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C Tutorial File I/O (using text files) The file I/O functions and types in the C language are straightforward and easy to understand. To make use of these functions and types you have to include the intercultural communication master stdio library. In India Essay! (Like we already did in most of the tutorials). The file I/O functions in the stdio library are: The fopen library function is used to open a text file. Intercultural Communication Master! You also have to literature use a specified mode when you open a file. The three most common modes used are read (r), write (w), and append (a). Take a look at an example: So let#8217;s take a look at the example: The fopen statement opens a file #8220;output.txt#8221; in the write (w) mode.
If the file does not exist it will be created. But you must be careful! If the file exists, it will be destroyed and a new file is created instead. The fopen command returns a pointer to the file, which is stored in the variable ptr_file. If the file cannot be opened (for some reason) the variable ptr_file will contain NULL. The if statement after de fopen, will check if the fopen was successful. If the fopen was not successful, the program will return a one. (Indicating that something has gone wrong). This for communication master loop will count to jordan essays ten, starting from one. The fprintf statement should look very familiar to you. It can be almost used in the same way as printf. The only new thing is that it uses the file pointer as its first parameter.
The fclose statement will close the communication master file. This command must be given, especially when you are writing files. So don#8217;t forget it. You have to in automotive be careful that you don#8217;t type #8220;close#8221; instead of #8220;fclose#8221;, because the close function exists. Communication! But the close function does not close the essays files correctly. (If there are a lot of files open but not closed properly, the program will eventually run out of file handles and/or memory space and crash.) If you want to read a file you have to master thesis open it for reading in the read (r) mode. June! Then the fgets library functions can be used to read the contents of the file. Intercultural Master Thesis! (It is also possible to paper make use of the communication master thesis library function fscanf. But you have to education be sure that the file is perfectly formatted or fscanf will not handle it correctly). Let#8217;s take a look at an example: Note: The printf statement does not have the new-line (n) in the format string. This is not necessary because the library function fgets adds the n to intercultural thesis the end of each line it reads. A file #8220;input.txt#8221; is opened for reading using the function fopen en the mode read (r).
The library function fgets will read each line (with a maximum of 1000 characters per line.) If the end-of-file (EOF) is reached the fgets function will return a NULL value. Each line will be printed on stdout (normally your screen) until the EOF is reached. The file is then closed and the program will end. That#8217;s all for this tutorial. There are currently 31 responses to #8220;C Tutorial File I/O (using text files)#8221; Why not let us know what you think by adding your own comment! i am doing my final yr B.E. mechanical engg, u tutorial helped me much in obtaining output file in txt format, thank a lot for jordan ur help. I loove you. First year student at university with no programming experience looking for something like this to process some files for an assignment.
Thank you and I loooooooooooooove you for this. very usefull..thank you .. superb#8230;.clearly understandable#8230;.thnk u#8230;expecting more like this#8230;.. very short and sweet programs. concise and to communication master thesis the point, got me started with fprintf no problem, thank you , steve. Thanks. I am going through a C database book that doesn#8217;t explain how this works. I really enjoy how you made it simple thanks. Do you have a complete tutorial online of everything C? I would love to go through it if you do. Education! thanks..its very simple explanation about files.. also expecting more like this….. hello these are vry usefull for me so please send the complecated problem to my mail. Thanks in communication master advance, it was very simple (like that)and rather helpful#8230; Thanks again. this is what i was looking for#8230;.. And Offshoring Essay! thanks #8230; I#8217;m a first year college student and this is very useful for my report thank you ! #128512; is it a variable type ? Thanks a Lot for your time and effort in to focus in this great nutshell tutorials. This is a real example in how to teach the concepts to communication master thesis everyone. thanks for racism in india the info, this will be in intercultural communication my final exams!:) Really I liked it. You approach of defining the essay things is best.
The tutorial itself is short and precise void of spaghetti contents! Be blessed. thanks. Thesis! but i have a doubt,how to in automotive check the number of letters in each line of a file. this example is really helpfull 4 first time programming in c#8230;.thanks a lot!! This tutorial was really helpfull for me to learn file operation. I. was able to communication master create input.txt file in C:TCBIN folder (By default). And. now my question is that how to create file on specific path? Osome #128578; Expecting more like this.. Really nice #8230;! simple Neat explanation of Pointers. College Workshop! But what if you want the program to be able to process different text files?
Not just a hard coded single file like in the example. Like opening the program with a passed in text file from a command line. Like: cat bunchofwords.text | wordprogram.c. and want to master thesis be able to in india essay use a different text file each time. Intercultural! How will the program read the file? scan? Thanks alot, this site really helps me. it is so helpful.
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Resume Genius' Original Templates - Expert's Choice. By Resume Genius. This page features eight famous resume templates that you could normally only access via Resume Genius’ Resume Builder. We’ve decided to provide them to master you for free. Do you want a resume that’s simple, sleek, and to essay the point?
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Second — and more importantly it’s the most versatile one out of our entire library. This is not a fancy resume template in the slightest. It’s simple, bare bones, to-the-point, easy to education in automotive essay read, and unpretentious. Let’s get one thing straight — hiring managers aren’t going to trash a resume because it’s not fancy looking. Communication Master Thesis. Eventually, they would lose their job because they’d be overlooking some very good candidates who happen to like simpler designs. The content of your resume is far more important than its look. College Essay Workshop. So long as the hiring manager can read your resume easily, you’ve done a good job. The beauty of the intercultural communication, Classic is that anyone can use it. In Automotive Industry. Its simple nature gives it flexibility, and master can be modified to suit all jobs and industries. Simply formatted resume designed for maximum clarity and readability.
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Once again, it emphasizes clarity over fanciness. The major question you need to decide is if you like your resume sections to be sectioned off by page-wide underlines (choose Chicago), or if you feel like that’s excessive (choose Classic). Page-length underlines used to separate resume sections. Industry. City, state, and employment dates placed in a separate column on the right. Top – 1.27? Bottom – 1.27? Left – 2.03? Right – 2.03? Font: Time New Roman Name Font Size: 24pt Header Font Size: 12pt Job Description Font Size: 10pt. Click here to intercultural communication master thesis download.
The Chicago template pack. This one’s pretty simple – initially we only had one version of application essay workshop this resume template, one with green headings. Naturally, we associated green with the Irish. Since we’d named the Chicago template after a city, we felt it was best to continue on with the intercultural master thesis, city name formula. Thus, Dublin! Now, as you can see, we’ve added more colors than just green, because people liked the styling so much and literature paper 1 igcse demanded more choices.
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Headings are left aligned, saving a lot of vertical space and allowing for june, more job descriptions to be written. Resume looks highly organized and rigidly designed, appealing to intercultural those who prefer straight lines and racism boxes. Top – 1.27? Bottom – 1.27? Left – 1.27? Right – 1.27? Font: Times New Roman Name Font Size: 24pt Header Font Size: 12pt Job Description Font Size: 10pt. Click here to download. The Harvard template pack. Many jobs are considered more “modern” than others.
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Left aligned text. Download The Park today to secure your job tomorrow. Click here to download. The Park template pack. resume tools and coach support and june great templates. Glad you like them! Anything Specific for intercultural thesis, the trades ?? I am a machinist..Thanks. Any of the above are suitable for your industry, but if we had to choose we’d suggest the ‘Chicago’ or the ‘Modern.’ Good luck on racism the job hunt! Great thanks for communication master, your help … We would recommend the ‘Milano’ template. Good luck! I am trying to decide what to use as a professional massage therapist.
Thanks. Check out our ‘Elegant’ templates. Good luck on the job hunt! Hi, which template is essay, good for the pharmaceutical industry or biology? Thanks! The ‘Harvard’ should be suitable. Good luck! Thanks! I appreciate it.
What if I already started using one of the advanced templates – dark blue contemporary? Should I switch to Harvard? I recently graduated, about a year and intercultural master thesis a half ago and I am looking to paper break into the pharmaceutical industry with a biology and pharmacy background. Let me know what you think! #128578; Contemporary should work just fine. Which one would be good for a television producer? Or someone in intercultural communication master the media industry? Thanks! The ‘Milano’ sounds like the right way to racism in india go. Best of luck!
which template would be good for a high school student? which template would be great for executive. Which template is intercultural master, good for fresher seeking job in IT industry. I’m BCA graduate. Try the ‘Chicago’ on for size. Good luck on the job hunt!
which template suitable for internship? which template is literature, suitable for a project manager. Which template is suitable for communication master, a job at a bank? which Template is better for a job of tuck essays medical field? You might want to master thesis check out our internship and essay engineering resume samples: Good luck on the job hunt!
What resume is most suitable for intercultural master thesis, a Professional Sales Manager that is hoping to tuck essays change careers to an Executive Asst. HI, what resume is intercultural master thesis, suitable for a management consultant? or an auditor? The ‘Milano’ would suit either of june jordan essays those professions. Good luck! The decision is intercultural thesis, really a matter of preference. We suggest you try a few and see which one you like best. College Application Workshop. Good luck! Thank you very much for sharing!!
Very helpful!! Hi what would you recommend for a recent master graduate wanting to get into the Conflict resolution/ humanitarian field? Try out the ‘Elegant’ Template. Intercultural Communication Thesis. Good luck on the job hunt! Hi what would you recommend for a school district instructional assistant? Or a childcare provider (lead teacher)? Recommendation for something in tuck essays the legal profession? Specifically pretrial services assessor? Didn’t see anything for intercultural master thesis, paralegals, either… The resumes above are templates, but it sounds like you are looking for literature 1 igcse, samples.
Check out thesis, our paralegal resume sample, here: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/paralegal-resume-example. Good luck on education in automotive industry essay the job hunt, Hi what would be a good resume for someone with multiple skills.(Retail Management, Computer Repair and intercultural master Maintenance , Low Voltage Tech, Lab Courier) We suggest trying the ‘Park’ template. It offers plenty of space for you to include all of outsourcing and offshoring your skills. what if you have no experience making a job application whatsoever and you don’t know which template to use for a beginner. For a beginner, our ‘Classic’ is intercultural communication master thesis, always a solid choice. Literature 1 Igcse. Good luck on the job hunt!
Any of the resumes above could be used for someone with a criminal history, but if we had to choose we’d suggest the ‘Chicago.’ Also, you should check out our tips on how to address criminal history in intercultural communication master thesis a cover letter: https://resumegenius.com/cover-letters-the-how-to-guide/cover-letter-red-flags-solutions#Red-flag-8:-Criminal-history. Try using the ‘Park’ template. Good luck with finding an internship! We suggest the ‘Milano.’ Don’t forget to essay workshop check out our Pharmacist resume: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/pharmacist-resume-example Good luck on the internship. What resume would you recommend for a Human Resource Manager with 5 years of master thesis experience.
What kind of essays resume would you recommend for someone changing careers from a lower tier job to a more career building one? The ‘Park’ template would be an appropriate choice. Intercultural. Good luck with the racism in india, career change. which template wouldb good for intercultural master thesis, construction,HVAC? We’d suggest going with the ‘Modern’ template. Best of luck finding an HVAC job. which template would i use? I was recently fired and need a job asap, i worked in customer service for a department store and then moved into a supervisor position but for only 7months. My previuos jobs were a ups helper and a busser at a resturaunt.
Go with the ‘Milano’ template. Good luck! What template would you suggest to use? I am changing careers from a major University as a Farm Attendant Lead to CDL Truck Driver either over the road or Local? Try going with the ‘Milano’ template.
Good Luck! What template do you recommend for a middle aged person with plenty of related experience including being a small business owner, applying for a flight attendant position? You should visit our nurse resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/nursing-resume-example. You can download the example and fill in your own information. Hi, what kind of education essay resume template you recommend for a engineer with 4 years of experience?.
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Good luck with your job search! Hey there Aditya, I’d recommend the Classic B W template for your resume. It’s a nice standard look — nothing too fancy, but it gets the job done. Good luck! With all of that experience, you have some flexibility! When in education in automotive industry doubt, the reverse-chronological is a good choice. Communication Master. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/chronological-samples-writing-guide. Enjoy the fresh start, and best of luck with the job application! Which resume would your recommend for education in automotive industry, applying for a position in a company that you currently work in that is merging?
All staff must re-apply. All of these resume templates are perfect for someone in intercultural communication thesis your situation – it just depends on your preference. Since your goal is to prove the value you bring to the table to your new employers, you want your resume to essay stand out for its content even more than its format. Things that are quantifiable (think numbers, dollar signs, etc.) give your resume weight – check out the following link for some ideas to make the content of your resume stand out: https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/accomplishments-on-resume-quantify-achievements. Good luck, and intercultural thesis please feel free to comment again if you have further questions!
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Spell out your skills and certifications. Master Thesis. Certifications, of course, are among the best ways to demonstrate dedication to your specialty. You might have one of the tuck essays, most popular finance certifications — CPA or CMA (Certified Management Accountants) or Certified Internal Auditor (CIA) — or a specialty credential, such as the Energy Risk Professional (ERP). Either way, make sure all the acronyms have a place in your resume. If you’re working on intercultural master, a continuing education course, that, too, could be listed in the education section of your resume.
Give the nitty-gritty on your software and systems know-how. Literature 1 Igcse. For each company you worked for, what software did you use to do your job? Do you have systems experience with Microsoft Dynamics, or have you had Oracle training? The more Excel you know, the intercultural master, better, Alhgrimm says. In India Essay. “I’ve seen people get jobs because they were so good at Excel. Hiring managers love seeing that you can build a macro to automate tasks or that you work on intercultural, pivot tables, lookup and reference functions, or IF statements (a function that checks whether a condition is tuck essays met).” Go into thesis details with your job duties. Have you reconciled accounts?
How many accounts you have reconciled? What types of application essay workshop accounts were they — bank accounts, general ledger accounts, balance sheets? If you were a manager, how many employees did you oversee? Did you work in payroll? What kind of payroll and in what states? You get the idea. In addition to detailing your job duties, especially the ones where you went above and beyond, be sure to highlight your accomplishments and promotions. Try writing miniature case studies that include specific results.
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Grammatical mistakes in your resume make you look sloppy and negligent. June Essays. Don’t rely on spell and grammar checkers; they might not catch extra or missing words, subject-verb disagreement, inconsistent tenses, wrong punctuation choice, or words like “where” when you meant “were.” To make sure you catch all the errors, print your resume and read it out communication thesis, loud. Then have a language-savvy friend or family member proofread it. 7. Include your less-obvious soft skills. Employers are increasingly looking for evidence of soft skills in essays resumes of job seekers.
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contextual essay art Literary Terms and intercultural communication master thesis Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in education in automotive, poetry refers to master thesis, the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. June Jordan? It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter.
Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the intercultural communication master, Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an racism essay exhortation. Intercultural Master Thesis? More generally, the natural rhythm of application workshop, language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Master Thesis? Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles. A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of in automotive, poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . Thesis? The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of application workshop, a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in thesis, the new language.
Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is industry, a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is intercultural master, (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from college workshop or used to intercultural communication, make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the page and literature paper 1 igcse descenders at the bottom of the master thesis, justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to tuck essays, overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by the printers because of an error. For instance, the communication master, first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in college application, some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in communication thesis, the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin).
Click here for racism essay more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to those works in anthologies that have come to master thesis, be considered standard or traditionally included in outsourcing and offshoring, the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the thesis, entire body of racism essay, literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an intercultural communication master author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the and offshoring, Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in communication master, the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in essay workshop, the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works).
The issue of intercultural communication thesis, canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel. Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. And Offshoring Essay? fit . CANZONE : In general, the communication master, term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to june, love or the praise of beauty is a canzone. Communication? (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas.
CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and june essays live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the communication, Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in outsourcing and offshoring, the New Testament, the intercultural communication, four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation.
However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity. Tuck Essays? In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and master thesis Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the tuck essays, roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Master? Cf.
Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. Education Essay? song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by master the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). Tuck Essays? This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of communication thesis, Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and paper illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to master, a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the application essay, carpe diem tradition.
Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the communication, Virgins, to education in automotive industry essay, Make Much of master thesis, Time. Cf. Tuck Essays? Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and communication master thesis the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the june jordan, word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the dative, the intercultural communication thesis, ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms. College Application? Patterns of particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Communication Master Thesis? Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. Essay? misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in intercultural communication master thesis, each case are so unique that it is tuck essays, hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results.
It is far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of intercultural communication, Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box. The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics. Sometimes the tuck essays, catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Master? Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you.
A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son. And Offshoring Essay? The voice of your eyes is intercultural master, deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the tuck essays, People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the intercultural communication master, shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Yeah, the application, sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette?
Here, the catachresis might evoke the intercultural, idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of in automotive industry, a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Intercultural Communication Master Thesis? Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to tuck essays, describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of intercultural communication master thesis, water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and 1 igcse synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is intercultural thesis, abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. He is in automotive essay, said to have exclaimed, Now that is intercultural communication thesis, a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the result of two metaphors. The first is the june, cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together.
However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the intercultural master thesis, resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the paper, senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the communication, ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of essay, totalitarianism watches all that goes on thesis, around it and growls at education industry, its enemies. Intercultural Master Thesis? (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of 1 igcse, totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at its enemies. We should leave out the master thesis, mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for paper 1 igcse originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in communication master thesis, which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. E. Housman is tuck essays, catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs.
On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to intercultural communication master, a normal line of literature, poetry containing the intercultural communication thesis, expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of in india, a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. Master? The act of such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at the start of industry essay, a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and communication master mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered.
The technique is also common in the practice of college, giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of intercultural master thesis, Myself. An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of june jordan essays, his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and intercultural thesis cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar,
The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the essays, big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at communication master, the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the jordan essays, groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the intercultural communication master, wording of the poem.
For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the words up, the word look appears in the middle of the essays, third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and master thesis the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. When the tuck essays, song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of singers, the word order and master timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the literature, audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the communication master, Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1 igcse, 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from communication master thesis printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page. This word would match the racism essay, first word on the next page. Intercultural Communication? A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from one page to jordan, the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately.
This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of intercultural thesis, any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament. The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Workshop? Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below.
Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and intercultural thesis established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of education essay, Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. Intercultural Communication Master Thesis? The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). Paper? They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence.
CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the intercultural communication master thesis, Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for outsourcing and offshoring essay David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at thesis, Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Literature 1 Igcse? Members of the Cave included C.S. Intercultural Thesis? Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. College Application Essay Workshop? Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S.
Lewis took it upon himself to communication master thesis, raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf. Essay? Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the intercultural thesis, nature of jordan essays, ideal government. In the intercultural thesis, section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of in india essay, education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in intercultural communication master thesis, place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the june jordan essays, cave, to look at the actual objects that make the intercultural communication thesis, shadows. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to 1 igcse, the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world. C. S. Intercultural Communication Master Thesis? Lewis coopts this idea in in india essay, The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in intercultural thesis, the onion ring, the larger and education in automotive industry more beautiful and intercultural communication master more true the inner rings become.
CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to june jordan, scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the intercultural communication thesis, ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in paper 1 igcse, disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and master thesis Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature.
It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of application essay, Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and intercultural communication master W. B. Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the literature, Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and master thesis Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in june jordan essays, the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of intercultural communication master, hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government.
After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. See also the racism in india, Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of master thesis, public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and the government. The Master of racism in india essay, Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. Intercultural Communication Thesis? All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. Essay? We can see signs of alteration in intercultural master thesis, his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the outsourcing essay, centaur (a hybrid of master thesis, horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). This mythic creature has gone through a number of college essay, allegorical transformations in different literary periods. Communication Thesis? In classical Greek artwork and in india essay literature, centaurs were associated with sex and intercultural communication violence. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the june jordan, twin brother of King Lapithes.
Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of intercultural master thesis, Apollo and application essay workshop a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Unable to master thesis, find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the june essays, battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and intercultural communication it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of industry essay, time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and intercultural master thesis lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and racism in india essay Christianized the centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy.
After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the communication master, Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the literature paper, human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by intercultural communication the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Tuck Essays? Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into master, a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of outsourcing and offshoring essay, natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the communication master thesis, chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the june essays, charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. Intercultural Communication Master Thesis? These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the paper 1 igcse, chain and intercultural communication master thesis inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom.
Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the literature paper 1 igcse, Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end.
They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of communication master, deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on racism in india, religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against intercultural their lords in acts of betrayal. Literature? Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in communication master, many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the racism in india essay, most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). Master? E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over racism essay the course of the intercultural thesis, narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the course of the narrative).
The main character of application essay workshop, a work of a fiction is typically called the intercultural communication, protagonist ; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of college workshop, protagonist, a baritone the role of thesis, deuteragonist, and education industry essay a bass would play the intercultural communication, tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to jordan essays, a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride).
On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). Communication? These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on paper 1 igcse, political topics became more common in the 20th century. Communication? Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the education in automotive essay, sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an communication thesis older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Education Essay? Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by master Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Tuck Essays? Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209).
It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . Communication Thesis? I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to and offshoring, the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in intercultural master, Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the in automotive, artistry is often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by thesis Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. Tuck Essays? An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an communication master -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Cf. June? Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in communication thesis, the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the in automotive industry, act of intercultural, becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the in india, knight silver spurs.
The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and intercultural communication thesis helpless prisoners; the protection of the june essays, church; honesty in word and bravery in thesis, deeds; loyalty to june jordan essays, one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Communication Master? Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for college essay additional information. This code became of great popular interest to British readers in communication thesis, the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters.
Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in june essays, mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in intercultural master, purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of noble deeds,
Until they won her. For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon june jordan essays, or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in intercultural communication master thesis, a dramatic or musical performance. Education Industry Essay? (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on thesis, the deeds of the outsourcing, characters and interpreting the significance of the events within the play.
This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature. Intercultural Communication? For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. In Automotive Industry Essay? Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of communication master, lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in outsourcing and offshoring essay, Western civilization. Intercultural? Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of outsourcing, Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in intercultural communication, the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from tuck essays human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and intercultural power to the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ.
Examples of christological figures include the in india, Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from intercultural his palms and lying on literature 1 igcse, the floor in thesis, a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. In India? S. Lewis's The Chronicles of intercultural communication master thesis, Narnia , who allows himself like the essay, lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in order to master, redeem a traitorous child; and education industry essay the unicorn in intercultural communication, medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the college workshop, virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in intercultural thesis, Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . Education In Automotive? . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to communication, any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of literature paper 1 igcse, folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Communication Master? Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend. In the tuck essays, Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare.
Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . . Thesis? . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of essay, medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of intercultural communication master, my chronological snobbery (qtd. in essay, Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in intercultural master thesis, a narrative.
CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in tuck essays, the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and master thesis Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the essays, surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in thesis, Greek to racism, speak of the Olympian in communication master, contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to tuck essays, the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for thesis detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court.
Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by jordan essays Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of thesis, syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is probably the most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an june jordan essays additional set of conventions to intercultural thesis, the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem.
Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the education essay, subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of master thesis, completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the end of and offshoring essay, a piece returns to master, subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. Tuck Essays? An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an communication master ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report.
Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the reader to outsourcing, that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in intercultural communication thesis, oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in and offshoring, the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and communication master Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in 1 igcse, reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the intercultural communication master thesis, Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and literature 410 BCE.
Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is intercultural master thesis, commonly held to be the 1 igcse, fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to intercultural, any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here. Outsourcing And Offshoring Essay? To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . Intercultural Communication Thesis? See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and tuck essays a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building.
Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is intercultural communication master, known as an jordan essays independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. Intercultural Communication Thesis? For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. Education In Automotive Industry Essay? The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. Intercultural Communication Master Thesis? He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium.
Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in june, poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to thesis, avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in workshop, Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the communication, lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in literature 1 igcse, transcribing Polynesian languages by communication thesis inserting an exclamation mark to paper, indicate the intercultural master thesis, palatal click. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out what happens.
The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the education in automotive industry essay, main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in communication master thesis, which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of college workshop, greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is also the peak of intercultural thesis, emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in june jordan, the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the intercultural, two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to workshop, an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. Communication? The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of education industry, automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by master thesis bit, in order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament.
Click here for more information. The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and in india essay critical reading as a reference for intercultural communication master breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. Racism? critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to intercultural communication, the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and june jordan number of intercultural, lines within a genre of education essay, poetry. Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. Master? First, it means a sense of completion or finality at outsourcing and offshoring essay, the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow).
The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the thesis, death of essays, a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the master, protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the outsourcing, author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by communication a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. Workshop? For instance, in J. R. R. Communication? Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the education in automotive, departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the communication master, world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and racism declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the intercultural communication master, poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the tuck essays, audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the complexities of master thesis, human living. Secondly, some critics use the june, term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of master thesis, An Ending: Studies in college, the Theory of communication, Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary.
Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay. Application Essay? Examples of intercultural master thesis, this type in education industry, Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg.
By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the intercultural communication thesis, spoken dialect of college workshop, that area. Cockney dialect tends to communication master thesis, be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to essays, be spreading across the island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End.
The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in master thesis, the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the jordan essays, phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in communication, mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to literature paper, death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and master thesis his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?]
Although the term code-switching is one used in racism essay, linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of intercultural, Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the essay, Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for intercultural instance. Tuck Essays? Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for communication a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an important part in tuck essays, reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages.
The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of master, how a word came into existence. Typically, the literature 1 igcse, originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and intercultural the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of june, individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb.
COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and intercultural communication thesis recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of tuck essays, human life) passed along to each generation to the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the intercultural communication master thesis, collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. 1 Igcse? For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker.
The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and intercultural communication slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the literature 1 igcse, term colonial period to communication thesis, refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from outsourcing 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). Intercultural Communication Master Thesis? This period coincides roughly with the and offshoring essay, Reformation in England and continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the intercultural communication master, colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and education in automotive early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to intercultural communication thesis, colonize less powerful ones. Outsourcing Essay? On the obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of master, native peoples.
On a more subtle level, this process can take the racism in india essay, form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is master, often applied in racism, academic discussion of intercultural communication thesis, literature from the colonial period. We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in application, Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and thesis boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests.
Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the tuck essays, main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending. Communication Master? The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. Application Workshop? It is only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and intercultural thesis Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of essay workshop, comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in intercultural, which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in racism in india essay, whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of intercultural master, innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to outsourcing and offshoring, hide the blame for intercultural master thesis such an tuck essays action. In ancient Greece, the intercultural thesis, ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). Tuck Essays? The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to eat the grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf.
Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). Communication Master Thesis? In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of tuck essays, human sacrifice in master, earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the racism in india essay, tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place.
In the communication, Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of college essay workshop, five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to intercultural communication, their linguistic and intellectual prowess. It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.)
COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of essay workshop, dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Thesis? Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. In Automotive? Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of communication master thesis, a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the in automotive, narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by master thesis the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and and offshoring finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in communication master thesis, which an education in automotive industry essay adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by intercultural master a process of experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process.
Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the in automotive, Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. Master? In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to in india essay, fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to intercultural thesis, outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. In Automotive Essay? The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the communication master thesis, sixteenth-century characterized by racism in india stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of intercultural, their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in and offshoring essay, the work.
Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers. In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Intercultural Thesis? Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). College Essay? This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Intercultural Communication? Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in outsourcing and offshoring essay, loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance:
Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of communication master thesis, common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of a person or place. For instance, the tuck essays, sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of master, Sandwich. The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of june jordan, vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into intercultural communication thesis, forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in june jordan, the oriental city of Shanghai.
The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in communication, Greek legend, and racism in india essay herculean comes from the intercultural, muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and tuck essays birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon intercultural master, a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is june jordan essays, found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in master thesis, Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the paper 1 igcse, logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals.
For instance, in intercultural, Greek mythology, the chimera has the racism in india essay, body of communication, a lion, tale of in india essay, a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Communication Master? Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and racism in india human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the master, ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the jordan essays, medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an intercultural master ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and literature paper the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in intercultural master thesis, the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in college workshop, favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the intercultural thesis, simile is lost in translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of essay, extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and communication mother's coats of essays, arms combine them into intercultural communication master, a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads.
Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of racism in india essay, Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and thesis punctuation. In India Essay? They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by communication thesis selecting the wrong piece from the tuck essays, type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by intercultural communication taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to tuck essays, some extent. For instance, the intercultural master, word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff.
However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Essay? Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. Communication Master Thesis? However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of essay, their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the intercultural communication thesis, English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion. See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. Racism In India Essay? A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to thesis, to collect a number of literature paper, oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to intercultural communication master thesis, trial by racism in india essay ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and intercultural master the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation.
CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the and offshoring essay, term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. Intercultural Communication Master Thesis? It gradually came to outsourcing and offshoring, denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an communication master extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and outsourcing and offshoring oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for instance. A conceit is intercultural communication master, usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Literature Paper? Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. Communication Master? For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is literature, abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . Master? The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century.
Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the paper 1 igcse, distinction between concrete and master abstract has been a subject of and offshoring essay, some debate. Master Thesis? Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to racism in india, create a theory of concrete poetry. T. S. Communication? Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. June? Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the intercultural master thesis, lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the education, words. Communication? Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above).
The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. 1 Igcse? It may appear on the page, on communication master thesis, glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and june jordan Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and intercultural Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. Paper 1 Igcse? For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and intercultural master thesis so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the jordan essays, protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and communication so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in conflict with itself.
Conflict is the college application, engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by thesis conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the june jordan essays, Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to intercultural communication master, death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and and offshoring get to intercultural communication thesis, shore). Examples of june jordan essays, narratives driven by intercultural thesis conflicts between a protagonist and outsourcing an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the loss of intercultural, his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of jordan, literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once.
For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and intercultural master thesis the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of paper, conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the intercultural, Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and college essay workshop the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Communication Thesis? Here is a sample conjugation of the outsourcing, present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in intercultural communication master, a dictionary.
For instance, the education essay, terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at intercultural communication thesis, social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to racism essay, scientific or theoretical changes, and intercultural communication thesis it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the words house and june jordan home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Much of intercultural communication master, poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the tuck essays, words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ. As M. Communication Thesis? H. Abrams illustrates in tuck essays, The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here.
CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . Intercultural Communication Thesis? An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for and offshoring essay the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for master thesis publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of racism essay, a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Master Thesis? Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to june jordan, have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain.
CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an intercultural master thesis author creates within the education in automotive industry essay, context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Communication Master? Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Racism? Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and intercultural communication master they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of in india, a crime.
Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. Intercultural Communication Thesis? For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of in india, Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. Intercultural? A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and jordan essays folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the master, Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on tuck essays, a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and the elements, is master thesis, a convention in medieval romances.
It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of june, Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in intercultural, a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from tuck essays others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the communication master, story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and tuck essays so on. The word is intercultural, derived from the paper 1 igcse, religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ).
See also cycle and intercultural communication master thesis mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of and offshoring, its type. For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and intercultural master thesis the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak.
This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in the world of essay, ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the master thesis, sky. All of these events could correspond to each other on the chain of being, and each would coincide with the others. For more information about correspondences and the Chain of tuck essays, Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage. Master Thesis? See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the in india essay, most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Communication Master Thesis? Click here for details.
COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and literature paper 1 igcse the Legend of master, Saint Erkenwald . Application? Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and intercultural master thesis The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the literature paper 1 igcse, first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and master thesis other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. Outsourcing And Offshoring? It was popular from the intercultural thesis, 1600s through the late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of application essay workshop, women presided over by a queen or noblewoman.
At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to master thesis, court and put on trial by the ladies for outsourcing and offshoring their crimes against love. Communication Master Thesis? These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and and offshoring essay so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. Intercultural Communication Master Thesis? In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and education in automotive industry Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. Intercultural Thesis? He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him.
Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and education in automotive industry (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the communication master, passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of essay, arranged marriages. Intercultural Communication Master Thesis? In spite of this ideal of chastity, the essay, knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and communication master thesis Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and racism in india Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the communication master thesis, concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of education in automotive industry, parody.
Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the thesis, conventions in his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically.
The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on june jordan, medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in intercultural communication master thesis, a dark room leads one character to education in automotive industry, climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. Intercultural Master Thesis? It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is essay workshop, usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin.
In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of intercultural communication thesis, African tribes sharing no common language. On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and essays simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and intercultural communication master the mixed speech became the in india, native tongue of their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . Communication Master Thesis? See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot. At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the june essays, climax of communication thesis, a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously.
See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an literature paper essay's structure and intercultural communication thesis logic in literature 1 igcse, order to determine the validity of an argument. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for intercultural communication thesis the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use.
For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. June Jordan Essays? RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the intercultural, surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and in india essay Latin, and intercultural master so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the literature 1 igcse, editor presumes the intercultural thesis, reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms.
The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. Jordan? However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by communication thesis Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in tuck essays, the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml).
This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to intercultural communication, emend the line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. June Essays? The words before the master, bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the college application essay workshop, best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings.
For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of communication master thesis, his plays, and racism so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in intercultural, the line allows a poet to use rhymes in in automotive industry, the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from thesis Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and college workshop love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in intercultural master thesis, green are regular rhyme. Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and in automotive industry leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in intercultural thesis, which the last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the june, next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet.
All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is intercultural communication, much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of workshop, sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists. These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in a death-like state of intercultural master thesis, hibernation, it now awaits an june essays opportunity to rise from the underwater city of master, R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and essay characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works.
Examples of communication, cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and education essay the color black as a symbol of mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in intercultural, Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in education in automotive industry essay, balance, the intercultural, white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and outsourcing and offshoring be relatively confident that the communication master, reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon june essays, society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by intercultural communication thesis these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and essays other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance.
These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries. Master Thesis? These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. Industry? See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and communication thesis four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines.
See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for racism in india symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in communication thesis, the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the june, consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of intercultural, poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and jordan essays Fall. Master Thesis? See also awdl and englyn . For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for essay an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to intercultural communication thesis, be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian.
The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of college application, Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at communication, the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the racism, alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and intercultural master thesis later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. Education In Automotive? The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables.
Traditionally, in each couplet, the communication, lines end with alternately stressed and literature paper 1 igcse unstressed meter. Master Thesis? In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to in india essay, metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to communication thesis, a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of outsourcing, Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively. Thesis? The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other.
Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.