alleged wrongdoing takes place, our independent integrity group investigates and takes vigorous action if it confirms corruption. We have excluded firms and individuals that engaged in misconduct from receiving contracts that we financed and compelled the return of misused financial support and the cancellation of contracts associated with tainted transactions. Last year, these efforts rooted out misconduct in connection with 61 projects worth more than $500 million (World Bank 2015). In one case, we uncovered that officials had defrauded a public administration reform project of $21 million using fake companies and invoices.
Our investigation has led to the recovery of stolen funds and in project the Government’s prosecution of its officials. Even with these successes, we understand that fighting corruption requires constant vigilance and that misconduct takes many forms and adapts to new opportunities. Still, evidence suggests that there are effective ways to make misconduct more difficult, punish wrongdoing, increase officials’ public accountability and change attitudes toward corrupt behaviour, especially among public servants and those who influence them. These actions, which I outline below, are helping countries make critical development strides, including building better roads, improving access to education and medicine, and providing the poor with sufficient support from i can focus homework social safety nets. 12.1 Fight corruption and increase accountability through greater transparency. Experience shows that providing citizens with access to information about government operations and public servants’ assets can be an effective way to prevent officials from abusing their power when avenues exist to make authorities answerable to the public. In 1997, the Ugandan Government found that schools did not receive 80% of their allocated funding because local officials diverted the support. Officials responded by publishing in local newspapers each school’s allocation, empowering administrators and in project parents to the glass menagerie illusion vs. reality demand that these transfers reach their schools. By 2001, schools reported receiving 80% of these allocations. A subsequent study concluded that the amount of funds that local officials diverted correlated to the distance of a school from a major town where there was a newspaper outlet (Reinikka and Svensson 2011). Making transparent the flow of mba dissertation in project royalties and other financial transactions between governments and corporations can also reduce corruption, especially in oil, gas and mining operations.
There are 31 countries, including many in Sub-Saharan Africa, that disclose all payments and receipts from oil, gas and mining operations as part of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). All 49 EITI member countries have committed to disclosing data on licences, contracts, production and other key operational aspects of natural resource extraction. The information that EITI distributes enables citizens and good government groups to monitor authorities’ relationships with extractive companies and hold officials accountable. In Nigeria, information that EITI published showed billions of dollars in underpayments by companies and essay their agents, sparking government efforts to recover missing funds to bolster public finances (EITI 2014). Disclosing information in connection with EITI has correlated with reduced perceptions of in project management corruption among businesses in help on my several countries, including Peru, where indicators for abuses of mba dissertation in project public power dropped by 14%. Greater confidence in good governance makes companies more likely to undertake the long-term investments necessary for natural resource extraction, suggesting that transparency contributes to economic growth, job creation and higher incomes.
12.2 Use new technologies to increase scrutiny. Evidence suggests that new, inexpensive ways of verifying identities and penfield fire essay executing payments using digital technology can reduce the impact of corruption on public service delivery to the poorest. In India, for example, some of its large social welfare programmes suffered from ineligible beneficiaries receiving payments and officials taking a cut of, or delaying, payments meant for management the poor. To combat these problems, the statement, government distributed smartcards based on the country’s biometric identification system to 19 million needy villagers in connection with the $5.5 billion National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme. This substantially reduced the role of officials in in project management the payment process, lessening the opportunities for misconduct. After two years, research showed that, when compared to other programme beneficiaries, smartcard recipients received 35% more money and obtained payments almost 30% faster (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014).
Technology has also helped promote accountability among public servants and government contractors. Help I Can Homework. In Pakistan, inspectors from some local education departments were failing to perform their duties to confirm teacher attendance in schools (Joseph 2015). Now they must take geo-tagged pictures of themselves on in project, the job, which has proved to be an effective way to hold the inspectors accountable for countering instructor absenteeism. Rates of teacher attendance – above 93% in 2015 – have increased every year since the illusion vs. reality, programme began and in project school-monitoring information is available to the public at http://open.punjab. gov.pk/schools. In Mindanao, a conflict-riddled region of the master, Philippines, geo-spatial tracking and digital photography have contributed to timely construction of mba dissertation in project management roads (Sta Ines 2014). Previously, security concerns limited inspections in the region, making it difficult to stop contractor non-performance. Help Homework. But now data and evidence of road construction in in project the Philippines is publicly available at www.openroads.gov.ph. Transportation infrastructure has improved, promoting the distribution of goods and economic activity. 12.3 Get citizens and companies involved. Initiatives that enable people and organisations to work with public officials to change how they deliver services have been shown to reduce corruption substantially. In the Dominican Republic, a participatory approach has increased people’s access to medicine and reduced wasteful public expenditure.
Until 2012, most medical facilities in the country purchased medicines without effective oversight, paying prices for drugs that were, on average, 722% higher than those at a small number of government-run pharmacies. Patients were forced to intercultural communication thesis absorb these high costs, because medicine buyers were receiving kickbacks from private suppliers (National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit 2013). In 2010, public officials, citizen groups, the private sector and mba dissertation in project others formed the Participatory Anti-Corruption Initiative. This forum allowed them to work together to tackle corruption and take on focus on my homework, powerful interest groups in many areas, including medicine procurement. By 2014, reforms in this area had lowered prices, improved medication quality and mba dissertation yielded savings of social groups essay $27 million compared to the previous year. Mba Dissertation Management. Public spending on drugs was reduced by 64%. Participatory governance also helped people in menagerie illusion thesis poor rural villages in Indonesia fight the high level of in project corruption under the Suharto Government that was a major factor in cutting off their communities from public services and economic opportunities.
In the late 1990s, a new programme empowered these villagers to direct public funding to their chosen infrastructure projects, promoting inclusive growth and helping to increase household consumption by more than 10%. Community oversight and financial audits have been critical to the glass menagerie vs. reality thesis the efficient expenditure of mba dissertation in project $3.6 billion on help i can on my homework, infrastructure, including the construction of 100,000 km of rural roads, 17,000 small bridges and 40,000 clean-water systems, and mba dissertation in project management the building or rehabilitation of 43,000 schools and health clinics. Crucially, the programme’s integrity and impact have established a constructive relationship between communities and public authorities, bolstering stability (Government of Indonesia 2012). 22. 12.4 Take on corruption at the global level. A comprehensive approach to tackling corruption needs to complement the domestic actions outlined above with cross- country collaboration to identify and prosecute misconduct and close loopholes that promote the use of public power for private gain. At present, developed and developing countries are not co-operating sufficiently to end the intercultural communication thesis, international catalysts for misconduct, with harmful consequences for developing countries’ fiscal wellbeing and development. International trade in merchandise has increased by more than 500% over the last 25 years. Trade as a share of world GDP has increased by half over this period, from 40% in 1990 to about 60% today. As economic activity has become more globalised, so has corruption.
Assets obtained through official misconduct are transferred abroad and the smuggling of illegal goods and even people is widespread. New avenues for wrongdoing have expanded the number and kinds of participants involved in mba dissertation management corruption, which now encompass counterfeiters, pirates and armed groups. Greater global trade has also created new opportunities to counter misconduct as more jurisdictions can take action to interfere with corrupt cross-border activity. Under the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC), developed and developing countries that have signed the accord are obligated to work with other countries to prosecute misconduct and assist with the fire escape, return of stolen assets (UNODC 2015). Mba Dissertation In Project Management. Still, in countries afflicted by significant corruption, prosecutors are often unable to communication master thesis investigate and in project management punish wrongdoing because of political interference or ineffectiveness.
Countries with more independent and essay robust legal systems can help. Legislation such as the UK’s Bribery Act 2010, the US’s Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and Brazil’s Clean Company Act give prosecutors the authority to mba dissertation in project pursue individuals or corporations who pay off foreign officials. In 2010, BAE Systems paid $400 million to the US Justice Department and ?30 million to help i can focus on my the UK Serious Fraud Office to settle bribery allegations arising out of the sale of equipment to Tanzania. Management. The UK Department for International Development used some of on my homework these funds to refurbish classrooms in, and provide teaching materials to Tanzanian primary schools in co-ordination with national authorities (Gray, Hansen, Recica-Kirkbride and in project management Mills 2014, p. 6). Other countries’ punishment of the penfield essay, cross-border laundering of corruption’s proceeds is also important to making misconduct less lucrative. In 2014, for example, Teodoro Obiang, the mba dissertation in project, son of what Equatorial Guinea’s long-time leader, was forced to pay $30 million to settle US Government allegations that he had used money stolen from in project his country to buy a California mansion, a Ferrari and i can homework Michael Jackson memorabilia (US Justice Department 2014).
Prosecutors’ willingness to use their powers to pursue foreign corruption is having a substantial impact on misconduct. Increasing legal liability for engaging in bribery or money laundering forces firms to ensure that neither their employees nor their contractors’ employees engage in corruption. The cost of fines, reputational damage and lost business opportunities can be substantial. In 2008, Siemens AG agreed to pay $1.6 billion to mba dissertation the US Government and i can homework establish a $100 million anti-corruption fund at the World Bank Group to mba dissertation management settle charges that it paid bribes to public officials in connection with its international business (World Bank 2009). Domestic firms that show they comply with anti-corruption requirements create a competitive advantage as trusted partners for global supply chains and are likely to see an increase in commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group provides advisory services to help firms establish anti-corruption policies, yet more must be done to provide information to potential partners so that investments in compliance and ethical business practices become a source of competitive advantage and profit.
Sharing information among countries is i can focus on my also critical to tracking, investigating and prosecuting misconduct. However, many countries’ laws make it difficult to provide ownership information across national jurisdictions, preventing investigators from tracing cross-border asset transfers and mba dissertation in project management identifying their beneficiaries. In addition, some still have bank secrecy laws or permit opaque corporate structures that create safe havens for the proceeds of corruption. The Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative, which is a partnership between the World Bank Group and the United Nations Office on intercultural thesis, Drugs and Crime (UNODC), is mba dissertation in project management working to remove these obstacles to investigation and what is personal prosecution by proposing law and policy changes, providing expert advice on bringing cases and fostering co-operation across jurisdictions. International co-operation is also vital to reducing illicit international trade, a scourge in mba dissertation management its own right and a source of bribes to customs officials. The Glass Menagerie Thesis. Human trafficking destroys people’s wellbeing and promotes crime and instability. Trade in mba dissertation in project management products resulting from illegal logging, fishing and hunting often damages the i can on my, environment and mba dissertation management economic growth. In Kenya, for example, outlawed commerce in ivory and endangered species has significantly harmed the tourism sector (UNWTO 2015). Countries can fight illegal trade and the corruption it creates by making information on customs payments and the value of trade among them readily available.
Governments can also pass laws that force companies and countries to prove the legitimacy of their products now that technology enables the easy creation of a chain of custody for goods through the use of microchips and creative essay satellite tracking. Enforcing restrictions that make illegally sourced products unsellable eliminates the incentive to bribe officials. Harmonising cross-border trade rules related to customs, taxation and in project other fiscal matters can also reduce the economic benefit of a variety of corrupt activities. For example, when regional trade partners impose similar duties on goods such as tobacco and gasoline, smuggling becomes less profitable, reducing bribery. When governments empower companies to extract their countries’ natural resources, some of these corporations exploit differences in the glass thesis how countries tax corporate profits to management reduce their tax burden through practices such as abusive transfer pricing, which fraudulently shifts the location of profits to jurisdictions where tax rates are lower. Other large firms use their economic power to secure tax concessions and help on my homework licences from weak governments. Even though these behaviours can deprive poor countries of resources critical to their development, we have little ability to stop them because our understanding of their scale and dynamics is poor. Mba Dissertation In Project. When political elites collude with firms to rig these government licences and regulations to their benefit, public officials also create a business climate that favours politically influential firms, stifling competition, slowing innovation and reducing economic growth. The World Bank Group is working at menagerie illusion vs. reality multiple levels to make international trade less vulnerable to this kind of illegitimate activity.
In co-operation with the United Nations (UN) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), we are helping governments crack down on abusive transfer pricing using a toolkit that enables authorities to mba dissertation in project evaluate companies’ tax reporting, especially in the extractives sector. With the penfield fire essay, International Monetary Fund (IMF), we have established an initiative to help developing countries strengthen their tax systems, which will help make collection more efficient and mba dissertation management policies fairer, and improve authorities’ ability to detect tax evasion. Analysis suggests that, with balanced tax systems, many lower-income countries can increase revenues from help i can homework 2% to mba dissertation in project management 4% of GDP (IMF 2011). Creative. Our support to management countries such as Colombia and Ghana has already increased revenues and reduced tax evasion. Despite these efforts, corruption remains a serious obstacle to development. Corruption can inhibit inclusive growth and what job creation, stand in management the way of new mothers and the glass menagerie illusion infants living healthy lives and in project management prevent the vulnerable from receiving the help i can focus on my, social assistance they need. Government authority must be used for public good – not private gain – if we are to fulfil our responsibilities as public servants and achieve our development goals.
The World Bank Group is fully engaged in developing solutions that are equal to this challenge. As its President, I am committed to in project management ensuring that our own policies and practices align with fighting corruption. The organisation is sharing the best global knowledge of non fiction essay what does and does not work to mba dissertation stop misconduct, from transparency and incentives to collective action and partnerships. We are helping countries take on corruption at thesis the international level so they set rules that make it easier to trace assets and share information across jurisdictions, identify and prosecute corruption wherever it takes place, and promote fair and honest global competition. Still, the mba dissertation management, international community must do more across all of i can on my these areas. For example, we must produce comprehensive information about cross-border financial activities such as tax evasion, smuggling and trafficking in stolen goods and money laundering. Governments must evaluate the effectiveness of their anti-corruption efforts based on their work’s impact on contributors to economic growth and mba dissertation management development, such as the quality of public services, social safety nets and the investment climate. We must fight corruption in communities, countries and globally. I strongly support leaders’ efforts to take on entrenched interests that force the essay, poor to pay bribes or waste public resources. I will praise the courageous anti- corruption work of governments and their partners publicly and the World Bank Group will continue to help finance these efforts.
We are committed to supporting bold actions, because the use of public power for private gain is morally wrong and, as the evidence shows, prevents the poor from reaching their full potential. Mba Dissertation. There can be no doubt: tackling corruption is penfield critical to creating a more just and prosperous world. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). 2014. Nigeria: Recovering Missing Payments, EITI Progress Report 2014: Making Transparency Matter. Norway: EITI. Available online. In Project. Government of Indonesia. 2012. PNPM Rural Impact Evaluation April 2012. Jakarta: PNPM Support Facility.
Gray, L., Hansen, K., Recica-Kirkbride, P. and Mills, L. 2014. Few and Far: The Hard Facts on creative, Stolen Asset Recovery. Washington DC: The World Bank, OECD and UNODC, p. 6. International Monetary Fund – Fiscal Affairs Department. 2011. Revenue Mobilization in Developing Countries. International Monetary Fund, pp. 1–85. Available online. Joseph, M. Mba Dissertation In Project. S. Communication Master Thesis. 2015. MIT Technology Review (Pakistan): Pakistan takes the lead in the neighbourhood. Available online.
Kaufmann, D. 2015. Corruption Matters. Finance Development. International Monetary Fund. September 2015, pp. 20–23. In Project. Available online. Muralidharan, K., Niehaus, P. and Sukhtankar, S. 2014. Building State Capacity: Evidence from Biometric Smartcards in India. National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). Working Paper No.
19999, pp. 1–53. Available online. National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit (UNGM), Directorate for Regional Health Service Development and Strengthening. 2013. Technical Report: Baseline Study of the Status of the Supply of Medicines and Medical Supplies in Specialized Health Care Centers in the Dominican Republic. Dominican Republic: UNGM. Essay. Olken, B. 2007. Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia. Mba Dissertation In Project Management. Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200–248.
Procurement Watch Inc (PWI). 2009. A Study of intercultural Anti- Corruption Initiatives in the Philippines’ Construction Sector. Pasig City: PWI. Available online. Mba Dissertation In Project. Reinikka, R. and creative essay Svensson, J. 2011. The Power of mba dissertation in project Information in Public Services: Evidence from Education in Uganda. Journal of Public Economics, (95), pp. 956–966. Rijkers, B., Freund, C. and Nucifora, A. 2011.
All in is personal for college the Family: State Capture in mba dissertation management Tunisia. Policy Research Working Paper 6810. World Bank, pp. 1–46. Available online. Sta Ines, N. I Can. 2014. Geotagging in Isolated Areas, Philippines.
In: S. Mba Dissertation In Project Management. Lippman, ed. Essay. Procurement for Complex Situations Challenge – Competition Winners. Washington DC: World Bank, pp. 1–5. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against in project management Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available online. United Nations – World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). 2015.
Towards Measuring the Economic Value of Wildlife Watching Tourism in Africa. Spain: UNWTO. US Justice Department. 10 October 2014. Second Vice President of Equatorial Guinea Agrees to Relinquish More Than $30 Million of Assets Purchased with Corruption Proceeds. Intercultural Communication. Available [online] (https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/second-vice-president- equatorial-guinea-agrees-relinquish-more-30-million- assets-purchased). Wolfensohn, J. D. 1 October 1996.
Annual Meetings Address. [online]. Available online. The World Bank. 2 July 2009. Siemens to pay $100m to mba dissertation in project management fight corruption as part of WBG Settlement.
Available [online] (https://star.worldbank.org/corruption-cases/sites/ corruption-cases/files/Siemens_World_Bank_Settlement_ WB_PR_Jul_2_2009.pdf). The World Bank, Integrity Vice Presidency. 2011. Curbing Fraud, Corruption, and the glass illusion vs. reality thesis Collusion in the Road Sector. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. The World Bank. 2012. Legal Vice Presidency Annual Report FY 2012: The Framework for management Accountability within the World Bank. Report No.
75111. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. The World Bank. 2015. What For College. The World Bank Group Integrity Vice Presidency Annual Update, Fiscal Year 2015. Washington DC: World Bank. Mba Dissertation Management. Available online.
13. Christine Lagarde: Addressing corruption – openly. Traditionally, public officials have been somewhat nervous about discussing corruption openly. Over the past several years, however, I have been struck by the extent to which world leaders are now willing to talk candidly about this problem. It is not just that the economic costs have become self-evident. It is also because there is an increasing demand for change. In a recent global survey, corruption was regarded as the what statement, ‘topic most frequently discussed by the public’, ahead of poverty and unemployment (survey cited by Klitgaard 2015, p. 15). Mba Dissertation. Given that both poverty and thesis unemployment can be symptoms of chronic corruption, my view is that the priority given to this problem by the public is entirely justified. In this essay, I would like to share the IMF’s perspective on the economic impact of corruption and our experience in helping countries design and implement strategies to address it.
I recognise that there are many possible definitions of corruption, both broad and narrow. Management. For the illusion vs. reality, purposes of this essay, which is focused on the public sector, corruption includes any abuse of public office – whether it arises from financial incentives or political interference. I would like to mba dissertation management make three main points. First, while the direct economic costs of corruption are well known, the indirect costs may be even more substantial and debilitating, leading to low growth and greater income inequality. Corruption also has a broader corrosive impact on penfield fire essay, society. Mba Dissertation In Project. It undermines trust in government and help focus on my erodes the ethical standards of private citizens. Second, although corruption is an extraordinarily complex phenomenon, I do not accept the proposition – or the myth – that it is primarily a ‘cultural’ problem that will always take generations to address. There are examples of countries that have managed to make significant progress in addressing it in a relatively short time. Third, experience demonstrates that a holistic, multi- faceted approach is needed – one that establishes appropriate incentives and the rule of law, promotes transparency and introduces economic reforms that reduce opportunities for illicit behaviour.
Perhaps the most important ingredient for mba dissertation in project management a successful anti-corruption approach is the development of strong institutions, centred on a professional civil service that is what is personal sufficiently independent from management both private influence and political interference. 13.1 The economic and social costs. Corruption afflicts countries at all stages of development. Indeed, some developing countries score better on what statement for college, corruption indices than many advanced countries. While there are no recent studies that quantify the overall global scale of corruption, a sense of how big a problem it is can be gauged from an estimate of the amount paid in bribes every year.
A recently updated estimate points to $1.5 trillion to $2 trillion (or around 2% of global gross domestic product [GDP]) in bribes paid annually in both developing and developed countries. 23 Given that bribes are just a subset of all of the possible forms of corruption, the overall cost of corruption – in terms both of mba dissertation in project management tangible losses and of lost opportunities – is on my a very high amount. The direct economic costs of corruption are easily recognised by the general public. Two very clear examples are bribes given in order to evade taxes or to bypass public tender procurement. The first example results in a direct loss of public revenues; the second may result in both higher public expenditure and lower-quality public investment. Corruption has a pernicious effect on the economy. Pervasive corruption makes it harder to conduct sound fiscal policy.
For example, in data covering a range of countries, we find that low tax compliance is positively associated with corruption. By delegitimising the tax system and its administration, corruption increases tax evasion: if the granting of a tax exemption is perceived to in project be the product of a bribe, it is penfield essay not surprising that the public are far less willing to comply with the tax laws. 24. Corruption also undermines certain types of public expenditure to the detriment of economic performance. In Project. For example, it is intercultural communication associated with lower outlays on education and skewed public investment, driven by the capacity to mba dissertation generate ‘commissions’ rather than by economic justification (Mauro 1998). Penfield Fire Escape. 25 The distortion in public investment spending is particularly harmful given the importance of promoting efficient public investment as a means of reducing infrastructure gaps and promoting growth.
The indirect economic costs of corruption may be even more consequential. 26 Clearly, causation is mba dissertation management difficult to for college establish and, in quantitative analysis, a significant effect of corruption on growth has not been found (Svensson 2005). Nevertheless, in comparative studies of national data, corruption is associated with a number of key indicators. Countries with low per capita income tend to have higher corruption and countries with higher corruption tend to have lower growth. Studies have identified different ways in which corruption could affect growth. First, corruption tends to impede both foreign and domestic investment. The higher costs associated with corruption are a form of tax on investment that, in turn, translates into less investment in business research and development and product innovation. In Project. Moreover, by creating uncertainty as to how the regulatory framework will be applied, it increases the ‘country risk’ associated with a particular investment project.
27 More generally, corruption generates an unfavourable business climate in which the creation of new enterprises is stifled, reducing the i can focus, economy’s dynamism. 28. Second, corruption undercuts savings. The illegal use of management public funds to acquire assets abroad shrinks the social groups essay, economy’s pool of savings that could otherwise be used for investment. Finally, corruption can perpetuate inefficiency. Because an mba dissertation management over-regulated economy provides opportunities for regulators to demand bribes, corruption creates a strong incentive to delay economic liberalisation and innovation.
The impact of corruption on social outcomes is also consequential. Social spending on education and health is typically lower in corrupt systems. This, in the glass menagerie illusion vs. reality thesis turn, leads to higher child and infant mortality rates, lower birth-weights, less access to education and mba dissertation in project higher school dropout rates (Gupta, Davoodi and Tiongson 2002). These outcomes disproportionately affect the poor, since they rely more heavily on government services, which become more costly due to corruption. Moreover, corruption reduces the income-earning potential of the poor as they are less well-positioned to take advantage of it. Creative Essay. For all these reasons, corruption exacerbates income inequality and poverty (Gupta, Davoodi and Alonso-Terme 2002). Corruption also breeds public distrust in in project government. It undermines the state’s capacity to raise revenue and to perform its functions as a supplier of public goods and services, regulator of markets and agent for non fiction essay society’s redistributive goals. Where powerful business elites collude to control public institutions, corruption results in in project management state capture and what for college the ‘the privatisation of public policy’. The fallouts are all too clear: higher inequality in political influence, deterioration of public values and, ultimately, a diminution in the overall quality of life.
These non-economic costs create a vicious cycle of underperformance in the public sector that is harmful to the economy in the long term. The moral fabric of society is also put at mba dissertation risk. It is not just that bribery becomes part of intercultural master one’s everyday life. In a society where success is more likely to depend on who you know rather than on personal merit, the mba dissertation in project management, incentives for young people to pursue higher education are undermined. 13.2 Strategies for i can on my addressing corruption. Given the potential impact of corruption on macroeconomic stability and sustainable economic growth, the mba dissertation management, IMF has been actively engaged in helping our members design and implement anti-corruption strategies. Master Thesis. In 1997, the Fund adopted a policy on governance that provides guidance on the nature of its involvement in circumstances where issues of governance, including corruption, are judged to have a significant macroeconomic impact. Since that time, we have gained considerable experience in helping members design and implement anti-corruption strategies.
This is particularly important in the context of economic crises, where effective anti-corruption measures are critical to restore confidence. In some cases, the problem has been so severe that the Fund had no choice but to withhold support until a credible reform strategy was in place. Clearly, any anti-corruption strategy must be tailored to the circumstances of the particular country. Yet we have found that success requires the existence of in project management a number of mutually supporting features, which are briefly summarised here. 13.3 Creating the right incentives. For College. As has been noted by one expert in this area, “Corruption is an economic crime, not a crime of passion. Givers and mba dissertation in project takers of bribes respond to incentives and punishments” (Klitgaard 2015, p. 37). A number of instruments – broadly characterised as disciplinary in nature (sticks) – can enhance individual accountability. Other instruments provide positive reinforcement (carrots). Illusion. The Fund’s experience is that an effective anti-corruption approach needs both positive and deterrent measures. Strengthening the rule of law is critical to increasing individual accountability.
The Fund has taken an mba dissertation in project management active role – including through its conditionality – to strengthen legal frameworks that are designed to increase such accountability. For example, Ukraine’s current Fund-supported programme provides for the enhancement of legislation in a number of areas, including, in particular, the law on creative essay, corruption. However, unless legislation is effectively enforced, it will not be credible in deterring corruption. Without effective law enforcement institutions – the police and other investigatory services, the public prosecutor’s office and, ultimately, the mba dissertation management, courts – even the most robust legal framework will be ineffective. So, the greatest challenge arises when corruption has permeated society to the point that these institutions themselves have become compromised. What Statement For College. In these cases, it may be necessary to create specialised ‘bridging’ institutions in the hope that they can more effectively fight corruption, including in the traditional law enforcement institutions, while broader institutional reform is implemented. These ‘bridging’ institutions include independent anti-corruption commissions and specialised anti-corruption courts such as those currently being established in Ukraine and the earlier ones in Indonesia (IMF 2015b; IMF 2004). In this context, the Fund has found that the establishment of Anti-Money Laundering Frameworks is central to the fight against corruption. Requiring banks to report on mba dissertation in project management, suspicious transactions provides a very effective means of deterring criminal activities. The fact that these laws generally require even closer scrutiny of transactions conducted by ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEP) makes them particularly relevant to the glass menagerie illusion vs. reality thesis an anti-corruption strategy. Beyond the enforcement measures discussed above, an mba dissertation in project management effective anti-corruption policy must also rely on transparency.
Transparency shines a spotlight on government decisions and transactions, enabling citizens to monitor the actions of their governments which, in what statement for college turn, deters corrupt behaviour. Publicising instances of corruption and the efforts taken to address them also serves as a disincentive to engage in corrupt activities and shores up public trust in government. For these reasons, the Fund has been actively engaged in in project promoting greater transparency in the overall economic and regulatory environment. We have developed standards and codes of best practices in areas such as data dissemination, fiscal transparency and i can on my homework monetary and financial policies (IMF 1997). Management. 29 Promoting transparency in the extractive industries is another area that the homework, Fund has actively pursued in its technical assistance work. Under the aegis of the management, Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI), a template is now available for reporting and monitoring government revenues from natural resources. Transparency can only go so far. It needs accountability for it to become a powerful deterrent against corruption. It is critical that public officials and help i can focus on my homework institutions be assigned with specific mandates and tasks upon which they are expected to deliver.
Moreover, oversight mechanisms are needed to ensure that officials and institutions are delivering as expected. This is why the Fund has actively supported its members in strengthening those institutions that exercise oversight powers in management the management of public funds and in enhancing the financial accountability of state-owned enterprises. It has also provided technical assistance to help members monitor the what for college, use of public resources and in project management consolidate extra-budgetary funds into the budget. Even well-meaning public officials will be tempted by social groups essay corruption if they cannot earn a living wage. Research shows a correlation between increases in wages and improvements in a country’s ranking on in project management, the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Van Rijckeghem and Weder 2002). This is why Fund- supported programmes have sometimes included increases in public salaries as part of an anti-corruption approach (IMF 2006). That said, there are two critical considerations. First, the remuneration of the public sector needs to be transparent and meritocratic; otherwise, it will be perceived as merely an instrument of political patronage.
Second, studies show that an increase in remuneration will have little effect unless accompanied by clear signals that public officials will lose their jobs if they are caught engaging in corrupt acts. 13.4 Economic liberalisation and effective regulation. As I have indicated, one of the costs of menagerie illusion vs. reality thesis corruption is that regulators seeking bribes through approval processes have an incentive to delay the type of economic liberalisation that fosters sustainable growth. Wherever discretion is mba dissertation in project management granted to an official regarding the approval of an economic activity, there is a risk that this discretion will be abused. Appropriately designed liberalisation can therefore be a powerful anti-corruption instrument. As part of its core mandate, the Fund has been actively engaged in encouraging liberalisation of trade, price and financial systems.
We have also advocated free and fair market-entry regulations, as well as good statistics and transparency. Importantly, where liberalisation involves privatisation, it is critical that safeguards – such as adequate and transparent procedures – are in place so that the sale of assets is not compromised by corruption. Of course, experience demonstrates that regulation in a market economy is essential for both sustained growth and financial stability. Penfield Escape Essay. The challenge, however, is to design regulatory frameworks that balance the benefits of regulation while minimising opportunities for abuse of discretion. 30 For this reason, in its core areas of expertise, the Fund has promoted the adoption of rules, procedures and criteria that are as targeted, clear, simple and mba dissertation management transparent as possible. These areas include public expenditure management, tax policy and administration, banking and communication master foreign exchange systems, and in project management data management (IMF 1997). 13.5 The role of the intercultural communication, private sector.
When people complain about corruption, they sometimes forget – perhaps conveniently – that for every bribe taken by a public official, one is given by a member of the private sector. Clearly then, addressing the behaviour of the management, private sector needs to be a key component of any effective anti- corruption strategy. How can this be done? In some cases, this means using enforcement measures. For example, in those countries where bribery is a common way of facilitating foreign investment, it is critical that the country of the foreign investor enforces laws that prohibit foreign corrupt practices. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Convention on creative, Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in management International Business Transactions can be invoked in help focus on my homework this effort (OECD 1997).
However, experience also shows that the private sector can become effective partners in combating corruption. It is sometimes said that business might benefit from corruption by virtue of the fact that it can ‘grease the wheels’ of a rigid and inefficient bureaucracy. I disagree with that proposition. Based on my own experience, investors actually seek out countries that can give them the assurance that, once an investment is made, they will not be blackmailed into in project providing bribes. Because corruption creates an enormous amount of unpredictability for businesses, anti-corruption strategies can be designed to solicit their support. I find Indonesia’s experience of implementing that partnership particularly illuminating. At a recent seminar hosted by the IMF on the topic, Sri Mulyani Indrawati, Indonesia’s former Minister of help i can on my Finance (and currently Chief of Operations at mba dissertation in project the World Bank), described how she successfully partnered with businesses to provide a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for their commitment not to offer any bribes to officials – ‘new rules of the game’. Social. 31. The ‘new rules of the game’ concept has underpinned several technical assistance activities by the Fund and the World Bank. In reforming tax agencies in Bolivia, Bulgaria, Indonesia, Myanmar, Peru, Poland and Senegal, Large or Medium Taxpayers’ Offices (LTOs and MTOs) were established to in project management deal with a select group of taxpayers under streamlined conditions. Beyond the business community, civil society also has a role to play.
Through the use of social media, civil society can become a powerful force in combating corruption. Penfield Escape Essay. In addition to being a very effective means of in project monitoring government activities, social media can also greatly enhance the credibility of an the glass vs. reality anti-corruption campaign by linking new institutions that have a specific mandate in this area. 32. 13.6 Building values and mba dissertation in project institutions. When dealing with corruption, a robust framework of incentives and a well-calibrated economic liberalisation cannot be substitutes for what statement strong values and effective institutions. Of course, developing values at a personal and institutional level may seem beyond the control of any government. It is clearly not something that can be legislated.
Yet unless public officials take pride in their work – and their independence from both political and private influence – all other efforts will fail. Building values among public officials requires sustained public education. Formal training can help but, ultimately, values are most effectively instilled through the education framework, societal pressure and – as I will discuss further below – the example of leaders. Mba Dissertation. The key objective is to fire escape essay develop a cadre of public officials who are – and are perceived to be – independent from both private influence and political interference. This is the single most important feature of a strong institution. Mba Dissertation In Project Management. Indeed, it has been noted that one way to assess the strength of an institution is to assess the extent to creative non fiction essay which key employees are replaced at the time of in project management elections.
There are other factors that lend support to effective operation, some of which – such as rules that establish transparency and clear accountability – have already been mentioned. An area in which the Fund has been particularly active is the menagerie illusion vs. reality thesis, establishment of in project management legislative and institutional frameworks that strengthen the independence, integrity and governance of central banks, including through the Fund’s ‘safeguards assessments’. A recent example has been work in Tunisia in support of the Central Bank, which strengthened its independence, internal control mechanisms and powers. Of course, enhancing the overall technical competence of officials who work in these institutions is also critical. For this reason, the Fund has invested considerable resources in help i can capacity-building in a broad range of areas, from public finance management to the strengthening of the financial intelligence units, that are responsible for mba dissertation applying anti- money laundering laws. Developing professional institutions that do not become excessively politicised is critical. Yet the irony is that in circumstances where institutions have been completely compromised by master corruption, active and sustained political will is essential. Powerful vested interests can only mba dissertation, be effectively challenged when a country’s top leadership sends a clear signal that they are committed to what for college do so.
In some cases, this may require wholesale dismissals within an mba dissertation management agency that has a reputation for corrupt practices. Prosecuting the powerful ‘big fish’ – which is necessary in order to fire essay send a clear signal of commitment and change – can only in project management, be achieved if a country’s leaders visibly support the process. Moreover, political leaders play a unique role in setting an example of intercultural communication master thesis professional integrity. Lee Kuan Yew is a leader who was very effective in both signalling a zero- tolerance policy towards corruption and building competent institutions at a time when corruption was pervasive in Singapore. Although active and sustained political leadership is critical to the success of any anti-corruption campaign, it is important that reforms in this area are not hijacked to implement a political agenda. One way of assessing whether anti-corruption efforts are credible is to management note whether enforcement is limited to the prosecution of political rivals, or instead also extends to the government’s political supporters.
In addition, care should be taken to ensure that an anti- corruption campaign does not create such fear that public officials are reluctant to perform their duties. For example, in circumstances where state-owned banks have extended a loan to a company that has become insolvent, it is often in the interest of the bank, the debtor and the economy more generally to restructure the loan (which might include principal write-downs) in a manner that enables the non fiction essay, company to return to viability. Yet the Fund’s experience has been that, in some countries, the mba dissertation, managers of state-owned banks are simply afraid to engage in such negotiations. They fear that, if they agree to any debt write-down, they will be prosecuted under the country’s corruption law for what statement for college having wasted state assets – even though a restructuring might actually enhance the value of the in project management, bank’s claim relative to the alternative, the liquidation of the company. Finally, although regulatory reform can promote simplicity and automaticity, there are certain functions, such as bank supervision, where discretion will always be essential. For these reasons, regulatory reform cannot be a substitute for i can focus homework the development of mba dissertation management effective institutions. As the head of an intergovernmental organisation, I recognise that there may be considerable sensitivity about the IMF shining a spotlight on corruption. At the same time, the alternative – turning a blind eye to the problem – is not a viable option.
As is recognised under its existing policies, it is not tenable for the IMF to assess a member’s economic prospects exclusively through the lens of monetary, fiscal or financial sector policies, when the help i can focus on my homework, problem of corruption is endemic and mba dissertation in project management has a major impact on economic performance. In such cases, the Fund will continue to engage constructively with its members in designing and implementing anti-corruption strategies, drawing upon its cross-country experience, while partnering with other international organisations that have proven expertise in this area. Creative Non Fiction. Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Alonso-Terme, R. In Project. 2002. Does Corruption Affect Income Inequality and essay Poverty? Economics of Governance, (3), pp. 23–45. In Project Management. Available online. Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Tiongson, E. 2002. Corruption and the Provision of Health Care and Education Services. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds.
Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 245– 279. Available online. IMF. 2 July 1997. The Role of the Fund in Governance Issues – Guidance Note. News Brief, No.
97/15. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2004. Legal, Judicial and Governance Reforms Indonesia. Indonesia: Selected Issues, IMF Country Report No. Is Personal Statement For College. 04/189. Washington DC: IMF. In Project Management. Available online. Communication. IMF.
2006. Islamic Republic of Mauritania: 2006 Article IV Consultation – Staff Report. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2015a. Current Challenges in management Revenue Mobilization. Intercultural Communication. Washington DC: IMF. Mba Dissertation In Project Management. IMF.
12 March 2015b. Ukraine – Request for Extended Arrangement. Menagerie Illusion Vs. Reality Thesis. IMF Country Report No. 15/69. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. In Project Management. IMF. 2015c. Republic of Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation. Country Report No. 15/32.
Washington DC: IMF. Available online. What Statement For College. Kaufmann, D. 2005. Myths and Realities of Governance and mba dissertation Corruption. Washington DC: World Bank, pp. 81–98. Available online. Intercultural Master Thesis. Klitgaard, R. 2015.
Addressing Corruption Together. Paris: OECD. Available online. Mauro, P. 1998. Corruption and the Composition of Government Expenditure. Journal of Public Economics, (69), pp. 263–279. Available online. OECD. 1997. Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in mba dissertation International Business Transactions. [online].
Paris: OECD Publishing. The Glass Menagerie Vs. Reality Thesis. Available online. Svensson, J. 2005. Eight Questions about Corruption. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19(3), pp. Mba Dissertation In Project Management. 19–42. Available online. Van Rijckeghem, C. and Weder, B. 2002. Bureaucratic Corruption and the Rate of Temptation: Do Wages in the Civil Service Affect Corruption and by How Much?
In: G. T. Abed and creative essay S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 59–88. Available online. 14. Angel Gurria: How to battle 21st-century corruption. Over the in project management, last two decades, we have made great progress in taking the fight against corruption to the highest global and political levels.
Many governments have strengthened their anti-corruption regulations, enforcement capacity and what is personal wider governance. Several high-profile corruption cases have seen justice served. The international community has increased its support for anti-corruption programmes around the world. And today there are various multilateral anti-corruption conventions in place at the global and regional levels, together with numerous non-legally binding international and regional initiatives. The OECD, working closely with its partners, has been prominent in this fight: setting standards across a range of areas from foreign bribery to public sector integrity, as well as on related issues such as tax evasion and bid rigging. And these initiatives have made a difference. Yet despite this progress, we’re still not winning the bigger battle against corruption.
Recent scandals involving national leaders and in project management major corporations, the ongoing investigations into the sports sector, and the growing threat of terrorism and help i can focus homework its links to corruption, also remind us that we need to do more, much more. At the OECD, we believe that corruption’s harmful effects on growth, equality and trust are too big to ignore, and mba dissertation in project make tackling corruption not only a moral imperative but also an social groups economic, social and political necessity. Corruption allows for the financing of mba dissertation in project wars; it helps to smuggle people, guns and menagerie illusion thesis drugs; it channels public and private funds into illicit activities; and it undermines collective action against mba dissertation management climate change and poverty. Furthermore, because of increased global interconnectedness, the social groups, mechanisms and in project management vehicles of corruption are becoming more sophisticated and difficult to trace. In this essay, I argue that, to deal with corruption and menagerie the devastation it causes, the international community must build coherent systems that focus on all stages of the anti-corruption process from prevention to detection and enforcement and, at the same time, ensure effective implementation by both governments and corporations. And we must boost global collaboration by fully engaging all countries – in the developed and mba dissertation the developing world – in the fight against corruption. 14.1 Significant progress has been made on tackling transnational bribery.
Not so long ago, transnational bribery was considered a regular part of business and bribes were treated as a tax-deductible expense. In 1999, the OECD Convention on penfield escape, Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions entered into in project force. The Convention made it illegal for citizens and i can businesses of signatory countries to bribe foreign public officials while doing business abroad and our work continues to mba dissertation in project management ensure it is fully effective (OECD 1997). As such, the OECD Working Group on Bribery has established a rigorous monitoring and evaluation system to ensure that governments stick to i can on my homework their commitments (OECD 2015a). The private sector and management civil society play an integral role in social groups essay the group’s activities, providing input to regular consultations and the on-site visits that form part of a country’s evaluation. The Convention has helped governments to push the fight against bribery up the agenda.
Many of the mba dissertation in project, 41 countries that make up the OECD Working Group on Bribery (which comprises all OECD countries and seven non-OECD countries) have made radical changes to their laws and institutions to comply with the Convention. One of the most recent and intercultural communication thesis successful examples is the UK Bribery Act 2010, which entered into in project management force in 2011. I Can. Between 1999 and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for mba dissertation foreign bribery in 17 countries (OECD 2014). At least $5.4 billion was imposed in combined monetary sanctions and vs. reality thesis 95 people put behind bars (OECD 2014). The 2014 OECD Foreign Bribery Report showed that, among the mba dissertation, 427 foreign bribery cases concluded, almost two- thirds of cases occurred in just four sectors: extractive (19%); construction (15%); transportation and storage (15%); and information and communication (10%). In the penfield, majority of cases, bribes were paid to obtain public procurement contracts and, in around half of cases, management or CEOs were involved (OECD 2014). As of December 2014, there were 393 ongoing investigations into in project alleged acts of foreign bribery in 25 of the countries party to the Convention and, even as I write, new cases are being brought to light (OECD 2014). Master. The OECD has also developed guidelines for multinational enterprises, which are addressed by governments to enterprises operating in, or from, adhering countries. Mba Dissertation In Project. These provide non-binding principles and communication thesis standards for responsible business conduct in a global context. In Project Management. Our National Contact Points (NCPs) assist stakeholders, including businesses, to take appropriate measures to implement the guidelines and provide a mediation and conciliation platform when difficulties arise (OECD 2011). For example, two non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Cameroon recently brought a case to the NCP in the United States, alleging that a company had not observed the guidelines on combating bribery.
The US NCP offered mediation to thesis help the mba dissertation in project management, parties involved achieve a mutually agreeable resolution. In June 2015, the company agreed to a request from the NGOs to investigate past cases of help i can on my corruption and take action against any acts of corruption (US Department of State 2015). Of course, the in project, best way to combat corruption is to prevent it from happening altogether. The OECD has developed specific tools to help drive this shift in behaviour, such as the OECD (2015b) guidance for managing responsible supply chains in the mineral industry across conflict or high- risk areas. This provides, among other things, measures to mitigate the risk of bribery by creative companies and recommends indicators for in project measuring improvement. Help On My. In response, major industry associations have developed initiatives to implement these recommendations, with a specific focus on mba dissertation management, the gold, tin, tungsten and tantalum sectors. As a result, industry audit programmes designed to implement the due-diligence guidance now cover 90% of the refined gold, 95% of the smelted tantalum and 75–85% of the smelted tin produced every year (OECD 2015c).
The Governments of Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the glass vs. reality Rwanda have all integrated these initiatives into their legal systems (OECD 2015c). Management. In addition, the OECD adopted the 2010 Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and i can homework Compliance. This is the first and only intergovernmental guidance for the private sector on how to mba dissertation in project prevent and detect foreign bribery through effective internal control, ethics and compliance programmes (OECD 2010a). It is complemented by the G20/ OECD (2015) Corporate Governance principles, which have just been reviewed and updated. 14.2 Improvements to what statement national integrity systems. The OECD’s progress on tackling transnational bribery has been matched by management extensive work on help focus homework, wider integrity systems at a national level.
These include codes of conduct, effective competition, business integrity, and measures to secure greater value for money in public spending. For example, the OECD has been examining the mba dissertation, impact of bid rigging, which raises prices, reduces quality and restricts supply in the glass vs. reality the government procurement process and is often combined with bribery of public officials or unlawful kickbacks. Three years ago, we adopted a recommendation designed to in project management help governments eliminate this type of corruption from their procurement processes and boost competition, forming the basis for numerous sets of national guidelines and advocacy materials (OECD 2012). For example, based on OECD good practices, the Colombian Competition Authority is developing an electronic screening programme to detect bid rigging by identifying high-risk tenders (OECD Competition Committee 2014). The OECD has also conducted several country-specific projects in co-operation with national competition authorities to reduce bid rigging and increase transparency, starting with the Mexican Social Security Institute – which secured cost savings of around $700 million per annum and communication master dramatically decreased its risks of corruption (IMCO 2012).
As the in project management, recent FIFA corruption scandal shows, government agencies such as tax authorities are essential players in the fight to deter, detect and disrupt national and global corruption. Vs. Reality Thesis. That is why the OECD has supported work to strengthen the reach of tax administrations in this area, including our 2010 recommendation to in project management improve information sharing and collaboration across government agencies to combat corruption, tax evasion and other serious economic crimes (OECD 2010b). This led to the establishment of the social groups, Oslo Dialogue, a global forum to develop and promote a whole-of-government approach to tackling tax crimes and other serious financial crimes and is supported by the capacity-building programmes delivered through the OECD’s International Academy for Tax Crime Investigation (OECD 2015d). In addition, we’re working with our members to target projects and industries that have traditionally been most at risk of corruption – issuing recommendations and guidance related to ethics, managing conflicts of interest and increasing transparency in lobbying, and very importantly, public procurement (OECD 2015e).[^33] Building on this, we’re successfully helping governments to pre-emptively identify and limit the risks of corruption and mismanagement in major infrastructure projects – as we did with the Milan Expo 2015 and the construction of mba dissertation in project management Mexico City’s new airport. Is Personal Statement For College. 14.3 Progress in extending international collaboration. Our effectiveness in curbing corruption depends on our ability to mba dissertation in project management join forces and co-ordinate actions globally. As a result, we have been raising awareness of all the aforementioned initiatives in other international circles, and master thesis we are working to in project integrate emerging economies and developing countries in thesis our work. In Project Management. [^33]These include the 1998 Ethics Recommendation, the 2003 Recommendation on Guidelines for escape essay Managing Conflict of Interest, the 2010 Recommendation on Transparency and Integrity in Lobbying and the recently updated Recommendation on mba dissertation management, Public Procurement.
In particular, the OECD has actively supported the G20 to make the top standards in the fight against corruption count on a global scale. Based on the glass menagerie vs. reality thesis, OECD work and standards, the G20 has made a number of commitments and adopted principles and guidance on topics such as foreign bribery and solicitation, public procurement, asset disclosure, whistle-blower protection and private sector transparency and integrity (OECD/G20 2015). We have also made progress in our dialogue with China on anti-corruption and the promotion of responsible business conduct, which is particularly timely as they take over the presidency of the mba dissertation, G20 in 2016. Other emerging economies, in particular India, are also showing increasing signs of interest in i can the standards developed by mba dissertation our organisation. Most importantly, we are increasing our co-operation with developing and transition economies. We have regional anti-corruption programmes across Africa, the Asia-Pacific region, Eastern Europe and is personal statement for college Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, and mba dissertation management Latin America (OECD 2015f). Creative Essay. In addition, working with the Open Government Partnership (OGP), we are helping developing and transition economies to implement and monitor the OGP standards. Mba Dissertation In Project. 14.4 There is menagerie illusion thesis still a long road ahead.
So what next? At the OECD, we believe we need to focus on four major areas in the future. a) Corruption is every country’s problem. Every major economy must be active against corruption. It is still the case that 24 out of the 41 parties to the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention have yet to issue a single sanction (OECD 2014). Everyone needs to step to the fore and management contribute their share in tackling international corruption. A more even implementation of the i can focus on my homework, Convention will also promote a more level global playing field. And while the 41 countries make up approximately 66% of world exports, a number of significant economies have yet to mba dissertation management join, including China, India and Indonesia. G20 leaders support their accession to the Convention and, together, we must make it happen in the near future. As part of this, the OECD can and should play a bigger role in helping to strengthen anti-corruption practices across the world by creative non fiction integrating partner countries into its various initiatives. The progress we have made on tax transparency shows what can be achieved when we engage developing countries on an equal footing. Today there are 129 jurisdictions committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on request (OECD 2016).
The new global common reporting standard on tax transparency agreed in 2014, which will be implemented by more than 95 jurisdictions by 2018, will ensure the automatic transmission of information about mba dissertation management, financial accounts held offshore by taxpayers (OECD 2016). It is a major step forward not only for tax fairness, but also for making available additional information that is crucial in tracking corruption. Intercultural Thesis. I firmly believe the mba dissertation in project management, OECD can replicate this successful model in the fight against corruption. b) Implementation, implementation, implementation. As we have seen, many of the standards are in place. We must now focus on intercultural communication, effective implementation.
This means law enforcement authorities need to be sufficiently independent and equipped with the necessary financial and human resources to do the job. Professionals such as lawyers, accountants and auditors need to be much more aware of the risks they face when advising in business transactions, especially at the international level. Ratings agencies should include corruption risks in their analysis of companies. Corruption case settlements should be made public and the protection of whistle-blowers reinforced. We also need to make an effort to embed integrity within the management of both public and private organisations, including in their general management, human resources, internal control and audit, and external audit systems.
This would also improve the monitoring of progress and the effectiveness and coherence of integrity policies and practices. Further engagement with the private sector is in project management imperative. The Glass Illusion Vs. Reality. Our work clearly shows the mba dissertation in project, importance of company self- reporting in detecting corruption. The Glass Menagerie Vs. Reality Thesis. However, self-reporting is often not acknowledged or incentivised. We intend to undertake work to ensure good compliance is rewarded and self-reporting actively promoted, as well as to mba dissertation management find innovative ways to protect companies from undue solicitation. Finally, effective implementation will depend on penfield fire essay, how we are able to address corruption in mba dissertation in project organisations where corruption often occurs – such as state-owned enterprises, public/private partnerships and local governments – and sectors that need special attention, such as customs, health, education and law enforcement. As our Foreign Bribery Report (2014) shows, public procurement is a high-risk area that needs special attention. c) Integrating and widening the integrity agenda.
The effectiveness of the glass menagerie illusion our various tools and initiatives will also depend on how we are able to link them up, build synergies, provide consistency in our approaches and support co-ordination between institutions responsible for enhancing integrity and fighting corruption. Such connections also need to be built by governments and the different stakeholders at the national level, strengthening the links between initiatives on foreign bribery and public sector integrity with those on tax evasion, bid rigging, money laundering and illicit financial flows. The OECD is uniquely placed to assist countries in this respect. We’re ready to mba dissertation in project management work on the necessary training and policy advice, as well as offering our expertise to specific situations, when required – as our successful work on large infrastructure projects with Italy and Mexico shows. Beyond institutional solutions, we need to balance a rules-based compliance approach with greater attention to the political economy of corruption and to the values of what is personal for college public officials. This will require taking better account of the existence of vested interests when shaping policies by in project management promoting transparency and integrity in political finance, elections and lobbying at statement various levels of government. Preventing public officials or policies from being swayed by powerful and mba dissertation management narrow vested interests is crucial, if we are to strengthen trust in fire essay our governments. d) The relationship between corruption and other global issues. Corruption is at the heart of many of the biggest issues the world now faces. As we know, the forced displacement of mba dissertation in project management people due to conflict, persecution, violence and human rights violations is on the rise. The current refugee crisis has triggered a global discussion about master, migration and in project management refugees. Corruption plays a significant role in this crisis in help i can the wake of inadequate government services.
It is an aggravating factor as it facilitates people smuggling by organised criminals. Furthermore, recent tragic events have emphasised the mba dissertation in project management, need for all international organisations to play a part in the fight against terrorism. The relationship between corruption and terrorism has long been recognised. Menagerie Illusion. Evidence shows that corruption contributes to the financing of terrorism and creates inequalities that disenfranchise communities and promote the development and growth of terrorist groups. This phenomenon is mba dissertation in project management facilitated by the growing complexity of corruption in commodity trading and illicit trade, through crude oil swaps, trade mispricing and stolen resource trading. The OECD is looking to further explore these issues in order to social groups essay best equip countries to fight these corrosive and dangerous practices. We also know that corruption undermines the in project, fight against fire escape essay climate change. For example, there is ample evidence that corruption acts as a major facilitator of the estimated (up to) $100 billion illegal logging industry (UNEP, Interpol 2012). The availability of large amounts of funding in the fight against climate change may also favour corrupt practices. But overall, this is an mba dissertation area that remains relatively unexplored.
The OECD is well placed to undertake work in this area in the glass illusion vs. reality the light of its expertise in environmental issues, trade (including analysis of illicit trade) and fighting corruption. In 2015, we saw the emergence of major bribery scandals in sports. Apart from its economic importance, sport plays a major role in holding societies together and in project we cannot tolerate the ethical breaches that undermine its legitimacy. What For College. These scandals illustrate the limits of self-regulation. Global leadership is required in this area. The OECD’s knowledge and experience in lobbying, good public governance, public procurement and mba dissertation management fighting corruption mean that the organisation is ready to play a key role on this topic. Finally, at the OECD, we are acutely aware of how important it is to take forward the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda (UN 2015). Essay. Addressing corruption is vital in order to successfully achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
While corruption is explicitly mentioned only in mba dissertation in project management Goal 16, it is clear that it cuts across all of the SDGs and will be a major hurdle to achieving them. Corruption has a significant impact on poverty, inequality, hunger, education, the availability of essay clean water and sanitation, economic growth, industry innovation and infrastructure. It thwarts resource mobilisation and allocation and diverts resources away from management sustainable development and from efforts to eradicate poverty. Illusion Thesis. International organisations, including the OECD, must work together to ensure the mba dissertation in project, fight against corruption is made a priority in order to achieve the SDGs. The G20 could take a leading role in master thesis this respect.
We need to establish a common vision and a global agenda. The OECD stands ready to play its part and work hard to win the battle against the dark side of our economies by designing, promoting and implementing better anti- corruption policies for better lives. G20/OECD. 2015. Principles of Corporate Governance. Availableonline. Instituto Mexicano para la Competividad (IMCO). 2012. Evaluacion del Acuerdo de Trabajo IMSS-OCDE-CFC. Available online. Management. OECD.
1997. Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. OECD. 2010a. Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance. Intercultural Communication Thesis. Available online. OECD. 14 October 2010b.
Recommendation of the Council to Facilitate Co-operation between Tax and Other Law Enforcement Authorities to Combat Serious Crimes. Available online. OECD. 2011. National Contact Points for the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises. Available online. OECD. Management. 2012. Recommendation of the OECD Council on Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement. Available online.
OECD. 2014. OECD Foreign Bribery Report: An Analysis of the Crime of Bribery of communication Foreign Public Officials. Paris: OECD Publishing. OECD. 2015a. Country Reports on the Implementation of the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention. Available online. OECD.
2015b. Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Management. Available online. OECD. 2015c. Implementing the social essay, OECD Due Diligence Guidance. Available online. In Project Management. OECD.
2015d. Forum on Tax and social groups Crime. Available online. OECD. 2015e. Bribery and Corruption. Management. Available online. OECD. Intercultural Communication Thesis. 2015f. In Project. Regional anti-corruption programmes. Available online. OECD. 2016.
Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes. Available online. What Is Personal. OECD Competition Committee. 2014. Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement in Colombia. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. OECD and G20.
2015. Anti-corruption. Available online. United Nations. 2015. Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Available online. Mba Dissertation Management. UNEP, Interpol. 2012. Green Carbon, Black Trade.
Norway: UNEP, Interpol. Available online. US Department of State. Non Fiction Essay. 28 July 2015. US NCP Final Statement CED/RELUFA on mba dissertation in project, the Specific Instance between the Center for Environment and essay Development (CED) with Network to Fight against Hunger (RELUFA) and Herakles Farms’ affiliate SG Sustainable Oils Cameroon (SGSOC) in Cameroon. Available online.
15. Mart Laar: The cancer of the modern world – a European perspective. Corruption is a cancer. Mba Dissertation In Project. At first, it can look small and harmless. Before you know it, it has taken over your entire body. Likewise, the losses from corruption can start small, but in the end the help i can focus homework, damage is enormous. The problem of corruption around the world is well known. Dictators, arms smugglers and warlords rely on corruption to fund violence against their own populations. We know too about the corruption in post-Communist countries like Russia. It’s not just the corruption in the economy; it’s the corruption of the legal and political systems that sustains it, which is so damaging in so many countries. Systemic, widespread corruption can also hold back countries such as Ukraine that are making genuine efforts to reform and build closer links with Europe.
It undermines the inspiring campaigns and mba dissertation management aspirations of reformers – as seen in Moldova, for instance – and saps the confidence of potential European partners. In Ukraine and Moldova, it is no coincidence that public dissatisfaction and protest appear to be as much about statement for college, corruption as they are about anything else. And the public are right: corruption siphons off much- needed investment and slows the growth and mba dissertation management progress of Eastern European economies. The Glass Menagerie Vs. Reality. So I believe that we need a plan for Europe that places anti-corruption right at the heart of the process. I know about corruption. I’ve seen it with my own eyes.
You can no more eradicate it than you can abolish human greed. But that doesn’t mean that there is no hope. Estonia was deeply corrupted, just as other former Communist countries were as they made the transition to independence. In Project Management. We were so corrupted – it was so ingrained – that we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal. It had become a way of life. So for us, progress depended on a fundamental realisation: we could only non fiction, cut ourselves off from the old Communist heritage if we cut out the cancer of corruption.
This was easy to say, of course, but harder to implement. European institutions stressed from the start of the integration process the importance of mba dissertation management fighting corruption, but sometimes this seemed to us to be just warm words. To our surprise, as our economy and help focus homework trade relations grew, several Western companies allegedly offered generous bribes in mba dissertation many common business deals. I Can Focus On My. To them, corruption in Eastern Europe was normal. So, while the West finances campaigns against corruption abroad, it would be significantly more effective if all countries also dealt with the criminal activity and the bribes originating at home. In Project. In many countries, corruption isn’t actually a negative word. Fire. It is connected with friendship and taking care of family. People know that some officials from the government take money from mba dissertation business; that’s how life has always been. How do you begin to unpick that?
In Estonia, we knew that if we wanted to break free, we didn’t have any choice – we had to end corruption. Within ten years of transition, we had dramatically cut corruption – to the point where we were less corrupt than several European Union (EU) member states (Transparency International 1998). How did we do it? A huge part of the master, answer was the European Union. We received vital encouragement from the mba dissertation in project, EU, including as part of the negotiations on enlargement.
Most importantly, we received a very clear message right from the social, start that the door to the EU would be closed to in project countries with the usual scale of post-Communist corruption. At first, it was thought that the EU was not serious. Essay. But then the Slovakian Government, under Vladimir Meciar, was ousted from negotiations on enlargement (European Commission 1997). All of a sudden, we knew that the fight against corruption had to be taken seriously. Transparency was important too. Clear data enables you to see very similar countries, like Latvia and Estonia, with very different levels of corruption (Transparency International 2015). So if you could cut it in one country, why not the other? With the help of the EU, independent non-governmental organisations (NGOs) were also created, which aided the fight against corruption. The EU shared with us, along with the mba dissertation management, other countries hoping to creative non fiction join, all of the best practice and mba dissertation in project management legislation for tackling corruption. This allowed us to take big steps forward very quickly. An important part of this was to regularly publish key officials’ income and its sources, supported by criminal punishments for corruption in the penal code.
Not all the non fiction, measures we took were popular – many people were angry about our efforts. But the European ‘sticks and carrots’ approach made our plans possible. We could privatise public assets, in the knowledge that they could only be sold for legal money moved through European banks that had rules against money laundering and fraud. Using money only from EU and US banks meant that we didn’t have to privatise using ‘black money’ and in project corruption. When you cut corruption out of banking and the wider economy, it is much harder for corruption to take root in politics. Helping to tackle corruption in Eastern Europe has also, of course, provided tangible benefits for people in Western Europe.
It has helped open up new markets for trade and investment – based on a level playing field and open competition – therefore boosting the prosperity and essay security of all EU member states, including the big economies of the West. Many people, including leaders, have asked for the secrets of Estonia’s success in tackling corruption. Every country is different, but here are my suggestions: One – don’t become corrupt yourself. How can your citizens take anti-corruption programmes seriously if they suspect their government is corrupt? So you need to make it clear from the start: mistakes can be pardoned; corruption cannot. There can be no yellow cards – just red ones. Two – let the market do the job. The more radical market reforms you introduce, the less corruption you will have. Abolishing subsidies is a good start: they always go to the wrong places, making the rich richer and the poor poorer. Simplifying the tax system and cutting taxes helps too – as does the abolition of mba dissertation management custom tariffs, in which the EU plays a key role. Three – make government smaller.
This is non fiction essay often underestimated in the transition to a market economy. You can’t move your country to the future with the old machinery. So you need to break up the old structures that provide opportunities for corruption. A good way to start is to cut the government by half and double the salaries of those who remain. And then cut the size again by another 20%. Your new public service must be non-partisan and independent. As you go forward, keep government lean.
It’s important – big governments and big bureaucracies create corruption. Four – make everything public. Transparency is mba dissertation in project management one of the most powerful allies in fighting corruption. When information on public spending, government agencies’ work and is personal use of management governmental benefits and privileges is freely available, it starts to reduce corruption. Modern technology can help a lot here. Placing government services online and making them open through e-government has been highly effective in Estonia.
It doesn’t just cut the misuse of government credit cards and make sure government procurement is clean, it also cuts down on time and paper – and lets trees grow. Five – let freedom reign. Menagerie Illusion Thesis. Freedom takes the state official out of the daily situations and transactions where corruption can occur. If you need to have a separate government document every time a house is built or renovated, there is a chance for mba dissertation in project management corruption. When decisions – or the speed of decisions – depend on penfield escape, the will of mba dissertation management a state official rather than the law of the land, you will have corruption. Abolish them and is personal statement for college you find that nothing bad happens. These conclusions are really quite simple.
More freedom means less corruption, less freedom means more corruption. It’s just the mba dissertation, same in sport. If you take away the competition and fair play, you will lose the spirit of social essay sport. That’s what corruption does to management all of our efforts, our dreams and our desires – in social groups essay corrupt societies, they are thwarted and the human spirit is poorer as a result. Mba Dissertation In Project. We showed in Estonia that it doesn’t have to be like this. Together we can change it – together we can do it! European Commission. 15 July 1997. Agenda 2000 – Commission Opinion on Slovakia’s Application for Membership of the European Union. Brussels: European Commission. Available online.
Transparency International. 1998. The Glass Vs. Reality. Corruption Perceptions Index 1998. Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online. 16.
Jose Ugaz: People’s power: taking action to demand accountability. In Project Management. Over the past quarter of a century, the face of escape essay corruption has changed. And so has the management, anti-corruption movement. In the early 1990s, corruption was simply not talked about in the glass vs. reality thesis the international community. In fact, facilitation payments were widely recognised in law as deductible business expenses if handed out abroad. Back then, the focus of the emerging anti-corruption movement was to get corruption on the agenda: raising awareness of its devastating effects and showing its disproportionate impact on the poor. It is the most vulnerable people in our societies who too often have to mba dissertation in project make the hard choice to pay bribes to essay get the essential services they need, such as treatment for a sick grandparent or an education for their child. This focus shifted in the late 1990s to creating ways to both measure corruption and develop the tools to prevent it. Launched in 1995, Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) put governments on the spot by publishing their scores around the world (Transparency International 2015a).
By 2003, the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) – now ratified by 178 countries – outlined a solid framework of anti- corruption laws (UNODC 2015). This came six years after the OECD Convention Against Foreign Bribery and in project management seven years after the ground-breaking Inter-American Convention against Corruption (OECD 1997; International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities 2012). The G20 has had an Anti-Corruption Action Plan since 2010 and the fight against corruption is now at the heart of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goal 16, promoting peace and justice with targets for tackling corruption (Transparency International 2015b; UN 2015). Today many countries have solid anti-corruption legislation. But laws don’t work if they are not properly enforced. Corruption remains rife. Illusion Thesis. Countries get used to management failing scores and billions of dollars of illicit financial flows and money laundering provide luxury lifestyles for the corrupt. So what’s next? Pressure from the creative essay, public is key.
We already know that pent-up anger against corruption can provoke people action. In Tunisia, a dictator was ousted in 2011 by hundreds of thousands of protestors. His successors are now hunting down the millions he and his family stole. In Guatemala, months of peaceful protests in 2015 forced out both the president and the vice-president. They are now in jail facing corruption charges. In Project. Marches against corruption in Brazil, Chile and illusion vs. reality thesis Indonesia have also led to substantive changes to laws. This shows how much can be achieved when people react to specific events, but the rejection of corruption needs to become more sustained. This essay explores the new tools that citizens can, and should, make use of to fight corruption both collectively and as individuals. It discusses how communities can take action on in project, the everyday issues of corruption that affect their lives and the major difference individuals can make when they say no to corruption.
It also looks at how we can and should act together against the phenomenon of grand corruption, something that our ever- more connected world is now making possible. At TI, we define grand corruption as the what is personal statement, abuse of high- level power that benefits the mba dissertation, few at the expense of the many and non fiction essay causes serious and widespread harm to individuals and society alike. Too often, it goes unpunished because the corrupt hide behind political immunity, secret companies that allow them to hide stolen money and a global financial network that turns a blind eye to illicit financial flows. Even here, citizen action can make a difference to unmask the corrupt. I strongly believe that it will be pressure from people around the world – coming together, using new technologies and speaking with a united bold voice to in project management demand justice – that will start to hold the grand corrupt to account. It has become urgent for the victims of grand corruption to be recognised. Together, we can all help to non fiction essay stop the mba dissertation, current trend.
Public opinion polls and surveys from the past five years have consistently shown that people see corruption as one of the key social challenges of our time (BBC 2010; Avaaz 2014). When a United Nations online poll consistently featured corruption as a top priority for the next generation of Sustainable Development Goals, this was translated into Goal 16, which commits all governments to “provide access to justice for all and intercultural communication master thesis build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions” (UN 2016; UN 2015, p. 2). This growing awareness, combined with the emergence of smart communications technology, will help to drive activism. Around 50% of the world’s population is online, while a similar proportion of the adult population owns a smartphone. By 2020, this is expected to rise to 80% (The Economist 2015). There are already clear wins for mobilised, tech-savvy, anti-corruption activism. In Brazil, for example, a new law took effect in 2010 called Ficha Limpa, or Clean Record, which prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption, mismanagement of public funds or electoral violations from in project standing for public office for at least eight years. It came about because more than 40 civil society organisations were able to mobilise two million Brazilian citizens to use online actions, together with events, to campaign for the legislation (Salas 2010). This is especially important in statement a country where TI studies show that 81% and 72% of in project people respectively feel that political parties and the legislature are corrupt or extremely corrupt (Transparency International 2013a). Penfield. Thanks to mba dissertation this law, Brazilian courts barred 317 mayoral candidates – who had criminal records – from running for office in intercultural thesis the 2012 municipal election. In the 2014 general election, this rose to 497 (Alves 2014).
However, the campaign’s impact is not limited to the disqualification of corrupt candidates. Crucially, it has changed the way Brazilians perceive their capacity to make their collective voice heard. It has transformed individual anger about in project, political corruption into collective action for social change. In our latest survey, 81% of Brazilians now believe that ordinary people can make a difference in the fight against corruption (Transparency International 2013a). Use of social media helped ignite and organise the help focus on my homework, uprisings across North Africa and mba dissertation management the Middle East. It allowed millions of people to share messages of for college civil resistance and collective activism. Despite this, one of the many frustrations following the Arab Spring was the feeling that the perpetrators of corruption in the old regimes were not being brought to justice. Mba Dissertation. The lack of strong institutions to deliver the kind of justice the people demanded thwarted real reforms. In Guatemala, a similar story of creative non fiction disaffected citizenry turned out differently, because three key factors came together: technology, people and an institutional pressure for accountability. Guatemala has suffered from political corruption and widespread impunity for decades.
The justice system was seen as weak and co-opted by powerful interests. In Project. Yet, when a huge customs fraud scandal involving a number of the country’s political elite was uncovered in 2015, the people decided enough was enough. For five months, they took to the streets every week, co-ordinating and advertising the protests on social media. I Can Focus Homework. Their numbers swelled. This, combined with pressure from emboldened national prosecutors who were working alongside international investigators from the UN, eventually forced the in project, country’s president and vice- president to resign.
They were arrested shortly afterwards. This new spirit of creative essay empowered citizenship should be an inspiration to others precisely because it can deliver change. It gives legitimacy to legal action in the spirit of democracy. It is the management, will of the people. Masses can usually only be mobilised for a limited period of homework time around a specific goal. Their successes are watershed moments for all involved, yet they signal the beginning rather than the end of a long process. Systemic anti-corruption reforms are vital for preventing large-scale corruption scandals from happening again and again. So how do you keep society interested when there are no big, flashy news headlines or high-profile people to go after? By showing it that engagement matters. When we think of communities, we think of the basic services that people need: education, health, waste collection, public transport and mba dissertation in project roads.
Often communities are one step removed from how these are funded. Essay. Their taxes go into a pot and they take no notice until a hospital fails or a pothole damages their car. But we can only know whether money is well spent if we have access to information about it. In too many countries, communities either don’t request the information or it is simply not available. When people demand transparency and accountability, they can make a difference.
They need to participate meaningfully in the decisions that affect their daily lives. This is management what happened in a school just outside Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. Corruption in education is a significant challenge in communication thesis Bangladesh and mba dissertation particularly affects the poor. Admission officers demand bribes, teachers are often absent and there is no way to report or keep track of the problem. One school decided to change the way things worked. It signed an Integrity Pledge and introduced social monitoring tools such as citizen report cards, while budgets were prepared with the participation of the community (Zaman 2011). Within a year, the the glass menagerie illusion, dropout rate fell from 30% to 7%, the mba dissertation in project management, collection of unauthorised payments stopped, scholarships were distributed transparently and 100% of communication students passed the annual final examination. Mba Dissertation. This success has led to the initiative being rolled out in other schools in Bangladesh. Similar initiatives have been used to improve health, water and is personal statement construction services from management Bolivia to Uganda.
One crucial ingredient in their success is the active involvement of local communities. The Glass. If you empower communities, they will make their voices heard and they will take charge of their own futures (Sidwell 2011). The other crucial element is transparency. Having access to mba dissertation information is penfield fire escape essay a precondition for making informed decisions and holding public officials and elected leaders to account. More than 100 countries now have freedom of information laws, yet their implementation is still patchy (McIntosh 2014). But not only do governments need to release information, citizens also need to make active use of it. This combination of information and activism can be a potent tool. In July 2015, El Salvador authorities confirmed that citizens had the right to ask for information about public officials’ assets. This is important because, if you can track wealth over time, it can show whether officials are using their positions for mba dissertation in project illicit gain. In less than four months, Salvadoran citizens submitted close to 6,000 requests for information. These uncovered cases where the wealth of public officials grew by 300% during their time in help i can on my homework office (Heywood 2015).
Investigations into the inexplicably high wealth of some officials are now being held. New technologies are facilitating this push for transparency. ‘Big data’ may be a buzzword, but its trickle- down effect can allow ordinary people to search and evaluate important information. There is no reason why local, regional and national governments cannot put their records online and create a platform for mba dissertation in project citizens to search data on illusion thesis, public tenders, tax spending or any other part of the day-to-day running of communities. Increasingly, civil society organisations are also launching online tools to help communities hold their local authorities to account. Through Fix My Street, people in Georgia can flag construction and infrastructure issues in their neighbourhood to in project management the mayor’s office and track repairs (Transparency International 2013b). The online portal has triggered the fixing of hundreds of problems. In Argentina, voters are visualising the relationship between money and intercultural thesis politics through an interactive database, which aggregates political party financing data. The site allows citizens to mba dissertation in project see where party funds are coming from and the glass vs. reality thesis where they are going (Transparency International 2012). In Lithuania, manoSeimas (My Parliament) lets users find out how parliamentarians have been voting on policy issues (Transparency International 2016a). The tools to mba dissertation in project hold elected officials to account are beginning to expand.
It is up to people to start using them. This is where civil society organisations can play an important role in raising awareness and creating a safe environment for speaking up. 16.4 Individuals can make a difference. For too many people, the idea that a corrupt system can change is difficult to creative non fiction believe; they simply accept corruption as business as usual. In Peru, there is even a popular saying about politicians ‘roba, pero hace’, which roughly translates to ‘he steals but makes things happen’ (DATUM 2014). More than half of all Peruvians are willing to vote for mba dissertation in project corrupt politicians as long as they ‘do work’ (Ipsos Peru 2014). Sadly, every year, one in four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). In Cambodia, India and is personal Kenya, this figure is even higher than one in two. In Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on bribes for basic services they are entitled to, such as water, medicine and education (Transparencia Mexicana 2011). People accept this huge financial burden, because they feel powerless and vulnerable (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013).
They believe reporting corruption won’t make a difference and could put them or their family in danger. Breaking this wall of silence requires a number of important cultural and legal steps. Mba Dissertation In Project. People need to know that there is strong, enforced legislation to protect whistle-blowers, so they are safe when they speak out. Penfield Fire Essay. When citizens feel these mechanisms cannot be trusted, then organised civil society has a vital role to management play. This includes advocating the implementation of protection as well as supporting individual victims and witnesses of corruption. The results can be impressive. TI opened advocacy and legal advice centres in more than 60 countries around the world to offer free and confidential legal advice and to help citizens report corruption (Transparency International 2016b). More than 200,000 citizens have been in contact with our centres and we have collected numerous stories illustrating that one single brave individual reporting corruption can make a huge difference to the lives of entire societies. In the Czech Republic, a whistle-blower on environmental corruption helped to i can save the country more than ˆ2 billion (Transparency International 2015c).
In Nepal, money that was meant for mba dissertation in project women giving birth in remote regions but stolen by healthcare officials was returned and redistributed where it was needed most (Transparency International 2015d). In Guatemala, nepotism in local government was stamped out after a citizen uncovered that the mayor had hired around ten of his relatives (Transparency International 2015e). In March 2015, Transparencia Venezuela launched a smartphone app Dilo Aqui, which allows ordinary citizens to report instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections (Transparencia Venezuela 2015a). In the vs. reality thesis, parliamentary elections in December 2015, more than 400 complaints of electoral abuse were registered via the app that were then channelled to the National Electoral Council and the Comptroller General for mba dissertation in project management follow-up (Transparencia Venezuela 2015b). The goal is to penfield fire encourage, cajole, educate and empower more citizens to speak out and speak out safely. This affects us all.
In the UK, for example, a TI survey showed that, while 90% of people would like to report corruption if they came across it, fewer than 30% knew how (Krishnan and Barrington 2011). Individuals everywhere need to take their responsibility as citizens seriously and speak up for their right to live in a society free of corruption. When they do that, governments and institutions have to listen and act. 16.5 The new challenge: bringing down grand corruption. Every year an estimated $1 trillion in illicit financial flows leave developing countries, often with a single keystroke (Global Financial Integrity 2015).
The majority of these funds end up in developed countries. Be it in a property in London or a bank account in Switzerland, the mba dissertation, effects on the local economies left behind are devastating. Groups Essay. The money comes from skimming off basic services budgets or taking bribes for contracts. Such abuse of mba dissertation in project entrusted power for private gain has immediate consequences on people – victims are often left helpless. We want to see behavioural and systemic change in help on my homework the next ten years and we want victims to mba dissertation management be recognised and taken into serious consideration. For this to the glass vs. reality happen, we have developed the new concept of ‘grand corruption’. Unfortunately, examples of grand corruption are everywhere. The Chinaleaks documents showed how the country’s elite funnelled billions of dollars of corrupt money into so-called ‘safe havens’ such as the Bahamas using shell companies (Boehler 2014).
The President of Equatorial Guinea, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, and his son Teodoro are estimated to have allegedly siphoned off more than $300 million from state coffers to buy a luxury lifestyle in Paris and the United States, while the majority of the country’s population lives in poverty. Then there is Ukraine’s former leader Viktor Yanukovych who used state proceeds to fund a lavish lifestyle. Think also of the in project, billions of dollars’ worth of fines the big banks, including household names such as Barclays, HSBC, Citibank and BNP Paribas, have had to pay for institutionalised corruption like rigging exchange rates, mis-selling products and creative non fiction helping clients avoid anti-money laundering rules and mba dissertation management evade taxes. Intercultural Communication Master Thesis. We witness human rights abuses in mba dissertation management cases of grand corruption. There are victims.
When money is siphoned off for the benefit of the few, it is the is personal, many who suffer. Schools are not built, healthcare systems are degraded and infrastructure neglected. Management. It exacerbates poverty and exclusion. Grand corruption also damages democracy and intercultural master thesis good governance. When a state is captured, such as allegedly happened in Guatemala under President Otto Perez Molina, then insecurity and in project management instability are high. It is the non fiction essay, citizens that pay the price. In Project. Unfortunately, grand corruption often goes unpunished. In the case of corporations, too often it is the shareholders who pay the fines, not the individuals who commit the crimes. To change this, we need help from citizens. They have to social essay use all the tools for fighting corruption outlined above – technology, community actions and mass movements - to demand justice and unmask the corrupt both in mba dissertation in project management the countries where the corrupt money is generated and, just as importantly, in the countries where it ends up. Money laundering is what statement for college not just a term used to describe Mafia-style organised crimes.
It might be the way your neighbour bought their flat via a secret offshore company, or the cash payments used to purchase a luxury watch. Citizens living in countries on the receiving end of corrupt money need to be part of the mba dissertation, fight against grand corruption too. And this is where awareness raising is still in its infancy. What Statement For College. We as civil society are calling on governments to put mechanisms in mba dissertation in project management place that prevent dirty cash from entering their countries. But because this type of corruption is not obvious to citizens of dirty money destinations – in fact it can actually add to economic growth – there is still limited will from citizens to pressure their leaders or take action themselves. The G20 has taken up this cause at a high level. It remains for the countries themselves to introduce the legislation and enforce it.
The UK recently adopted legislation giving immediate access on beneficial ownership information to focus on my law enforcement agencies, banks and businesses with duties to check that they are not handling stolen cash. Mba Dissertation In Project. In 2016, a central registry containing this information will be made public. Creative Non Fiction Essay. It is time for more countries to follow suit and for citizens to in project management campaign to ensure that they do. More and more, journalists and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) – using new online search tools to follow money – are exposing cases of grand corruption and pressing for criminal investigations and indictments. We strongly believe that ordinary citizens have a part to penfield fire escape play in this too. We call this ‘social sanctioning’: once the corrupt are exposed they should not be allowed to live freely off their dirty money. We would like to see a day when the mba dissertation management, corrupt can’t get visas for travel, luxury shops turn their cash away and real estate agents refuse to sell them their penthouse flats. Creative Essay. Without active citizens the fight against corruption cannot be won. People need to in project say no to corruption on the glass illusion, every level. Mba Dissertation In Project Management. They need to speak out against extortion and denounce leaders and companies who are exposed as engaging in corruption. What Is Personal. They need to take responsibility for mba dissertation in project their own actions and demand the communication master, same from management their peers.
Together we can create a global culture where corruption is rejected and accountability rules. There are plenty of examples where this has happened.But the feeling of creative essay disempowerment is still too widespread. People need to turn the anger and mba dissertation management helplessness they feel into active rejection of the status quo. Civil society organisations can help create awareness and menagerie mobilisation, but governments have to enforce laws that show the corrupt will be held to mba dissertation in project management account. What Is Personal Statement. In countries where institutions are weak, citizens play an even more important and often braver role.
Those who speak out can be targets, but not everyone has to be on the front line. Take the example of the school in Bangladesh: it was parents and local organisers who asked the school to note who showed up to teach and to commit to not asking for admissions bribes. These small steps led to measurable improvements – the kids passed their exams. Our technology, our reach and our upraised voices can bring hundreds of management thousands onto help focus on my the street. These things can also be used to simply draw attention to the inconsistencies between a local politician’s lifestyle and mba dissertation in project their publicly declared salary. It is the i can, combination of our loud indignation and our quiet vigilance that will put an end to corruption, both grand and not so grand. Alves, L. 16 September 2014. Ficha Limpa Law Forces Candidates to Withdraw. The Rio Times. Mba Dissertation In Project. Available online.
Avaaz. 2014. Where next for Avaaz in 2014? Setting the intercultural thesis, agenda. Available online. BBC Press. 9 December 2010. Global poll: Corruption is world’s most talked about problem. Available online. Boehler, P. 22 January 2014. ChinaLeaks: Expose on Chinese elite’s offshore accounts comes at sensitive time.
South China Morning Post – China Insider. Available online. DATUM. 2014. Peru 21 – ELECCIONES 2016. Available online. Economist, The. 28 February 2015. Planet of the Phones. [online]. Available online. Global Financial Integrity.
2015. Illicit Financial Flows. Available online. Mba Dissertation Management. Hardoon, D. and Heinrich, F. 2013. Global Corruption Barometer 2013: Report. Berlin: Transparency International. Available from: http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013/report Heywood, M. 13 November 2015. When Transparency Rules.
Transparency International blog. Available online. International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities. 15 February 2012. Organization of American States (OAS). Available online. Intercultural Communication Master Thesis. Ipsos Peru.
September 2014. Informe de Opinion Data – Peru, septiembre de 2014. Available online. Krishnan, C. and Barrington, R. 2011. Corruption in the UK: Overview and Policy Recommendations. UK: Transparency International. In Project. McIntosh, T. 19 September 2014. Paraguay is 100th nation to what is personal statement for college pass FOI law, but struggle for openness goes on.
The Guardian. Available online. OECD. 1997. OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Available online. In Project. Salas, A. 22 June 2010. Creative Non Fiction Essay. Aiming for mba dissertation in project management a clean record in Brazil. Non Fiction Essay. Available online. Mba Dissertation In Project. Sidwell, M. 25 August 2011. Race to help i can focus homework the top.
Transparency International blog. Available online. Transparencia Mexicana. 10 May 2011. Indice Nacional De Corrupcion Y Buen Gobierno. Mba Dissertation. Available online. Transparencia Venezuela. Creative. 19 March 2015a.
Transparencia Venezuela lanzo ‘Dilo aqui’, una aplicacion para denunciar. Mba Dissertation In Project. El Universal. Available online. Transparencia Venezuela. 6 December 2015b.
Tercer Reporte denuncias recibidas en el marco del proceso electoral Parlamentarias 2015. Social Groups. Available online. Transparency International. Mba Dissertation In Project. 2012. Help I Can Focus Homework. Empowering citizens, securing lasting change: using technology for transparency. Berlin: Transparency International.
Available online. Transparency International. 2013a. Global Corruption Barometer – Brazil. Available online. Management. Transparency International. 2013b. Menagerie Thesis. Fix My Street. Available online.
Transparency International. 2015a. Corruption Perceptions Index – Overview. Available online. Transparency International. Mba Dissertation. 2015b. Non Fiction Essay. Our work on the G20. [online]. Available online. Transparency International. 2015c. True Stories – Hidden Costs.
Available online. Management. Transparency International. 2015d. True Stories – Birth Rights. Available online. Transparency International. 2015e. Intercultural Thesis. True Stories – Family Affairs. Available online.
Transparency International. 2016a. ManoSeimas.lt. Available online. Transparency International. 2016b. Get involved – Report Corruption. Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015.
Available [online]((https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. html). United Nations. 2015. Goal 16: Promote just, peaceful and inclusive societies; Sustainable Development Goals. Available online. United Nations. 2016. Segments Priorities – MY Analytics. Available online. Zaman, I. 2011.
Realising the MDGs by in project management 2015: Anti- corruption in Bangladesh. Berlin/Bangladesh: Transparency International. Available online. An important exception to this was the republican tradition, which started in on my homework Greece and Rome, and was adopted by numerous city states in Italy, the Netherlands and elsewhere. The very term ‘republic’ comes from the Latin res publica, or ‘public thing,’ denoting that the in project management, political order was representative of a larger public good. ? A classic case was the French Foreign Minister Talleyrand: a highly corrupt individual, but a very talented diplomat, who helped negotiate the settlement at the Congress of Vienna. ? Interview with Ms Mpho Letima, Fellow, African Leadership Centre, Nairobi, Kenya, 28 October 2015. ? A search for the term ‘Cyprus’ on non fiction, www.occrp.org will point to numerous investigations from all over Eastern Europe where companies in Cyprus are involved. ? You can find further information on this interface and in project access online here, here and here. ? Notes from conversation with legal professionals in Kano, Nigeria, 7 February 2015, quoting Ibrahim Mokhtar. ? Notes from conversation with tribal elders from groups essay Shah Wali Kot District, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 24 May 2009; names withheld for security reasons. ? Notes from trip to Spin Boldak, Afghanistan, 25 May 2009. ? Also interviews with several Western officials in mba dissertation in project management Abuja, November 2013. Creative. ? Notes of interview with a group of Maiduguri residents, Maiduguri, Nigeria, 21 November 2015. ? Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin reference the mba dissertation in project, Second Intifada from penfield fire essay 2000 to in project 2005, and master thesis the wider violent unrest on the West Bank. ? Ibid., notes Kano, Nigeria. ? Ibid., notes Maiduguri, Nigeria. Mba Dissertation Management. ? Notes of conversation with Sardar Muhammad, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 20 November 2010. Master Thesis. ? See also numerous Dutch petitions to King Phillip II of Spain 1550–1580. ? Notes of interview with Murad Louhichi, Manzil Tmim, Tunisia, 29 September 2012. ? Notes of interview with ‘Rustam’ (name changed for security reasons), Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 23 February 2014. In Project Management. ? This is fire a view I encountered frequently when covering the Algerian civil war for National Public Radio in the late 1990s. ? Conversation with Debra Laprevotte, 15 September 2015. Mba Dissertation In Project. ? In the event, the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), the world cycling governing body, cleared Delgado. He was not docked ten minutes and went on groups, to win the 1988 Tour de France. ? I am grateful to World Bank Group staff Alexander Slater, Joel Turkewitz and Charles Undeland for in project their assistance with this essay. ? See also Olken, B. 2007. Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia, Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200– 248. ? This 2015 estimate is an extrapolation by Daniel Kaufmann based on his work in Myths and Realities of Governance and Corruption (2005). ? In addition, non-compliance with tax obligations distorts competition. See IMF.
2015a. Current Challenges in intercultural communication Revenue Mobilization. Washington DC: IMF. ? See also, for example, Tanzi, V. and mba dissertation in project management Davoodi, H. 2002. Corruption, Public Investment, and Growth. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 280–299. Military spending is, in communication addition, prone to corruption, because of secrecy and mba dissertation in project a lack of transparency (see Gupta, S., de Mello, L. and creative Sharan, R. 2002. Mba Dissertation In Project. Corruption and Military Spending.
In: G. Is Personal For College. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 300–332). ? While the analysis of the association between corruption and growth remains controversial, a meta-analysis of 52 cross-country studies found that a one-unit increase in the perceived corruption index is in project associated with a nearly 1 percentage-point decrease in the growth rate of per capita GDP (see Ugur, M. and Dasgupta, N. 2011. Evidence on the Economic Growth Impacts of Corruption in creative Low-Income Countries and mba dissertation management Beyond: A Systematic Review. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London). ? Over the fire, past decade, risk-rating agencies have realised that their previous models, driven by economic variables alone, were unsatisfactory and mba dissertation in project management have incorporated governance and corruption factors, such as the Worldwide Governance Indicators. ? There are cases where corruption has caused some donors to interrupt foreign aid flows. ? For example, the Fiscal Transparency Evaluation conducted by creative the Fund in Mozambique (the first in mba dissertation management Sub-Saharan Africa) identified a need for penfield escape greater transparency in mba dissertation management public procurement and state-owned enterprises (see IMF. Essay. 2015c. Republic of Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation). In Tunisia, the Fund has supported the in project management, development of a more transparent budget law that would strengthen budget preparation and execution procedures and introduce performance-based budgeting. Essay. ? Many countries are taking the positive step of automating public services, which not only allows for simplification and management efficiency, but also eliminates the potential for social abuse of discretion. ? 2015 IMF Annual Meetings Flagship Seminar – Individual Integrity in Public Sector Governance, Lima, Peru. ? A good example is the ‘I paid a bribe’ website in India (www.ipaidabribe. com). For other examples in Bhutan, Pakistan and mba dissertation management Kenya, see Strom, S. 2012. Help I Can Homework. Websites shine light on petty bribery worldwide.
New York Times. 6 March 2012. Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/07/ business/web-sites-shine-light-on-petty-bribery-worldwide.html?_r=0). ? All content is available under the mba dissertation in project, Open Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated.
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essay on mba dissertation management aphrodite The influence of the classical pantheon extended well beyond the religious cults of social antiquity. For millennia, the ancient deities—with their compelling stories and rich iconography—have fired imaginations and generated what W.B. Yeats called “metaphors for mba dissertation in project poetry.” Aphrodite, ruler of desire and embodiment of beauty, and her son Eros became important figures in Western art and communication literature. In the fifteenth century, when botticelli sought to express the Neoplatonic worldview of the management Florentine humanists, he painted The Birth of Venus and Primavera, two multi-figure compositions with the the glass illusion goddess taking center stage. When the Romantic poet Percy bysshe Shelley struggled to find meaning in the death of John Keats, he wrote “Adonais,” drawing on the legend of Venus’ doomed mortal lover. Sigmund Freud constructed the edifice of psychoanalysis, in in project management, part, on groups the power of Eros (as well as on some inventive re-readings of the Oedipus cycle). Myths survive because they give succeeding generations ways to think about the complex patterns of life.
With the current revival of interest in the traditional techniques and canonical masterpieces of the past, we might expect another return to the ancient subjects. The classical figure has indeed become a touchstone in the atelier once again, with Jacob Collins, Juliette Aristides and instructors at mba dissertation in project, the Art Students League in New York City, among others, reclaiming the practice of drawing from casts, ubiquitous in the beaux-Arts academies of the nineteenth century. According to Aristides, “Greek sculptors formulated a system that combined graceful naturalism with extremely sophisticated design systems,” and their works “embody a perfect combination of what statement observed nature and archetypal form.” 1 Contemporary traditionalists emphasize the mba dissertation formal virtues of what statement classical art, and the resulting improvement in skill levels among the present generation of artists has been impressive. Mba Dissertation In Project Management. but, with some exceptions discussed later in this article, they seem wary of what tackling the mba dissertation in project cultural content. An ancient image of is personal Aphrodite (in most cases, a cast) in the atelier presents an aesthetic challenge. yet the artworks that have come down to us from the mba dissertation past also bristle with complex meanings. Our society as a whole has lost that easy familiarity with the gods that made myth a lingua franca for artists and audiences across the centuries. One way to enrich the expressive language of art is to reconnect to that legacy. Looking at classical art in the context of its original belief systems and is personal statement social dimensions is a good place to start.
An exhibition at the Museum of Fine Arts, boston, explores the image and character of an important goddess. Management. “Aphrodite and the Gods of Love” presents 160 works, most from the MFA’s own Greek and non fiction essay Roman collection, supplemented by thirteen key loans from museums in Italy. Some are superb expressions of ideal beauty and/or sexual power; others could be classified as decorative ornaments or magical fetishes. Exquisitely refined, playful or even crude, they all tap into the deep reservoir of myth that pervaded daily life in the ancient world. Eight scholars contributed to the informative and thought-provoking catalogue. 2. There are intriguing implications for contemporary practice. Nakedness, for example, was one of Aphrodite’s defining attributes, which makes her a principal source for the traditional genre of the classical female nude.
Classical figure drawing has returned as a crucial component of management pedagogy in the new ateliers, yet too few of today’s artists are aware of the fusion of art, sexuality and religion in what for college, the ancient persona of Aphrodite. Rachel Kousser writes in mba dissertation, her catalogue essay: “The alluring form of Aphrodite. emerges as the concrete, effective expression of her divine power—making these ancient images. very different from the female nudes of later periods, when the realms of the sensual and the religious and political spheres were considered wholly separate, even antithetical.” 3. The classical deities are not only menagerie illusion, powerful symbols but also lively personalities, who stubbornly refuse to be reduced to management schematic abstractions. Their complicated alliances and antagonisms, which play out on Olympus and spill over into human history, engender multiple storylines. As immortals, the creative gods have no end, but they do have beginnings, as reported in mba dissertation, works such as Hesiod’s Theogony (late eighth century bc). Aphrodite was born before any of the social groups essay other Olympians, the daughter of Ouranos, the Sky, and Gaia, the Earth. 4 It’s a violent and bizarre tale, but Aphrodite’s emergence from the seminal foam of the sea inspired a host of in project marvelous images, from the focus on my homework Ludovisi Throne (fifth century bc), in Rome’s Palazzo Altemps, to botticelli’s Birth of mba dissertation management Venus (c. 1482). The Renaissance Venus holds on to the full range of creative non fiction her ancient powers, in part, because the artists drew on the tradition of the Homeric and Orphic Hymns, poems to mba dissertation in project management her embodiment of both erotic and celestial love, physical desire and the web of the glass illusion vs. reality thesis attractions that holds the universe together. As William Congreve puts it, in his 1710 translation of an ancient Hymn: “Her charms, th’ Immortal Minds of Gods can move/And tame the stubborn race of men to love.
Whole nature on her sole support depends, /As far as life exists, her care extends.” 5. The story of Aphrodite/Venus begins with her birth out of the sea, a subject well represented in mba dissertation in project management, the Boston exhibition. Menagerie Illusion Thesis. One of the most seductive works is management a Hellenistic marble statuette of Aphrodite emerging from the sea (first century bc or first century ad). Like much ancient sculpture, the figure has lost its head and arms, but the elegant curves of the voluptuous body are superbly balanced, and the sinuous lines of the swirling drapery create dynamic movement patterns. In formal terms, this is recognizably the social groups work of an accomplished artist, whatever its original cultural—or cultic—context. But Aphrodite appears in decorative motifs of everyday life as well.
She ruled over every aspect of love and beauty, including kosmesis, cosmetics and adornment, and was invoked both in brothels and bridal celebrations. A ceramic oil bottle (lekythos) in in project, the form of Aphrodite at her birth (mid-fourth century bc) has the lively charm of good folk art. The rose-tinted shell that surrounds the figure of the goddess bursts out of the belly of the flask with the energy of a Georgia O’Keeffe flower, while two winged erotes stretch out the social billowing sail of her drapery. The continuum of Aphrodite’s influence encompasses high and low, sacred and secular. Aphrodite’s iconographic associations with nudity and water made her an appropriate figure for mba dissertation in project management the ancient baths.
The long line of bathers in art history may, at times, reflect the distant, numinous origins of this trope. Help I Can Focus Homework. The monumental female nude as a genre can be traced back to a specific work, the Aphrodite of Knidos by Praxiteles (fourth century bc), now lost but known through copies (before that, male nudes were common, but female figures were clothed.) Praxiteles’ goddess is regal but not hieratic; her pose is natural and relaxed, and her gestures subtly allude to her mythic narrative. This combination of mythic resonance and naturalism appears in the trope of Aphrodite Anadyomene (wringing out mba dissertation in project management her hair), which depicts a common activity given deeper meaning by the story of the goddess’s birth. A marble statuette of Aphrodite Anadyomene (100 bc–70 ad) dispenses with iconographic trappings; the association did not need to be spelled out. In the exhibition catalogue, the curators juxtapose the statuette with another work from the MFA, a crayon lithograph, Venus Rising from the Sea (1839), by Theodore Chasseriau.
He places her on a mysterious seashore. When she lifts her arms to wring out her hair, the gesture emphasizes the opulent curves of her body, yet her demeanor is cool, and the overall mood is classical. The Roman Venus was based on the Greek Aphrodite, although she acquired some fresh qualities in help focus on my, moving to a new pantheon. As the mba dissertation in project management mother of the Trojan hero Aeneas, founder of Rome, she became a protector of the city. Venus was associated with all kinds of propitious events, from victory in war to favorable throws of help i can dice. The classical deities, in addition to their specialization in areas such as love, war or craft, maintained strategic alliances with cities and management states. A marble statue of Aphrodite (117–38 bc) is penfield escape a superb copy of a late-fourth-century bc original, probably erected in Corinth as a guardian of the polis. The figure is mba dissertation in project half nude, with graceful drapery at the hip. Her hair is pulled back in a chignon, she wears a diadem and non fiction once carried a shield. In Project Management. The gods and goddesses had important civic functions in the ancient world. We see vestiges of this tradition in the rhetorical and iconographic figures of Justice, Victory and Liberty.
6 American Renaissance sculptors such as Daniel Chester French and Augustus Saint-Gaudens were latter-day masters of the genre, combining allegorical meaning and heightened physical beauty in a thoroughly classical way. Some deities seem more suitable than others for public iconography in the post-classical world. A figure descended from Athena/Minerva translates easily in schemes for civic virtue. Venus’ afterlife has been largely in the private sphere. Of course, the Romans celebrated her in public spaces like the forum and, very appropriately, the baths. But she seemed particularly at home in private settings, in gardens and villas, luxurious surroundings where art and beauty were appreciated for their own sake. The aesthetic response is understandable when we look at a magnificent marble in the Boston exhibition. Statue of a woman in creative essay, the guise of Venus (mid-first century–early second century ad) is a tour de force of wet drapery. The diaphanous garment clings to in project and molds the body underneath, while the i can homework rippling fabric suggests the vitality of mba dissertation moving water.
The Roman appreciation for thesis figures such as this, while still rooted in ancient piety, begins to suggest modern connoisseurship. Aphrodite/Venus had a substantial entourage, and management the curators acknowledge the importance of social groups Hermaphrodite, the mba dissertation management Three Graces—represented by an elegant Pompeiian fresco painting (first century bc–first century ad), on loan from the help on my homework Museo Archeologico in management, Naples—and Eros, whose post-classical career rivaled his mother’s. Focus. Yet, the mba dissertation in project management primary focus remains the complex goddess. A host of issues—among them, nudity, sexuality and communication master myth— swirl around her. Examining those issues may shed light on contemporary painters who champion a return to beauty and, in some cases, consider themselves classicists. Why did the classical pantheon inspire artists for nearly two millennia, and why do artists today, for in project management the most part, shy away from this iconography? In On the social essay Philosophy of Art (1802–03), Friedrich Schelling summed up the case for archetypes, writing that “the gods are the absolute itself seen through the particular and considered as real” and that mythology “is the mba dissertation in project necessary condition and material of all art,” the “forms through which eternal ideas may be expressed.” 7 The gods were associated with heightened reality and ideal form. At its best, as Anne Hollander writes, classical art is “a corrective to penfield fire life. standing firm in behalf of our limitless hopes, feeding our longing.” The danger, she adds, is that “perfect rightness, although enormously compelling, may show a certain aridity and limitation, especially in less than inspired works” 8 In the later nineteenth century, the in project management avant-garde became disenchanted with the quest for ideal beauty. Confronted with Alexandre Cabanel’s saccharine, soft-core Birth of Venus (1863), it’s not difficult to fire essay see why they also became disenchanted with classical myth, as least as narrowly defined by the less imaginative academicians.
The Venus that thrived in the nineteenth century was more likely to be a descendent of the goddess of mba dissertation in project management medieval legend, in Richard Wagner’s opera Tannhauser, Sir Edward Burne-Jones’s painting Laus Veneris (based on an Algernon Charles Swinburne poem) and Dante Gabriel Rossetti’s image Venus Verticordia, a neo-Venetian bombshell of extraordinary power. Some of the finest painters working today are reviving the pedagogic methods of the Beaux-Arts academies, with classical figure drawing at the heart of the enterprise, but, in general, they do not rely on traditional subject matter. Whether they rejected or accepted—uncritically or with transformative imagination—the ancient pantheon, nineteenth-century artists were fully versed in the stories and iconography of the gods. What Is Personal Statement For College. In our society, we can no longer take that cultural literacy for granted. Stylistically, too, the neo-traditionalist project is in project management complicated by the competing legacy of nineteenth-century Realism, which especially conditions contemporary approaches to the figure. Jacob Collins’s superb nudes have a vulnerable, flesh-and-blood physicality that is reminiscent of Courbet’s. What Statement. Steven Assael’s paintings demonstrate an ability to in project think realistically and i can mythically at the same time, but his dramatis personae is a sui generis collection of comic book characters, fetishistic club kids and figures of modern alienation. There are, however, some contemporary painters who findin classical subjects.
One of the most articulate is David Ligare, who began making paintings based on mba dissertation in project management Greco-Roman mythology and philosophy in 1978. Historical recreations were “against the laws of contemporary art,” he remarks, but he was eager to explore this “unworked vein.” 9 Ligare’s narrative paintings do not traffic in raw emotion since, he believes, “a true classical work avoids histrionics.” Philosophical principles of clarity and balance govern works such as Hercules Protecting the Balance between Pleasure and Virtue (1993). The nude blond figure of Pleasure has a cool generalized beauty that fits one definition of “classical,” although it lacks the penfield essay erotic charge of many ancient images of Aphrodite/Venus. Mba Dissertation In Project. Ligare has given the question of nudity considerable thought. Nudity has the penfield escape essay advantage of being “very time neutral but it can also be distracting.” In the ancient world, an image of a nude woman still had an aura of the sacred or the taboo. Nudity “is different now because of the total availability of photographs of in project management naked people, pornography or otherwise.” The current disenchantment of nudity certainly factors into the difficulties contemporary artists face when presenting the intercultural communication master thesis unclothed figure. But Ligare’s most original and most truly classical paintings are, for me, his still lifes—luminous, cerebral explorations of the philosophical underpinnings of representation. The still lifes Ligare calls “aparchai,” after the Greek for ritual offerings, are particularly rich. He sets up a kind of mba dissertation in project stage platform with a side wall.
The still life objects, illusionistically three-dimensional, cast a two-dimensional shadow on that wall: this clever visual conceit alludes to Plato’s story of the cave while confronting the paradox of realism in painting. The still-life objects themselves look idealized yet physically, palpably real. I Can Homework. In Olives and Wheat (2006), a Greek vessel decorated with Athena’s owl is filled with olives and topped by an elegant branch. A few stalks of wheat, lit from within and saturated with mystery, like something out of the Eleusinian ritual, lie at the base. The six red-gold fruits in Apples and management Wheat (2006) would not be out of the glass menagerie illusion place on the Olympian banquet table.
Ligare’s work expresses one important aspect of classicism, the search for perfect poise. A number of other contemporary artists are exploring the shadows of classical mythology, acknowledging the untidiness of the original stories and mba dissertation in project management the disruptive power of the gods. Vs. Reality. Patricia Watwood, who calls herself a contemporary classicist, favors the demi-deities of the Greco-Roman tradition. Her Pandora (2011) places the first woman, with her fateful box, amid the debris of management a contemporary industrial waterfront, an appropriate illustration of the havoc caused by unfettered human ambition. Hope is represented by the endangered Eastern bluebird, a nice ecological touch. Watwood’s Semele (2005) is dark-haired and voluptuous, with a bowl of fruit balanced on her head and a tattooed arm. The gold leaf background suggests a superlunary world. The slightly exotic look of the mother of Dionysos/bacchus is appropriate, given the god’s Eastern origin. Is Personal For College. In Euripides’ the Bacchae, Dionysos is the archetypal embodiment of dangerous divinity. Watwood’s handling of the figure is solid, but her most distinctive contribution to the continuing saga of the classical myths may be her imaginative coupling of ancient tropes and mba dissertation management contemporary themes. This is a promising avenue of penfield fire escape essay exploration.
An exhibition of mba dissertation twenty- nine paintings, “Patricia Watwood: Myths and Individuals,” first on the glass vs. reality thesis view at in project management, the Saint Louis University Museum of Art, travels to the Forbes Galleries in New York City (February 17–April 28, 2012). Illusion. 10. Adam Miller, a young brooklyn-based painter who trained at the Florence Academy of Art under Daniel Graves, seems comfortable working in the visual language of mythology. In his Oil Slick (2009), the mba dissertation in project dark-haired young woman rising, elegantly half-draped, from the sea explicitly evokes Aphrodite/Venus. Her air of melancholy reflects contemporary complexities—the most difficult aspect of the ancient goddess to recapture may be her blitheness. 11 Miller’s figure is realistic, with the kind of beauty observable in the everyday world: she is not an ideal concocted from penfield escape, imagination. The sea and the sky are lyrically painted yet obviously polluted by the oil-rig fire on the horizon. Mba Dissertation Management. Miller relishes “the opposites of menagerie illusion vs. reality thesis a beautiful Turneresque fire and the damage and violence created by it.” He identifies, at least in part, with his Venus, “living only in the Romantic moment of erotic Venusian satisfaction.” 12.
How do we define classicism in mba dissertation, painting? Miller taps into the perennial themes and iconography of Greco-Roman mythology and handles the material with originality and help i can focus sophistication. Stylistically, he is a neo-Romantic rather than a neoclassicist. His Artemis Triptych (2009) expresses, he writes, “the desire for perfection and the impossibility of experiencing it.” The goddess occupies the central oval panel, sitting cross-legged on the ground, her head covered by a dark red drape. Twonymphs, each in her own tondo, flank the goddess. Their faces are obscured as they raise their arms in gestures of mourning. In all three panels, the backdrop is a twilight, soft-focus landscape of woods and streams. It’s a haunting ensemble, a different vision of the goddess of wild places. Miller alludes to another tradition in Exile (2010), a striking composition in mba dissertation management, which an Eve figure, holding an apple, looks back over her shoulder.
More than half of the horizontal painting is escape taken up by mba dissertation the baroque drapery that swirls behind her, adding to the forward momentum of the figure. This Eve is not skulking out of paradise but moving toward the future. Over the course of the last two millennia, Western culture has focused on another set of stories, taken from the Judeo-Christian narrative. The archetypal scene of Eden and the Fall proved a rich source, theologically and psychologically. It also changed attitudes toward nudity and what is personal statement the feminine, becoming a powerful touchstone for mba dissertation in project management a legacy of misogyny and asceticism.
13 The rehabilitation of is personal for college Eve has been a long process. Mba Dissertation. For some contemporary artists, the figure of Eve offers a way back to the prelapsarian world of myth. brad Kunkle, for what for college example, does not use direct references to classical deities, although he acknowledges they address perennial “belief patterns and desires of the human spirit.” 14 Contemporary artists often feel that they lack sufficient knowledge of in project management Greco-Roman myth to work in that idiom—or fear that their audience will not understand it. Master Thesis. Eve remains a familiar figure, and in project management freeing her from the tradition of demonization is a viable way to re-enchant the the glass menagerie vs. reality world. In Project Management. The vertical composition of Kunkle’s The Proposition (2008) is fairly conventional, with two naked figures flanking the Tree of Knowledge and the serpent between them. Both figures are female, however, alluding to the underground tradition of Adam’s independent first wife, Lilith, as a participant in the drama. Kunkle’s style is is personal statement neither neoclassical nor neo-Romantic, but a contemporary riff on the aesthetic of the English Pre-Raphaelites and continental fin-de-siecle artists such as Gustav Klimt and Fernand Khnopff. Mba Dissertation In Project Management. He works from photographs for the figures, which are nearly monochromatic. The flesh tones are a warm grisaille, reminiscent of nineteenth-century photography. The three-dimensionality of the figures plays against help i can focus the flat, decorative quality of the background, underscored by the use of mba dissertation in project gold leaf—for the Art Nouveau curves of Eve’s serpent—and silver leaf, for the luminous space visible through the escape essay trees. There is a similarly effective deployment of mba dissertation in project gold and silver in Summoning a Sleeper (2010), a horizontal image of penfield fire essay a contemporary girl sleeping in a field, protected by the magic circle of a gold serpent.
Kunkle’s The Daughters of Mandelbrot (2011) approaches some classical themes from an unexpected direction. A trio of cutting-edge beauties, with spiky hair and in project slinky black slip dresses, stands at the edge of a marsh, holding gleaming salvers amid a shower of gold leaf and focus engaging in some kind of ritual. The title alludes to the famous Mandelbrot Set, a set of points that generates a distinctive two-dimensional fractal shape. The emphasis on mba dissertation management the mathematics of beauty is a clue that we are in the presence of a new version of the Three Graces, Aphrodite’s handmaidens. Kunkle’s women don’t look like the classical Graces, seen in the Boston exhibition in a Pompeiian fresco, or like the essay group to the left of Venus in in project, Botticelli’s Primavera. but they are clearly part of the mythic sisterhood. The classicist Jean-Pierre Vernant writes: “Myth. is only alive when it goes on groups essay being recounted. The myth-story. is both polysemous like a poetic text, in mba dissertation in project, its multiple layers of meaning, and, unlike a poem, not fixed in definite form. The story remains somewhat open to innovation.” 15 The artists working today to recover the aesthetic legacy of the past would do well to respect Aphrodite, whose special province is beauty, in all its contradic- tory and inexhaustible power. By reconnecting to the ancient myths, we open up a treasure house of social groups poetic possibilities. “Aphrodite and the Gods of Love” was on view through February 20, 2012, at the Museum of Fine Arts, boston, 465 Huntington Avenue, boston, Massachusetts 02115. On the web at www.mfa.org.
It travels to the J. Paul Getty Museum, Malibu, California (March 28–July 9, 2012), the mba dissertation in project management San Antonio Museum of Art in Texas (September 15, 2012–February 17, 2013) and the Philbrook Museum of Art, Tulsa, Oklahoma (March 3–May 26, 2013). Juliette Aristides, Classical Drawing Atelier: A Contemporary Guide to Traditional Studio Practice (New york: Watson-Guptill Publications, 2006), pp. 85–86. Aphrodite and the Gods of Love, edited, Christine Kondoleon with Phoebe C. Segal (Boston: MFA Publications, 2011). Rachel Kousser, “The Female Nude in Classical Art: between Voyeurism and Power,” Aphrodite and the Gods of social groups Love, p. 166. For an engaging retelling by an eminent classicist, see Jean-Pierre Vernant, The Universe, the Gods and Men: Ancient Greek Myths, translated, Linda Asher (New york: Harper Collins, 2011), pp. 12–13. The Oxford Book of Classical Verse, edited, Adrian Poole and Jeremy Maule (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000), p. 75. For a well-researched and lively study of this topic, from a feminist perspective, see Marina Warner, Monuments and Maidens: The Allegory of the Female Form (London: Weidenfield and Nicolson, 1985).
Cited, Jean Richer, “Romanticism and Mythology: The Use of Myths in mba dissertation, Literary Works,” Roman and European Mythologies, compiled by Yves Bonnefay, translated under the social groups essay direction of Wendy Doniger (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1992). p. 265. Anne Hollander, Moving Pictures (New York: Alfred A. Knoph, 1989), p. 60. All Ligare quotes from email exchanges with the author, October 8–11, 2011. See Peter Trippi, “Patricia Watwood: Making the Timeless Timely,” Fine Art Connoisseur (December 2011), pp. 36–40. A notable exception comes from pop culture, an interlude in Terry Gilliam’s film The Adventures of Baron Munchausen (1988), in which a radiant, flirtatious Uma Thurman plays Venus, with Oliver Reed as her jealous husband, Vulcan.
All Miller quotes from email to mba dissertation author, November 4, 2011. For a rich analysis of the orthodox doctrine of the Fall, along with the Gnostic coun tertradition, see Elaine Pagels, Adam, Eve and the Serpent (New York: Random House, 1988). Email to author, October 3, 2011. Copyright 2006-2017 Newington-Cropsey Cultural Studies Center.